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About 25,000 years ago an Upper Paleolithic artist took up a piece of ivory and lovingly carved the details of a woman’s coiffed hair or headdress, gracefully curved chin, intense eyes, and carefully defined nose. Little did the artist know, the head of the figurine would eventually become one of the earliest known representations of a human face. Today, the fragmented figurine is called the Venus of Brassempouy.
It is a piece of a prehistoric figurine that was discovered in France. An alternative name for the Upper Paleolithic artwork is ‘La Dame de Brassempouy’, which means ‘the Lady of Brassempouy. The Venus of Brassempouy is a type of statuette referred to as ‘Venus figurines’. This term (now considered to be controversial as well as inappropriate) was coined during the 19th century, as their physical features, which may be interpreted as signs of fertility, have led to their association with Venus, the Roman goddess of love.
A medallion painting from the House of Marcus Fabius Rufus in Pompeii, Italy, executed in the Second Style and depicting the Greco-Roman goddess Venus-Aphrodite wearing a diadem and holding a scepter; it is dated to the 1st century BC. ( Public Domain )
These figurines may be made of a variety of materials including ivory, clay, and bone, and have been dated to the Upper Paleolithic period. A present, about 200 of them are known to exist. Whilst most Venus figurines were discovered in Europe, some have been unearthed as far east as Siberia. Generally speaking, these objects are small statuettes depicting voluptuous female figures, often with exaggerated breasts, abdomen, hips, and thighs. Often, they have a stylized head, most of the time disproportionately small, and lacking in detail. This is a feature that separates the Venus of Brassempouy from others.
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Discovering the Venus of Brassempouy
The Venus of Brassempouy was discovered in 1892 by Édouard Piette, a French archaeologist and prehistorian. The figurine was found in the Grotte du Pape (meaning ‘The Pope’s Cave’), one of two caves located near the village of Brassempouy in the southwestern French department of Landes. The Venus of Brassempouy was carved out of mammoth ivory and has been dated to around 23,000 BC. The Venus of Brassempouy, which measures around 3.5 cm (1.38 inches), is a fragmentary figurine, as only its head was discovered. It is assumed that the rest of the figurine had been destroyed sometime in the past. Nevertheless, this fragment is quite significant, as it is one of the earliest known representations of a human face.
Venus of Brassempouy.
As mentioned earlier, the heads of other Venus figurines are normally stylized, and are often devoid of details. The Venus of Brassempouy, on the other hand, has clear facial features, as seen in its forehead and brows which were carved in relief. The figurine lacks a mouth.
This figurine is also notable for the incisions made on the top and sides of the head, which may be a representation either of hair, or a headdress that resembles those worn by the ancient Egyptians. Due to this feature, the Venus of Brassempouy sometimes known also as ‘La Dame à la Capuche’, which means ‘the Lady with the Hood’.
What was the Purpose of this Figurine?
Like other Venus figurines, the function of the Venus of Brassempouy is a matter of debate. Venus figurines have been commonly interpreted to have served as fertility symbols or religious objects. Others have suggested that they may have been used as dolls, representations of ideal standards of beauty during the Upper Paleolithic, portraits, prehistoric pornography, or perhaps a combination of various functions.
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Venus of Galgenberg - made of green serpentine 30,000 years ago. (Aiwok/ CC BY SA 3.0 )
Given the attention to detail that was made by the carver of the Venus of Brassempouy, it has been suggested that this figurine may have been a portrait of someone. It has also been suggested that directly representing human figures may have been a taboo during the Upper Paleolithic, as there is a scarcity of detailed human images in cave paintings. Nevertheless, the portrayal of humans may have existed in ‘portable arts’, which Venus figurines may be categorized under. Thus, the Venus of Brassempouy may be taken as evidence of this.
A reproduction of the Venus of Brassempouy. (Jibi44/ CC BY SA 3.0 )
Today, the Venus of Brassempouy is kept in the Musée d'Archéologie Nationale at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, not far from Paris. This precious figurine, however, is not on permanent display, as, being made of ivory, it is highly susceptible to changes in moisture, temperature, and light.
Thought to have been carved around 25,000 years ago, the strange yet beautiful figurine was discovered in France in 1892. A consequent analysis revealed the figurine dated back to between 23,000 to 26,000 years.
It is so old that experts claim it is the earliest known realistic representation of a human face, one of the main reasons it is so important.
Front and side view of the Venus of Brassempouy. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.
Vénus impudique oli ensimmäinen löydetty venusveistos. Sen löysi Paul Hurault vuonna 1864 läheltä Laugerie-Bassen kylää Ranskassa.  Vuosina 1883–1895 Louis Alexandre Jullien löysi Balzi Rossista viisitoista figuriinia. Se on suurin koskaan samasta paikasta löydetty venusveistosten määrä.  Willendorfin Venus löytyi vuonna 1908 Willendorfista.  Näitä veistoksia jotka ovat tyylillisesti samoja piirteitä jakavia patsaita ja on ajoitettu myöhäispaleoliittiselle kaudelle, on säilynyt ja löydetty yli 200 suurimmaksi osaksi Euroopan alueelta. Löydetyt venusveistokset ovat hyvin pienikokoisia, noin 4–25 senttiä pitkiä.  Patsaat on usein veistetty pehmeistä kivilaaduista, kuten kalkkikivestä tai serpentiinistä, myös eri eläinten luuita sekä norsunluuta ja mammutinluuta on käytetty.   Veistokset ovat ulkoisilta piirteiltään hyvin samanlaisia. Ne esittävät tyyliteltyä naishahmoa, jonka sukupuolipiirteet (kuten rinnat, reidet ja vulva) ovat vahvasti korostetut tai liioitellut. 
Venusveistokset saattavat olla todellisia kuvauksia sen ajan naisista, sen ajan kauneusihanteista, toimia uskonnollisina taikakaluina, hedelmällisyyden ja seksuaalisuuden symboleina.  Veistosten on myös tulkittu esittävän äitijumalatarta tai jumalattaria. On myös arveltu että ne saattaisivat ola toteemeja/amuletteja tai lasten leluja.   Etelä-Afrikassa on eräitä heimoja joilla esiintyy rasvapakaraisuutta eli steatopygiaa ja heidän ruumiinrakenteensa muistuttaa myöhäispaleoliittisen kauden veistoksia. On arveltu että myöhäispaleoliittisen ajan ihmisille olisi saattanut olla samanlaista evolutiivista hyötyä tuollaisesta ruumiinrakenteesta.  Willendorfin Venuksesta  ja Lausselin Venuksesta  on löydetty jälkiä punamullasta ja sen on arveltu liittyvän veistosten uskonnolliseen käyttämiseen.
A Venus figurine is the term used to group any Upper Paleolithic statuette portraying a woman or figures of uncertain sex.
Most have been discovered in Europe and date from 26,000–21,000 years ago, but examples exist as early as at least 35,000 years ago.
These figurines were carved from soft stone, bone or ivory, or formed of clay and fired. In total, some 144 such figurines are known, virtually all of modest size, between 3 cm and 40 cm or more in height.
Most of them have small heads, wide hips, and legs that taper to a point. Various figurines exaggerate the abdomen, hips, breasts, thighs, or vulva, although many do not.
