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(AO-142: dp. 5,730; 1. 524'; b. 68'; dr. 31'; s. 15 k.; cpl. 52; a. none; cl. Suamico; T. T2-SE-A1)
Shawnee Trail (AO-142) was laid down as MC hull
1928 for the United States Maritime Commission on 18 April 1944 by Kaiser Co. Inc., Portland, Oreg., launched on 31 May 1944; delivered to the War Shipping Administration on 28 June 1944 and lend leased to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. She was returned to the Maritime Commission in March 1948; acquired by the Navy and classified AO-142 on 25 May 1948 and operated in a non-commissioned status by a civilian company under contract with the Navy. On 1 October 1949, she was assigned to the Military Sea Transportation Service and continued operations with a civilian crew.
On 1 November 1957, Shawnee Trail was permanently assigned to the Maritime Administration and struck from the Navy list the same day. She was reacquired on 20 January 1965 and served with MSTS until 24 February 1972 when she was again permanently assigned to MARAD and laid up in the James River. Shawnee Trail was sold to Union Minerals & Alloys Corp., New York, on 10 August 1973 for scrapping.
In the early 2000s, Jody Jones returned to the U.S. after several years serving as a missionary in Mexico. He desired to plant a vibrant church that made a difference in its community. Frisco, TX stood out among other areas as the fastest growing city in America. Jody, along with his family, met another family in Frisco who shared their vision for planting a church, and in April of 2002, Shawnee Trail Church of Christ began in the living room of the Jones’ home.
Over the next few years, the church grew, and more people in the community came to hear the Gospel. Over time, Shawnee Trail Church met in a rented house, a movie theater, a school, and even a park!
In 2008, Seth McDowell came to Shawnee Trail as Senior Minister. That same year our first church Elders were chosen. Since that time Shawnee Trail has experienced the guidance and providence of God at every turn. In July of 2015, we moved into our first permanent building on John W. Elliot Drive, and every year since then we have continued to grow and now have over 550 members.
Today we carry on those first members’ vision of what this church should be, and what God wants us to be – a vibrant church that is growing and reaching people with the saving message of Jesus Christ. We are excited to see the amazing things God will do as we continue to dedicate our lives to Him.
Renzaglia’s success was noted with interest by another pair of would be winery owners, George Majka and Jane Payne. Majka and Payne had been making wines from apples and other local fruits for over a decade. In 1989, they broke ground for the Pomona Winery at a location as far away from people as you can get and still be in the state of Illinois. They became a licensed winery in 1991 and released their first two apple wines in 1993.
Shawnee Trail AO-142 - History
The Shawnee Trail was the first major route used by the cattle trailing industry to deliver longhorns to the markets of the Midwest. Longhorns were collected around San Antonio, Texas, and taken northward through Austin, Waco, and Dallas, crossing the Red River near Preston, Texas, at Rock Bluff. There the outcroppings that provide the place-name formed a natural chute that forced the cattle together at the ford, and a gradual rise on the north bank made it easy to exit the river. North of the Red River the trail divided for a time, coming together near Boggy Depot in the Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory. Here some herds veered sharply eastward to pass through Fort Smith, Arkansas. The main trail led to the Canadian River directly below the confluence of the north and south branches and forded the Arkansas River between the mouths of the Verdigris and Neosho rivers, and followed the Neosho past Fort Gibson almost to the Kansas border. The trail then subdivided into various routes that, depending on the final destination, led to one of the following: Baxter Springs, Kansas, and Westport, Kansas City, Sedalia, and St. Louis, Missouri.
Throughout the 1830s settlers from the United States heading for Texas traveled across present Oklahoma along the Texas Road. When the first herds were taken north in the early 1840s, they reversed the trek, opening a trail to the railheads in Missouri. Newspapers referred to the route as the Sedalia Trail or simply the cattle trail. No one knows why it was called the Shawnee Trail however, the route did pass by a Shawnee village in north Texas and near the Shawnee Hills in Indian Territory. By the late 1850s the name was in general use.
In the 1840s herds were taken up the trail primarily to Missouri, and during the Mexican War the trail was used almost constantly during the summer months. The gold rush in California increased demand for cattle after 1848, and for several years the Shawnee Trail was heavily used. By the mid-1850s Kansas City, Missouri, was the largest stock market in the west, and the Texas cattle trailing industry was well established.