In contrast, arms and feet are often absent, and the head is usually small and faceless. Depictions of hairstyles can be detailed, and clothing or tattoos may be indicated.
Prehistoric Venus Figurines (30,000-20,000 BCE)
Venus of Dolni Vestonice (26,000 BCE)
First known work of ceramic art.
See: Oldest Stone Age Art.
What Are Venus Figurines?
Coinciding with the replacement of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis by anatomically modern humans like Cro-Magnon man, at the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic era of prehistory (from 40,000 BCE onwards), prehistoric art suddenly blossoms across Europe. This early Stone Age art fall into one of two broad categories: pictures and ideomorphs painted or drawn on the walls and ceilings of caves (parietal art), and prehistoric sculpture (mostly mobiliary art) typically small female "venus figurines", usually unearthed at Stone Age settlement sites.
In archeology, the term "Venus Figurines" is an umbrella description relating to Stone Age statuettes of women, created during the Aurignacian or Gravettian cultures of the upper Palaeolithic (c.33,000-20,000 BCE), throughout Europe from France to Siberia. The general similarity of these sculptures - in size and shape [obese or pregnant] - is extraordinary. They were carved by Stone Age sculptors in all manner of different materials, ranging from soft stone (steatite, calcite or limestone), bone, ivory, wood, or ceramic clays. The latter type are among the oldest ceramic works yet discovered.
Venus of Laussel (23,000 BCE)
Bas-relief sculpture. Also known as
"Venus with a Horn", it is the only
venus to be considered cave art, as it
is not portable.
LATE STONE AGE ART
(from 10,000-variable BCE)
(Ends about 2,000 BCE)
Hundreds of such figurines are known, nearly all between 2 and 8 inches in height. Considered by late 19th century archeologists to represent the prehistoric idea of feminine beauty, they were dubbed "venuses" in reference to the Roman goddess of beauty.
First Archeological Discoveries of Venuses
The first Stone Age 3-D representation of a woman was discovered in the Dordogne in France around 1864 by the Marquis de Vibraye. Other early discoveries included the Venus of Brassempouy, unearthed in south-west France in 1894, and the famous Venus of Willendorf in 1908 in the Danube valley, Austria.
Most Venus figurines share similar characteristics of design and shape. Typically lozenge-shaped, with a wide fat belly tapering to the head and legs, they usually have no arms or feet, or any facial detail. Furthermore, their abdomen, hips, breasts, thighs, vulva are often deliberately exaggerated. Some are painted with red ochre. These general characteristics are more marked in earlier examples.
Some paleoanthropologists theorize that these Venus figures were probably fertility symbols or some form of primitive religious icons. However, no clear consenus exists among scholars as to their cultural significance. For instance, Grahame Clark states that their meaning is "undeniably sensual", while Rene Nougier denies this emphatically. Walter Torbrügge claims that the Venus figurine is an "invocation of fertility", while experts at the school of Andre Leroi-Gourhan call it a fundamentally religious symbol: a contention flatly rejected by Charles Seltman. A fair conclusion is that the precise meaning of these extraordinary Venus sculptures is unlikely to be known, at least until the "religion", or at least the iconic role of females in the belief system of Stone age man is more fully understood.
Earliest Known Venus Figurines
Somewhat anomalous to the main period of Venus sculpture - the Aurignacian and Gravettian periods of the Upper Paleolithic era - two Venus-type carvings have been found within the Mediterranean area that predate the Upper Paleolithic by hundreds of thousands of years, making them by far the oldest Venus figurines known to archeology. These include: the Venus of Berekhat Ram, found on the Golan Heights between Israel and Syria, and the Venus of Tan-Tan, discovered in Morocco. Both originate from the Acheulean culture of the Lower Paleolithic epoch, and have been dated to between 200,000 and 300,000 BCE. Although some controversy still exists as to whether they are the product of human design, other even earlier discoveries of Lower Paleolithic art in India suggest that human fine art developed from a much earlier period than first supposed.
List of Famous Venus Figurines
Here is a selected list of the oldest and most famous examples of prehistoric venus sculpture.
Lower Paleolithic (2,500,000-200,000 BCE)
Venus of Berekhat Ram (c.230,000 - 700,000 BCE)
Venus of Tan-Tan (c.200,000 - 500,000 BCE or later)
Upper Paleolithic (40,000-8,000 BCE)
Venus of Hohle Fels (38,000-33,000 BCE)
Venus of Galgenberg (c.30,000 BCE)
Venus of Dolni Vestonice (c.26,000 - 24,000 BCE)
Venus of Monpazier (c.25,000 BCE)
Venus of Willendorf (c.25,000 BCE)
Venus of Savignano (c.24,000 BCE)
Venus of Moravany (c.24,000 - 22,000 BCE)
Venus of Laussel (c.23,000 - 20,000 BCE)
Venus of Brassempouy (c.23,000 BCE)
Venus of Lespugue (c.23,000 BCE)
Venus of Kostenky (c.22,000 BCE)
Venus of Gagarino (c.20,000 BCE)
Avdeevo Venuses (c.20,000 BCE)
Mal'ta Venuses (c.20,000 BCE)
Zaraysk Venuses (c.20,000 BCE)
Venus of Eliseevichi (14,000 BCE)
Venus of Engen (13,000 BCE)
Venus of Monruz/Neuchatel (10,000 BCE)
Venus of Berekhat Ram
Date: 230,000 - 700,000 BCE
Material: Basalt pebble
The Acheulian-culture Berekhat Ram figurine, is a tuff pebble made of basalt, which was uncovered on the Golan Heights in 1981 by archaeologist N. Goren-Inbar of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Venus of Tan-Tan
Date: 200,000 - 500,000 BCE (or later)
This Venus figurine, the second example of Acheulian sculpture, was unearthed in 1999 by Lutz Fiedler, state archaeologist of Hessen, Germany, in a river deposit on the north bank of the River Draa a few miles from the Moroccan town of Tan-Tan. Its discovery has to some extent undermined the doubts voiced by many archeologists concerning the singular status of Berekhat Ram as a genuine work of art.
Venus of Hohle Fels (Germany)
Date: 38,000-33,000 BCE
Material: Mammoth ivory
Found in the locality of the Hohlenstein mountain in the Swabian Jura - the site of numerous finds, including the Lion Man of Hohlenstein Stadel and a cache from the Vogelherd cave - see: Ivory Carvings of the Swabian Jura. Also called the Venus of Schelklingen, the Hohle Fells figurine is the oldest known figurative carving of a female in the history of art.
Venus of Galgenberg (Austria)
Date: 30,000 BCE
Material: Serpentine stone
Discovered in 1988, in the sediments of an Aurignacian hunter-gatherer camp site, the Venus of Galgenberg (also known as the Stratzing Figurine) shows the characteristically distinct vulva. Dated to approximately 30,000 BCE, it is the earliest example of Stone Age sculpture ever found in Austria. For more, see: Aurignacian Art (40,000-25,000 BCE).
Venus of Dolni Vestonice (Czech Republic)
Date: 26,000-24,000 BCE
Material: Ceramic clay and bone ash
The 4.5 inch Venus of Dolni Vestonice was discovered in 1925 in a layer of ash, at a Paleolithic settlement site in the Moravian basin, near Brno. Dating from the Gravettian culture, it is one of the earliest examples of ceramic art known to archeology. In addition to the Venus figurine, over 2,000 balls of burnt clay have been found at the site. For preservation reasons, it is rarely displayed in public. See: Gravettian Art (25,000-20,000 BCE).
Venus of Monpazier (France)
Date: 25,000 BCE
Material: Limonite stone
Discovered in 1970 in a freshly dug field, the Venus of Monpazier is carved in limonite and displays the characteristically enlarged buttocks and belly. It is distinguished by its exaggerated vulva. Dated to approximately 25,000 BCE, it is the oldest known piece of prehistoric sculpture found in France.
Venus of Willendorf (Austria)
Date: 25,000 BCE
Material: Oolitic limestone
The Venus of Willendorf was discovered in 1908, near Krems in Austria. It remains one of the most graphic, naturalistic prehistoric representations of an obese female.
Venus of Savignano (Italy)
Date: 24,000 BCE
Material: Serpentine stone
Discovered in shallow clay soil by the Panaro River, the Venus of Savignano is the Italy's most famous prehistoric female sculpture. Carved out of a block of yellow-greenish serpentine stone, the statuette's bust is tilts backwards and its back is convex: the belly is large, as are the buttocks, below which are voluminous thighs, ending in short tapering legs without feet. Traces of red ochre are visible on the head, right arm and lower backside.
Venus of Moravany (Slovakia)
Date: 24,000-22,000 BCE
Material: Mammoth ivory
Discovered in a freshly ploughed field close to the village of Moravany nad Vahom in Western Slovakia, in 1938, this figurine is carved from mammoth bone and is 7.6 centimetres in height. The locality was first settled by Neanderthal Man during the Middle Paleolithic, attracted by the abundant supply of game and the nearby hot springs. The Venus of Moravany is currently housed at the Bratislava Castle museum.
Venus of Laussel (France)
Date: c.23,000 BCE
The Venus of Laussel was discovered in 1911, carved on a free-standing block of stone in the Dordogne region, quite close to the prehistoric caves of Lascaux. It is a limestone bas-relief, approximately 43 centimetres in height, of a female nude. The sculpture is faintly coloured with red ochre. It was one of six venus figurines carved in relief, which occupied a ceremonial area of the Stone Age rock shelter where it was found. Featuring the customary pendulous breasts, large hips and obese forms, it has hands and fingers but no feet, and the sculptor used the contour of the stone to enhance the pregnant belly. In her right hand, the woman holds a bison horn which contains 13 notches - which may symbolize the number of menstrual cycles in one year. Curiously, on the right side of the figure there is a small engraving of a penniform symbol, one of the abstract signs commonly used in cave painting. One of the earliest known examples of prehistoric bas-relief sculpture, the Venus of Laussel is housed at the Musée d'Aquitaine, in Bordeaux.
Venus of Brassempouy (France)
Date: 23,000 BCE
Material: Mammoth Ivory
Discovered in 1892 in a cave at Brassempouy, in the Landes department of southwestern France, this figurine is possibly the earliest prehistoric carving of a human face.
Venus of Lespugue (France)
Date: 23,000 BCE
Material: Mammoth ivory
Discovered in 1922 in the Stone Age cave of Les Rideaux near the village of Lespugue in the Haute Garonne region of France, this famous carving is roughly 6 inches in length and represents the height of abstraction for venus figures of the Gravettian Upper Paleolithic culture. Presenting an overall lozenge-like shape, it shares the common characteristics of no facial detail, exaggerated breasts, hips and buttocks, but these features are taken to such extremes that the breasts merge with the torso leading to an uncommonly flattened profile. Overall, a highly stylized interpretation of typical venus sculptural conventions. The figurine is housed at the Musée de l'Homme in Paris.
Venus of Kostenky (Russia)
Date: 22,000 BCE
Material: Mammoth bone
Discovered at the famous archeological site of Kostenky in the Don region of southern Russia, this Venus figurine is the oldest known example of prehistoric sculpture in Russia.
Venus of Gagarino (Russia)
Date: 20,000 BCE
Material: Volcanic rock
Discovered in 1926 by archeologist Zamiatinine, on the right bank of the Don River near its junction with the Sosna River in southern Russia, the figurine is roughly 6 centimetres in length and carved from volcanic rock. It was unearthed during excavations of a Stone Age settlement, during which a large quantity of prehistoric petroglyphs, artifacts, flint tools and animal bones were discovered, along with several "venus" figurines. Sculpted in almost caricature-style, the Gagarino Venus is mainly composed of gargantuan breasts and belly, with short stubs of thighs, broken above the knee.
Avdeevo Venuses (Russia)
Date: 20,000 BCE
Material: Mammoth ivory
Discovered in the aftermath of The Great Patriotic War, the Avdeevo archeological sites were re-excavated in the mid-70s. Avdeevo belongs to the Kosteky-Gagarino-Avdeevo triangle in the Voronezh-Lipesk-Kursk region, and is associated with a less obese and less exaggerated style of venus carving. Also noted for its back-to-back double venus.
Mal'ta Venuses (Russia)
Date: 20,000 BCE
Material: Mammoth ivory
Discovered at Usol'ye near Irkutsk, Lake Baikal in Siberia, the Mal'ta Venus figurines are the oldest Siberian sculptures ever found. Carved from mammoth ivory, or reindeer antler, they lack the obvious obesity of European venus figurines. They are housed at the Hermitage Museum, in St Petersburg.
Zaraysk Venuses (Russia)
Date: 20,000 BCE
Material: Mammoth ivory
Unearthed from the archeological site outside the walls of Zaraysk's medieval fortress, these are the fifth set of venus figurines that make up the Russian school, after the Kostenky, Avdeevo, Gagarino, and Mal'ta figures.
Note: No important Venus figurines are associated with the era of Solutrean Art (20,000-15,000 BCE).
Venus of Eliseevichi (14,000 BCE)
Date: 14,000 BCE
Completely different from the Kostenky-Avdeevo style venuses, this rare Magdalenian statuette from Bryansk has more in common with the French figurine known as the Venus Impudique (14,000 BCE) from the the rock shelter of Laugerie Basse.
Venus of Engen (Petersfels) (Swiss)
Date: 13,000 BCE
Material: Jet, a type of semi-precious lignite
Carving closely resembling the Venus of Monruz (see below), discovered about 120 kilometres from the Monruz, but is dated 3000 years older.
Venus of Monruz-Neuchatel (Swiss)
Date: 10,000 BCE
Material: Black Jet
Magdalenian pendant (1-inch tall), of a stylized human figure. Found in 1991 in Neuchatel, Switzerland. See: Magdalenian Art (15,000-10,000 BCE).
Late Stone Age
For a later masterpiece of prehistoric sculpture, see the extraordinary Thinker of Cernavoda (5000 BCE, National Museum of Romania).
For murals, see also: Cave Painting
For the history and facts about the origins of painting and sculpture, see: Visual Arts Encyclopedia.