The westward expansion of the farming frontier soon intervened. In 1853 farmers in Missouri turned back the drovers, fearing that the longhorns would infect their cattle with a tick-borne disease called Texas fever. Longhorns were immune to it, but they harbored ticks that spread it to local herds. Newly infected animals either died or required expensive treatment. Between 1853 and 1855 herds continued to use the trail, but resistance continued to grow. In December 1855 the Missouri legislature passed the first law banning diseased animals. Some drives avoided Missouri, staying on the eastern edge of Kansas Territory. Anxious farmers there pushed a bill through the territorial legislature in 1859 that limited access to the cattle drives. For a time the drovers were forced to run a gauntlet of angry farmers and justices of the peace to get the cattle to rail heads. Through 1859 and 1860 violence erupted when the drovers encountered the blockades. The outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 virtually stopped traffic on the Shawnee Trail north of Indian Territory.
The end of the Civil War signaled the rebirth of the cattle drives on the Shawnee Trail. More than two hundred thousand longhorns were taken up the trail in 1866. However, resistance grew stiffer and better organized. By 1867 six states had enacted laws limiting trail drives. Drovers attempted to avoid populated areas by turning to follow the Arkansas River westward or by grazing their herds in the Cherokee Strip until local quarantines were lifted. These delays and poor grazing in Indian Territory reduced profits, and the future of the trail driving industry seemed in peril. However, in 1867 Joseph G. McCoy, a young entrepreneur from Illinois, built stock pens and loading chutes on the railroad at Abilene, Kansas. Soon the majority of cattle were following the old Shawnee Trail from central Texas to Waco, but there they turned toward Fort Worth, following the Chisholm Trail. When the advancing frontier and barbed wire closed the Chisholm Trail, the trail drives turned to the Western or Dodge City Trail.
Wayne Gard, "The Impact of the Cattle Trails," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 71 (July 1967).
Wayne Gard, "The Shawnee Trail," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 56 (January 1953).
Jimmy M. Skaggs, The Cattle-Trailing Industry: Between Supply and Demand, 1866–1890 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1973).
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The Shawnees are an Eastern Woodlands tribe pushed west by white encroachment. In 1793, some of the Shawnee Tribe’s ancestors received a Spanish land grant at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. After the 1803 Louisiana Purchase brought this area under American control, some Cape Girardeau Shawnees went west to Texas and Old Mexico and later moved to the Canadian River in southern Oklahoma, becoming the Absentee Shawnee Tribe.
The 1817 Treaty of Fort Meigs granted the Shawnees still in northwest Ohio three reservations: Wapakoneta, Hog Creek, and Lewistown (see map right). By 1824, about 800 Shawnees lived in Ohio and 1,383 lived in Missouri. In 1825, Congress ratified a treaty with the Cape Girardeau Shawnees ceding their Missouri lands for a 1.6 million-acre reservation in eastern Kansas. After the Indian Removal Act of 1830, the Ohio Shawnees on the Wapakoneta and Hog Creek reservations signed a treaty with the US giving them lands on the Kansas Reservation.
The Lewistown Reservation Shawnees, together with their Seneca allies and neighbors, signed a separate treaty with the federal government in 1831 and moved directly to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). The Lewistown Shawnees became the Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, while their Seneca allies became the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma.
In 1854, the US government decimated the Kansas Reservation to 160,000 acres. This, coupled with the brutal abuses perpetrated against them by white settlers during and after the Civil War, forced the Kansas Shawnees to relocate to Cherokee Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. The 1854 Shawnee Reservation in Kansas was never formally extinguished and some Shawnee families retain their Kansas allotments today.
The federal government caused the former Kansas Shawnees and the Cherokees to enter into a formal agreement in 1869, whereby the Shawnees received allotments and citizenship in Cherokee Nation.
The Shawnees settled in and around White Oak, Bird Creek (Sperry), and Hudson Creek (Fairland), maintaining separate communities and separate cultural identities. Known as the Cherokee Shawnees, they would also later be called the Loyal Shawnees.
Initial efforts begun in the 1980s to separate the Shawnee Tribe from Cherokee Nation culminated when Congress enacted Public Law 106-568, the Shawnee Tribe Status Act of 2000, which restored the Shawnee Tribe to its position as a sovereign Indian nation.
Shawnee Trail AO-142 - History
Frisco, Texas got its start from hardy pioneers who helped settle one of America’s newest states: Texas, admitted to the Union in 1845.