Venus of Willendorf
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Venus of Willendorf, also called Woman of Willendorf or Nude Woman, Upper Paleolithic female figurine found in 1908 at Willendorf, Austria, that is perhaps the most familiar of some 40 small portable human figures (mostly female) that had been found intact or nearly so by the early 21st century. (Roughly 80 more exist as fragments or partial figures.) The statuette—made of oolitic limestone tinted with red ochre pigment—is dated to circa 28,000–25,000 bce . At 4 3 / 8 inches (11.1 cm) high, it was easily transportable by hand. Both its size (portability) and the material from which it was made (not found in Willendorf) are indicators that the artifact was made elsewhere and carried to Willendorf. Its arms, though visible, are negligible and crudely depicted. Though a head is present, the only detail to be seen is a pattern representing a braid or cap there are no facial features. Feet too are missing and were probably never part of the overall design.
It has been suggested that she is a fertility figure, a good-luck totem, a mother goddess symbol, or an aphrodisiac made by men for the appreciation of men. Further, one researcher hypothesized that it was made by a woman and that “[w]hat has been seen as evidence of obesity or adiposity is actually the foreshortening effect of self-inspection.” Although much has been written about the Willendorf figurine, little other than the details given in the paragraph above can be stated as fact.
Venus Figurines of the European Paleolithic: Symbols of Fertility or Attractiveness?
The earliest known representations of the human female form are the European Paleolithic “Venus figurines,” ranging in age from 23,000 to 25,000 years. We asked participants to rate images of Paleolithic figurines for their attractiveness, age grouping and reproductive status. Attractiveness was positively correlated with measures of the waist-to hip ratio (WHR) of figurines, consistent with the “sexually attractive symbolism” hypothesis. However, most figurines had high WHRs (>1.0) and received low attractiveness scores. Participants rated most figurines as representing middle-aged or young adult women, rather than being adolescent or older (postmenopausal). While some were considered to represent pregnant women, consistent with the “fertility symbol” hypothesis, most were judged as being non-pregnant. Some figurines depict obese, large-breasted women, who are in their mature reproductive years and usually regarded as being of lower attractiveness. At the time these figurines were made, Europe was in the grip of a severe ice age. Obesity and survival into middle age after multiple pregnancies may have been rare in the European Upper Paleolithic. We suggest that depictions of corpulent, middle-aged females were not “Venuses” in any conventional sense. They may, instead, have symbolized the hope for survival and longevity, within well-nourished and reproductively successful communities.
The oldest known representations of the human female form are the so-called “Venus figurines” of the upper Paleolithic period. Venus figurines have been unearthed at multiple sites across Europe, and most have been dated between 23,000 and 25,000 years ago [1–3]. Most recently a figurine, thought to be 35,000 years old, has been recovered from the Hohle Fels Cave in Germany . The majority of Venus figurines are relatively small, portable objects (e.g., Hohle Fels Venus: 6 cm high Willendorf’s Venus: 11 cms high). They were made from a variety of materials (e.g., limestone: the Willendorf Venus ivory: the Kostenki figurines clay and bone, fired at high temperature: the Dolní Věstonice Venus). However, in a few cases they take the form of bass-relief carvings on rock surfaces (e.g., the Laussel Venus).
The name commonly applied to these objects, “Venus figurines”, carries with it the implication that they were made as representations of feminine beauty. However, a considerable diversity of opinion exists in the archeological and paleoanthropological literature regarding the possible functions and significance of these objects. Delporte , for example, listed five possible areas for interpretation of Venus figurines. He noted that (1) the statuettes might be realistic depictions of actual women, (2) they might be ideal representations of female beauty, (3) they could represent fertility symbols, (4) they might have religious significance and be depictions of priestesses, and (5) they could represent images of ancestors. Some have suggested that figurines also constitute evidence of the occurrence of obesity in Paleolithic times, given that the majority are depictions of corpulent women . Russell  points out that some of the variability in these figurines may reflect the individual styles and preferences of those who crafted the objects and that styles may have changed throughout time. She draws some interesting parallels between paleolithic art and stylistic changes in modern artistic representations of the female form. It is widely thought that Venus figurines were made by men. However, some have challenged this assumption including McDermott  who proposed that Venus figurines were crafted by women, who were making images of their own bodies, rather than using other women as models.
Despite differences of opinion regarding the functions and significance of Venus figurines, relatively few attempts have been made to measure how people might interpret their attractiveness, reproductive status (e.g., pregnant or nonpregnant), and whether they depict women who are young, middle-aged, or in their postreproductive years. Rice  conducted one such study, using 188 figurines, which she rated (along with four experienced colleagues) for age and reproductive status. Rice concluded that various figurines represented different stages in the life span of women at that time and attempted to relate the results to observations of the physique of modern day hunter-gatherer women. However, many Paleolithic figurines depict women who are very heavily built, with greatly exaggerated breasts and buttocks, quite unlike those of modern hunter-gatherers. By contrast, some other figurines are much slimmer and more lifelike in their proportions (see Figure 1, e.g., of these various types). The problem in using small numbers of trained observers, as in Rice’s study, is that they are likely to have preconceptions about the significance of the statuettes. It remains to be determined how larger numbers of untrained participants might interpret Venus figurines.
Studies of more recent archeological material have addressed the question of whether female figurines might be representations of the sexually attractive female form. Singh  measured waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) in statuettes from ancient Egypt, India and Africa. Singh showed that a low female WHR, such as is judged as highly sexually attractive in many modern populations, was typical of these ancient statuettes. Likewise, Hudson and Aoyama  found that Jomon clay figurines made in Japan, made by hunter-gatherers between 16,500–2,500 years ago, typically depict females with low WHRs. These authors conclude that “in creating these figurines, prehistoric people were no doubt turning a recognition of health and fertility into more cultural icons.”
In the current study, we have used two approaches to examine the possible significance of Paleolithic Venus figurines. Firstly, we selected images of female figurines originating from a variety of European sites. We then designed a questionnaire that incorporated these images, in order to collect quantitative data on their perceived sexual attractiveness, age, and pregnancy status. Secondly, we asked participants to view Venus figurines via an eye-tracking machine, in order to measure visual attention to specific morphological features during attractiveness judgments. The goal of the first study was to obtain quantitative information on how figurines originating from different parts of Europe might vary, in terms of their perceived attractiveness and reproductive status. The second study sought to determine whether men who view such statuettes exhibit similar patterns of visual attention to those measured in previous studies, using images of modern-day women .
In study 1, 161 heterosexual men and women, ranging in age from 18 to 58 (M = 20.68 years SD = 5.12) who were undergraduate students at the Victoria University of Wellington, were asked to view a questionnaire consisting of 14 images of Paleolithic Venus figurines, originating from various parts of Europe (as detailed below) and a single modern sculpture.
In study 2, 35 heterosexual men, ranging in age from 23 to 44 years (M = 29.34 years S.D = 5.472) were recruited opportunistically from the postgraduates and staff at Victoria University of Wellington, completed eye-tracking experiments in which they viewed images of Venus figurines and a modern woman (as detailed below).
For both studies, participants were given verbal orientation before the start of data collection. The details of the study were not discussed with participants beforehand. However, when the studies ended, participants were provided with details of the rationale of the research. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Participants were told of their right to withdraw themselves or their data from the study without prejudice.
2.2. Study 1: Questionnaire
We selected of subset of Venus figurines consisting of images of 14 Venus figurines and a single modern sculpture of a female body. These images are shown in Figure 1. All images were front-posed and corrected to be approximately the same height. The images were presented in random order and numbered, as shown in Figure 1. The figurines chosen for this study are from five European regions, defined by  as follows: The Rhine/Danube (Image 1, 4, 6, and 10), The Pyrenees/Aquitaine (Image 2, 3, and 14), Italy (Image 8, 9, and 13), Russia (5, 7, and 12), and SW Germany (Image 15). The image depicting a modern sculpture (Image 11) was scanned from http://www.borsheimarts.com.
Each image was presented individually and in a random sequence. Participants viewed each image for 15 seconds, during which they were asked to provide ratings of age, pregnancy status, and attractiveness.
Participants classified each image as depicting a woman belonging to one of four age groups: “adolescent” (post-pubertal but not yet fully adult), “young adult” (in the prime reproductive years), “middle aged” (past prime, but not menopausal), and “old age” (after menopause). Participants were not asked to assess the exact age, in years, of women depicted by the statuettes nor were they told what age range might constitute adolescence, young adulthood, middle age, and old age. This was because the processes of adolescence and aging in adulthood may have occurred at different rates among hunter-gathers in the Paleolithic than is the case in modern, industrialized, human populations. Participants were also asked to judge whether each figurine might represent either a pregnant or a nonpregnant woman. Attractiveness of each image was rated using a six-point Likert’s scale in which 0 = unattractive, 1 = only slightly attractive, 2 = mildly attractive, 3 = moderately attractive, 4 = very attractive, 5 = extremely attractive. The same Likert scale has been used in previous studies of female WHR and attractiveness .
2.3. Study 2: Eye Tracking
Two images of Venus figurines were used for the eye-tracking study: image no. 1 of the Willendorf Venus, and image no. 14 of the so-called “Brassempouy Venus.” These figurines are examples of somewhat more (Image 14) or less (Image 1) “hourglass-shaped” body types. Image no. 14 also includes more modeling of facial features than in most other Venus figurines, and we wished to determine how this might affect eye-tracking responses. However, this figurine (referred to as no. 14 throughout this report) is highly problematic due to debates concerning the accuracy of its reconstruction [12, 13]. This matter is considered in the Discussion section. Data referring to the eye movements on the Venus figurines were compared to those made on a photograph of a modern woman used in a previous study .
The experiment was programmed using SR Research Experiment Builder (version 1.4.128 RC) and run on a 3-GHz Pentium D computer. Stimuli were presented on a 21-inch monitor at a resolution of 1024 × 768 pixels and with a refresh rate of 60 Hz.
Participants were seated in a comfortable chair in a quiet room facing the monitor at eye level at a viewing distance of 57 cm, maintained by a forehead and chin rest. They underwent eye-tracking trials in which each image was presented individually, in random order on the computer screen for five seconds.
At the end of each presentation, participants were instructed to rate the image for sexual attractiveness using a keyboard with a six-point Likert’s scale in which 0 = unattractive, 1 = somewhat attractive, 2 = moderately attractive, 3 = attractive, 4 = very attractive, and 5 = extremely attractive.
Using the EyeLink 1000 Tower Mount Head Supported System (SR Research Ltd., ON, Canada), eye position and eye movements were determined by measuring the corneal reflection and dark pupil with a video-based infrared camera and an infrared reflective mirror. The eye tracker had a spatial resolution of 0.01° of visual angle, and the signal was sampled and stored at a rate of 1000 Hz. While viewing was binocular, recording was monocular, measuring right-eye movements only as this is a standard procedure in eye-tracking studies (e.g., ). Calibration and validation of measurements were performed before each experimental session.
The stimulus images were divided into six anatomical regions for subsequent analysis of eye-tracking data. The six regions were defined as follows: (1) the face and neck, from the top of the head to the base of the neck (2) breasts, from the base of the neck to the posterior border of each breast (3) midriff, including the waist beginning from the below the breasts to the widest part of the hips (4) pubis, as defined by the limits of the pubic triangle (5) the thighs, the upper portion of the leg ending at the knee (6) lower legs and feet.
In each of the six regions, two dependent variables of eye movement were measured: number of fixations and amount of time spent (dwell time) examining the area. Each time the eye moved, the eye-tracking machine recorded a new fixation. Total fixations that occurred in each area were summed during the analysis. Likewise, the machine measured individual fixation times, so that it was possible to obtain the total time spent examining each of the six regions.
3.1. Study 1: Questionnaire Study
3.1.1. Waist-to Hip Ratios and Attractiveness
Table 1 presents data on attractiveness ratings, waist-to hip ratios (WHR), perceived age, and pregnancy status for the individual images shown in Figure 1. There was a negative relationship between WHR and attractiveness judgments for the 15 images (
= .34, 95% CI (−3.41, −2.21) Figure 2), which remained when removing the data from the modern statue and retaining only the data from the 14 Venus figurines ( = .31, 95% CI (1.255, −.24). Those images ranked as having the lowest WHRs were accorded the highest rankings for attractiveness (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient = 0.66
). Image no. 11, depicting a modern sculpture of a young woman which had a WHR of 0.69, received the highest score for attractiveness (3.89). Images 10 and 12, which had low WHRs, were accorded the highest average ratings for attractiveness among the Paleolithic figurines (no. 10 Petrkovice: attractiveness 1.92, WHR 0.72 no. 12 Eleesivitchi: attractiveness 1.74, WHR 0.63). Those figurines having high WHRs received much lower scores for attractiveness. Examples include the Willendorf Venus (attractiveness 0.14, WHR 1.16), the Lespugue Venus (attractiveness 0.66, WHR 1.56), and the recently discovered Hohle Fels Venus (attractiveness 0.19, WHR 1.03). These, and other figurines, were given ratings averaging less than 1 and were thus perceived as being “unattractive.”
= .34, 95% CI (−3.41, −2.21). After removing image 11 of the modern statue the regression was (
Nine of the 14 Paleolithic figurines had high WHRs (i.e., 1.0 or higher), with greatly accentuated breasts and generally “squat” or obese body shapes. These types of figurines are widely represented at sites across Europe (e.g., in Figure 1: Rhine Danube: the Willendorf and Dolní Věstonice figurines Italy: the Grimaldi Venus Pyrenees/Aquitaine: the Lespugue Venus Russia: the Gagarino no. 4 figurine). Figurines with slimmer waists are less well represented, but examples included in this study, having low WHRs, also originate from some of these same geographical regions (e.g., Rhine/Danube: the Petrkovice figurine, Russia: Eleesivitchi figurine, and from the Pyrenees/Aquitaine: image no. 14, which has a WHR of 0.78).
3.1.2. Age Groupings, Pregnancy Status, and Attractiveness
Overall, the Paleolithic figurines were rated by significant numbers of subjects as being representations of middle-aged or young adult women. Considering all of the Venus figurines, significantly higher percentages of subjects placed them in the “young adult” and “middle-aged” categories than in the “adolescent” category (
for each paired comparison, Wilcoxon’s signed-ranks tests: see Figure 3). Subjects were also much more likely to interpret figurines as being depictions of “middle-aged” than of “old” women ( ) and were slightly more likely to place them in the “young adult” rather than in the “old” category (
, Figure 3). Considering scores for the individual images, most subjects placed the Willendorf, Laussel, Grimaldi, Savignano and figurines, and the problematic Brassempouy example, in the “middle-aged” category, and the Kostenki, Chiozza di Scandiano, Petrkovice, and Eleesivitchi Venuses in the “young adult” age category (Table 1). As expected, the image depicting a modern sculpture of a young woman was also rated as being a “young adult” by the great majority (94%) of subjects. Mann-Whitney U tests showed that ratings for attractiveness in the “young adult” category (
= 2.02 ± 0.49) were significantly greater than the scores given to the 5 “middle-aged” Venuses (0.77 ± 0.19
= 5, = 5 ). Figurines rated as being “young adults” also had lower WHRs, on average, (0.83 ± 0.09) than those in the “middle-aged” group (0.96 ± 0.07). However, this difference was not statistically significant ( = 7.5 = 5, = 5
Only one figurine was interpreted as representing an old (postmenopausal) woman thus, most subjects (67 out of 116 (58%) ) placed the Hohle Fels Venus, from SW Germany in this age category. Forty subjects (34%) rated this figurine as “middle-aged,” but this was not statistically significant. Likewise, only one figurine was rated as possibly representing an “adolescent” female: this was the Chiozza Di Scandiano Venus, which was also rated as a “young adult” by significant numbers of subjects (Table 1). Two figurines (Lespugue and Moravany) were judged by similar numbers of subjects to represent either young adult or middle-aged women. Only one figurine (the Gagarino no. 4 Venus) failed to receive significant ratings in any of the adult age categories, as similar numbers of subjects rated it as representing a young adult, a middle-aged, or an old woman.
Three of the 15 images were judged by significant numbers of subjects as being depictions of pregnant women (Laussel, Kostenki, and Savignano), while 5 others were thought to be nonpregnant (Willendorf, Grimaldi, Petrkovice, Eleesivitchi, and Hohle Fels). The image representing a modern sculpture of a young woman was likewise judged to be nonpregnant. In the remaining 5 cases, similar numbers of subjects considered that the figurines represent either nonpregnant or pregnant women, so that the results were not statistically significant (Table 1).
3.2. Study 2: Eye-Tracking Study
A single factor (image 14, Willendorf’s Venus, modern image) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) yielded a significant main effect for attractiveness
(2, 68) = 115.04, . Post-hoc Scheffé’s tests revealed that the modern image was judged to be significantly more attractive than image 14 and the Venus of Willendorf ( ). Figurine no. 14 was rated as being significantly more attractive than the Willendorf Venus ( Figure 4).
3.2.2. Numbers of Fixations and Dwell Times
A 3 (Image) × 6 (Body Region) repeated measures ANOVA yielded a significant main effect of image × body region, for numbers of fixations (10, 340) = 12.04, and dwell times (10, 340) = 17.94, . Most visual attention involved the breasts, faces, and midriffs of all three images, with less numbers of fixations and shorter dwell times for the lower body. Considering the upper body first, when compared to the modern image, the breasts of the Willendorf Venus received significantly more fixations,
(34) = 4.90, , and longer dwell times, (34) = 5.82, . Figurine no. 14 also received more visual attention on the breasts than the modern image (numbers of fixations: (34) = 3.48, , and dwell times: (34) = 2.02,
). Visual attention toward the breasts of the Willendorf Venus was significantly higher than figurine no. 14 for both numbers of fixations, (34) = 2.48, , and dwell times, (34) = 4.34, (Figure 5). Attention toward the midriff of figurine no. 14 was significantly greater than the modern image for both numbers of fixations, (34) = 2.65, , and dwell times, (34) = 6.99, . Dwell times were also greater on the midriff of figurine no. 14 compared to the Willendorf Venus, (34) = 5.79, (Figure 5). The face of the modern woman attracted more fixations, (34) = 2.43, , and longer dwell times, (34) = 5.24, , than figurine no. 14. Similarly, the face of the modern woman was looked at more frequently than that of the Willendorf figurine, (34) = 2.90, .
Turning to the lower body, the pubic region of the modern woman received more attention as compared to the Willendorf Venus (numbers of fixations: (34) = 2.96, , and dwell times: (34) = 3.37, ). The pubis of figurine no. 14 attracted more fixations, (34) = 2.72, , and greater dwell times, (34) = 3.86, , compared to the Willendorf Venus (Figure 5). The thighs of the modern image received more fixations, (34) = 2.21, , and longer dwell times, (34) = 3.17, , than the thighs of the Willendorf Venus. Similarly, the thighs of the modern image attracted more fixations, (34) = 2.42, , and longer dwell times, (34) = 3.55, , compared to figurine no. 14. The lower legs of the modern image attracted more attention when compared to the Willendorf Venus (numbers of fixations: (34) = 4.78, , and dwell times: (34) = 6.49, ) and figurine no. 14 (numbers of fixations: (34) = 3.98, , and dwell times: (34) = 5.52, ).
Although we cannot be certain why the hunter-gatherers who lived in Europe in Paleolithic times crafted “Venus” figurines, it is possible to collect quantitative data on how modern people perceive these images, in terms of their attractiveness, and whether they might be depictions of women who are pregnant and members of younger or older age groups. This information may provide some additional insights concerning the significance these figurines, which are the earliest known depictions of the human female form.
The great majority of participants in this study interpreted Venus figurines as being representations of either young adult women or middle-aged women in their mature reproductive years. Only one figurine (from Chiozza Di Scandiano, in Italy) received a significant number of choices for the “adolescent” age category. Thus, in our sample of figurines, originating from different areas of Europe, none were interpreted as being in transition between girlhood and reproductive maturity. All were considered to be reproductively mature, but not all were necessarily young women. The more endomorphic body types, with enlarged and pendulous breasts (e.g., the Willendorf, Grimaldi and Savignano Venuses), were most often interpreted as representations of middle-aged women. Only one figurine was thought to represent an old (postmenopausal) woman. This was the Hohle Fels Venus, recently discovered in the Swabian Jura of SW Germany  and dated to 35,000 years ago. As well as being older than other Paleolithic figurines discovered in Europe, this Venus is covered with deep scratches and grooves which were placed there intentionally. It has no head the small projection at the top of the figurine is a ring-shaped aperture. It is thought that this small figurine hung from a strap and may have been worn as a pendant.
Given that both middle-aged and young adult body types are well represented among these figurines, it is interesting that they also include a wide range of body shapes, as reflected by measurements of their waist-to-hip ratios (WHRs). These range from a WHR of 0.63 in the Eleesivitchi Venus (from Russia) to 1.56 in the Lespugue Venus, from the Pyrenees/Aquitaine region of France. In modern human populations, a low feminine WHR is typically correlated with good health and reproductive fitness. Hence, WHRs in the range between 0.67 and 0.8 occur in healthy young women during their reproductive years . Women with narrow waists and large breasts have significantly higher circulating levels of estradiol and progesterone during their menstrual cycles  and a greater probability of achieving conception . Cross-cultural studies indicate that feminine WHRs within the range 0.6–0.8 are rated as most attractive by men belonging to diverse modern populations (Germany: , UK: , USA: , Tanzania: , Cameroon: , and China: ). There have been debates about the relative importance of WHR and body mass index (BMI) in masculine perceptions of female attractiveness . However, recent experiments using images of women who underwent micrograft surgery in order to reduce WHR (but not BMI) have shown that an “hourglass” body shape provides a crucial attractiveness cue [25–27]. Singh [9, 28] has proposed that the female “hourglass” figure provides an honest signal of a healthy feminine fat distribution, and that sexual selection, as well as natural selection, has favored the evolution of this “gynoid” pattern of fat deposition in women. Three of the 14 Paleolithic Venuses included in the present study have WHRs within the modern range for higher attractiveness and health (Eleesivitchi (0.63), Petrkovice (0.72), and the Brassempouy example, no. 14 (0.78). These figurines were rated as being more attractive than most others, although the numerical scores they received were lower than those given to a modern sculpture of a young woman having an hourglass figure (WHR 0.69).
Singh  measured the WHRs of 286 ancient sculptures from Greece, India, and Africa, including Egypt. Singh found that, although the WHR measurements of these ancient sculptures varied, the average female WHR in each case was 0.7, as compared to 0.9 for sculptures of males. Hudson and Aoyama’s  measures of ancient Japanese clay figurines (Jomon figures) also reveal that most have WHRs of around 0.7. We suggest that status of the Paleolithic European Venus figurines must be different, as most of them do not have narrow waists or an “hourglass” body shape. Only 21% of the images we used had low WHRs. However, most Venus figurines have thick waists and compact body shapes, as typified by the Willendorf, Lespugue, and Dolní Věstonice examples in our study. This also appears to be the case for most of the Venus figurines that are depicted in the archeological literature . Venuses having low WHRs and hourglass figures, such as are consistent with health and attractiveness in modern populations, therefore represent a subset, and a minority, among representations of the female form in the Paleolithic period.
Three of the Venuses in this study were judged by significant numbers of participants to be representations of pregnant women. These figurines originate from geographically widely separated sites, in France (the Laussel Venus), Russia (Kostenki 1. Statuette no. 3) and Italy (the Savignano Venus). Five Venuses were assessed as being representations of nonpregnant women, and the remaining six figurines received similar scores for possible pregnancy or nonpregnancy. The heavy body builds and enlarged breasts of some of these Venuses may have contributed to doubts concerning their intended reproductive status.
The Brassempouy figurine (no. 14) was rated as “nonpregnant” by 86 participants and “pregnant” by 75 others. It will be recalled that this figurine, despite its corpulent appearance had a relatively low WHR (0.78) and was ranked no. 6 among the images in terms of its sexual attractiveness. In a separate experiment (involving different participants), this figurine was used to assess men’s visual attention using an eye-tracking machine. Interestingly, the midriff of this figurine received significantly more visual fixations, and longer dwell times, than the midriff of either the Willendorf Venus (WHR 1.16) or the image of a modern-day woman having a narrow waist (WHR 0.7). It is possible that uncertainties about the reproductive condition depicted by figurine no. 14 might have driven additional attention and focus upon its midriff. However, data referring to this figurine must be treated with some circumspection due to its doubtful status. Thus, it was reconstructed from a number of fragments and is not considered by some authorities to be a true representation of its original, intact condition. White  has examined the evidence at first hand and reviewed information concerning the mammoth ivory figurines discovered at Brassempouy. He provides convincing arguments for their authenticity and shows that they have been crafted using similar techniques to those employed at other sites in Europe. Thus, he rejects suggestions that they may have been faked . However, the highly fragmentary nature of many of the Brassempouy figurines has resulted, in the case of figurine no. 14, in the creation of a hybrid which may owe more to artistic license than to archaeological accuracy.
Previous eye-tracking studies have shown that, when men view nude images of women, they direct considerable visual attention to the breasts and midriff [11, 29, 30], particularly when judging health . In the current study, the greatly enlarged breasts of the Paleolithic figurines received more fixations and longer dwell times than was the case for the modern-day image, and this difference was most pronounced in the case of the Willendorf Venus. The head received much less visual attention than the breasts of all three images. The absence of any facial features in the Willendorf Venus did not affect men’s eye-tracking scores, which were not significantly different from those recorded when viewing the Brassempouy figurine, despite the fact that it has a well-defined nose and eye sockets. Men’s eye movements during attractiveness judgments of Venus figurines, thus, resemble those that occur when examining images of modern-day women, with the exception that the breasts and midriff of figurines may command more attention. Men generally pay less attention to the lower body than the upper body of female images during eye-tracking sessions [11, 29]. The same appears to be true for Venus figurines, with the caveat that the pubic area and lower legs of figurines received less fixations and shorter dwell times than those of the modern female image.
The results presented here indicate that Paleolithic Venus figurines, from widely separated parts of Europe, are often rated in similar ways, in terms of their perceived reproductive and age status or attractiveness. Figurines may sometimes have slim waists, but are sometimes more endomorphic in appearance. Some are perceived as representations of pregnant women whereas most are not. The great majority of figurines are considered to be depictions of middle-aged or young adult women. Only a subset conforms to Singh’s hypothesis concerning the female “hourglass” figure, as an honest signal of reproductive health and fertility, and its representation in ancient art . These Venus figurines, which have WHRs in the range between 0.6 and 0.8, received higher ratings for attractiveness. Thus, these types of figurines might be representations of actual women or idealized representations of attractive women. Yet many of the figurines in our study, as in archeological collections covering this time period, have endomorphic body types and much thicker waists, with WHRs greater than 1.0. This is well above the range of WHRs for women in modern populations, who are healthy and in their reproductive years. The breasts and buttocks of Venus figurines are often exaggerated in size. Some are perceived as being pregnant or possibly pregnant, and this might accord with notions that Venus figurines function as symbolic representations of fertile women. Others are not perceived as being pregnant, however, but are rated as being middle aged and of lower attractiveness.
Why were such images of females created in the Paleolithic period, across wide areas of Europe? Some additional insight into this problem may be gained by considering Venus figurines in the broader ecological context of the lives of the hunter-gathers who made them and of climatic conditions in Europe at that time. During the period between 30,000 and 18,000 years ago, there was a major glaciation and a marked deterioration of the climate, which was most pronounced in northern parts of Europe . Anatomically modern humans were widespread in Europe by this period, but population densities were almost certainly low, consisting of scattered groups. In this preagricultural world, human survival depended upon success in hunting and gathering. With the possible exception of the single Hohle Fels figurine, Venus figurines were made during this harsh, glacial climatic period, and they are thought to constitute evidence that a shared cultural tradition existed in Paleolithic Europe [2, 3]. What role these female images might have played in social contexts, such as bartering or alliance building between hunter-gatherer groups, remains highly speculative [1, 2, 31]. There has also been discussion of these figurines with regard to the occurrence of obesity in the Paleolithic society . Beller , for example, commented that “obesity was already a fact of life for Paleolithic man or at least for Paleolithic woman.” However, given the extremely challenging climatic conditions which prevailed at this time and the hardships experienced by hunter-gatherers, it seems unlikely that obesity would have been commonplace in Paleolithic societies. Perhaps only a minority of women survived to become multiparous, middle-aged, and corpulent, as depicted by many of the figurines. Images of very well-nourished, mature females might, thus, have been cultural expressions of hoped-for success in the very difficult struggle to survive, as well as to reproduce. Gvozdover  has stressed that the female image probably played multiple roles in the European Paleolithic culture. Russell  cautions that individual differences in style, among the makers of these figurines and stylistic changes throughout the Paleolithic, may account for some of the variability exhibited by their work.
We suggest three possible roles for Venus figurines. Firstly, a minority of images may have been intended to represent young, sexually attractive and nulliparous adult females. These might truly be considered as “Venuses” in the conventional sense. Secondly, a subset of figurines represented changes in body shape during pregnancy and might be symbols of fertility. Thirdly, the figurines, depicting corpulent and often middle-aged women, may not have been “Venuses” in any modern or conventional sense. They may, instead, have symbolized the hope for survival and for the attainment of a well-nourished (and thus reproductively successful) maturity, during the harshest period of the major glaciation in Europe.
The authors are grateful to Dr. Gina Grimshaw for assistance with the eye-tracking experiments and to all the participants who volunteered to take part in the studies. They are also grateful to the Editor Dr. Benjamin Campbell and the two anonymous reviewers for providing us with very useful and critical comments, particularly those pertaining to the debates surrounding the Brassempouy figurines. These comments were very helpful in improving our paper.
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Copyright © 2011 Alan F. Dixson and Barnaby J. Dixson. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Europeans Have Three times More Neanderthal Genes for Lipid Catabolism than Asians or Africans
Science Daily, April 2, 2014
Contemporary Europeans have as many as three times more Neanderthal variants in genes involved in lipid catabolism than Asians and Africans.
Although Neanderthals are extinct, fragments of their genomes persist in modern humans. These shared regions are unevenly distributed across the genome and some regions are particularly enriched with Neanderthal variants. An international team of researchers led by Philipp Khaitovich of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and the CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology in Shanghai, China, show that DNA sequences shared between modern humans and Neanderthals are specifically enriched in genes involved in the metabolic breakdown of lipids. This sharing of genes is seen mainly in contemporary humans of European descent and may have given a selective advantage to the individuals with the Neanderthal variants.
The researchers analyzed the distribution of Neanderthal variants in the genomes of eleven contemporary human populations of African, Asian and European descent. They found that genes involved in the lipid synthesis contained a particularly high number of Neanderthal variants in contemporary humans of European origin, but not in Asians and Africans.
Neanderthal group picture taken from above video
Neanderthals placed cave bear skulls in stone walled pit.
Truly a monster of a bear, especially for it being primarily vegetarian. Cave lion bones are found in cave bear dens. Would almost certainly be a death sentence for any predator to walk into a cave and the bear wasn&rsquot fully hibernating
175,000 year old evidence that the first inhabitants of Europe were highly underestimated. The best forensic artists reconstruct their faces from the actual skulls with staggering result. Our cousins were beautiful. If you do not have any African genes, science says you are related to these folks from the beginning.
Picture (guy), blue eyed girl, and blond girl on right from video above.
Some Neanderthal females and males wouldn't look out of place in most parts of the western world. This assumes early 21st Century clothing and hairstyles, of course.
2 pictures on right taken from the video above " 175,000 Year old evidence that the first inhabitants of Europe were highly underestimated. The best forensic artist reconstruct their faces from the actual skulls with staggering result. .The most deeply rooted Morphological comparison between Neanderthals and modern Europeans immediately reveals striking similarities in unique physical traits not found among Africans."
Neanderthal Hair and Skin Colour.
"Some Neanderthals were redheads, a DNA study has shown."
. Genes for skin colour and hair colour are obvious early targets for scientists engaged in these efforts.
Pale skin - along with red or blond hair - appears to be the product of lower levels of sunlight present in areas further from the equator such as Europe.
. In Neanderthals, there was probably the whole range of hair colour we see today in modern European populations, from dark to blond right through to red.
Dr Carles Lalueza-Fox
Sacred Signs – Prehistoric Sculpture
Small, hand-held female figures are the first evidence of sculpture. Usually carved in stone, bone or ivory. We cannot know the exact meaning, use or history of the earliest sculptural objects, but there is evidently great effort, skill and care involved in their production. This portable art is, of course, more likely to be broken or destroyed, so we don’t see a huge amount. However, art historians generally agree that with early female figures (of which around 100 have been excavated) there is probably a totemic, fertility aspect. They are often referred to as ‘Venus’ figures as they were found almost exclusively by Western archaeologists whose idea of beauty was narrow, white and male. I suspect the figures they found are much more potent than the coy, simpering Venus of Western art history!
Venus of Willendorf, 25,000 – 30,000 BC, Museum of Natural History, Vienna. Wikimedia Commons
The Venus of Berekhat Ram and the Venus of Tan Tan are both pre-Homo sapiens, at somewhere between 200,000 and 700,000 years old. By comparison the youthful Venus of Willendorf shown above is just 25,000 years old – significantly later but much more well known. If you’d like to have a go at sculpture yourself you don’t need any special tools. Get a cheap bar of chunky soap and carve it into a simple shape with something as simple as a butter knife or a paper clip. It’s a lot of fun!
Replicas of the Venus of Tan Tan, 200,000 – 500,000 BC and Venus of Berekhat Ram, 230,000 – 700,000 BC, Museum of Human Evolution, Spain. Wikimedia Commons
From a similar time period to the Willendorf this Punjab figure with applied ‘split pellet’ eyes is made of terracotta.
Punjab terracotta figure, 25,000 BC, Herbert Art Gallery and Museum, Coventry, UK. Photo Candy Bedworth
There are also some anthropomorphic and animal figures to be found, but we don’t know if these relate to food, lifestyle, cultural or spiritual beliefs.
The Lion Man of Hohlenstein-Stadel is the world’s oldest known zoomorphic (animal shaped) sculpture. It is 35,000 to 40,000 years old and carved from a woolly mammoth ivory tusk using a flint stone knife.
Lion Man of Hohlenstein, 40,000 BC, British Museum, London, UK. britishmuseum.org
The Shigir Idol, at 11,000 years old is the most ancient wooden sculpture in the world, carved from larch using stone tools and animal teeth. It is believed the statue would originally have stood at just over 5 metres tall and seems to have been carved to be viewed, like modern sculpture, ‘in the round’.
Shigir Idol, 11,500 BC,Sverdlovsk Regional Museum of Local Lore, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Wikimedia Commons
The Swimming Reindeer is a very complex piece of art. At 13,000 years old this is the oldest piece of art held by any British museum or gallery and is kept securely in a controlled atmosphere. Showing a male and female reindeer, swimming nose to tail, it is known to have been chopped with a tool, whittled with a stone knife and scraper, precisely incised with an engraving tool, then polished with powdered iron oxide and buffed with leather.
Swimming Reindeer, 13,000 BC, British Museum, London, UK. Wikimedia Commons
Another British Museum piece is the Ain Sakhri Lovers. A natural calcite cobble has been picked at with a stone point to represent two figures embracing, face to face, in a sitting position. It is the oldest known representation of a couple making love, although the genders are not identified.
Ain Sakri Lovers, 11,000 BC, British Museum, London, England. british museum.org
These tantalising objects enthral us but offer up few of their secrets. The art historian can at best tell us about tools and materials, but they cannot dissect the lives and dreams of these ancient artists.