Most families who came to the north Texas prairie followed the Preston Trail (today’s Preston Road), a road that began as an Indian footpath from the Red River south to Austin. Later, the road was known as the Shawnee Trail upon which millions of longhorn cattle were driven to markets in the north. The trail followed a high ridge of white rock that provided a dry path for the cattle. A Texas State Historic Marker about the Shawnee Trail is located at Collin College’s Frisco Campus.
Other historic sites have been identified, researched and marked by the Heritage Association of Frisco including some of the small communities that sprang up in the mid-to-late 1800s. They served a population of farmers and ranchers who made certain there were schools and churches for their families to attend. However, most of these villages experienced a similar fate around the turn of the nineteenth century when the St. Louis – San Francisco Railway Company laid tracks through north central Texas.
The first train steamed into Frisco on March 20,1902. A local resident captured the historic moment with an old-fashioned box camera. You can see a steam locomotive and a replica of the original Frisco Depot at the Frisco Heritage Center.
The railroad company determined that current day Frisco was the perfect location for its track since rainwater running off Preston Ridge would help fill the man-made lake that serviced the steam engine. People from other communities moved their businesses and homes to be near the railroad, and as surrounding villages declined, the town of Frisco was grew.
In an auction that took place on February 6 and 7, 1902, lots were sold for residential as well as commercial development of Frisco. Many of these locations have received markers because of their historical significance to Frisco.
Frisco remained an agricultural center for decades, boasting 5 cotton gins at one time. The population remained below 2,000 residents until a growth spurt in the 1980s portended of what was to come. By 1990, Frisco’s location, its quality of life and visionary leadership contributed to its becoming the fastest growing city in the nation with a population of about 120,000 in 2011. Today in 2016, Frisco’s population is over 150,000.
The Heritage Association of Frisco, Inc. is committed to marking historic sites and hopes you will use our Historic Sites Map to enjoy a driving or walking tour that will take you back in time.
The Heritage Association of Frisco, Inc. is located in the Frisco Heritage Center & Museum. We are incorporated in the state of Texas as a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization.
6455 Page Street
Frisco, TX 75034
[Texas Historical Commission Marker: Preston Road/Shawnee Trail]
Photograph of the Texas Historical Commission marker for Preston Road/Shawnee Trail in Pottsboro, Texas. Text: In 1840, authorized by an 1838 act of the Congress of the Republic of Texas, Col. W.G. Cooke and the Texas First Infantry Regiment laid out a military road from Austin through what became Dallas to the Holland Coffee Trading Post on Red River (later covered by Lake Texoma). Coffee developed the town of Preston near the trading post, and Cooke's military route became known as Preston Road between Red River and Dallas. Immigrants came from Missouri and Arkansas through Indian Territory (Oklahoma) into Texas … continued below
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And then there was Emerson.
Before the new town established by the Railway was called Frisco, however, it was called Emerson. The owner of the land where the town was located, Francis Emerson, promised to establish a bank in the town if the town was named after him. The bank was never established, and when the town of Emerson applied for a post office, the application was refused based on the grounds that Texas already had a town in Lamar County called "Emberson." So the residents chose "Frisco City" as the town's name (after the railroad) and then shortened it to Frisco. This name, the Post Office Department approved.
Creepiest abandoned town in Illinois
What other abandoned places are there in Illinois?
There are several fascinating abandoned places in Illinois. For a creepy adventure, visit Ashmore Estates. This old building operated as an asylum from 1959 – 1986. It’s been left to decay ever since. Today, paranormal enthusiasts flock to this dilapidated structure in search of ghosts. Rumor has it, this place is full of them. If you loved this eerie place, then you’ll definitely want to visit Illinois Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Children’s School. This empty building is located in Normal, Illinois, and some say it’s full of otherworldly spirits.
Are there any hiking trails to abandoned places in Illinois?
There’s a trail inside the Shawnee National Forest that leads to one of the most incredible abandoned places in Illinois. After a quick walk, you’ll soon reach the remains of a Native American village. From 1350 – 1550 AD, there were 26 homes tucked along this bluff. This breezy trail is less than a mile long, and it’s easily accessible for all skill levels. Bring the family along and experience a bit of history. To learn more about this hike, read our feature article here.
What ghost towns can you find in Illinois?
There are so many amazing ghost towns in Illinois. If you’re looking to get out and explore, visit the town of Buda. This area only has about 500 residents, but it feels completely empty. Many of the buildings are boarded up, and the streets are often totally silent. The town of Cairo has a similar story. Though not completely abandoned, this tiny town feels isolated and empty. This place thrived in the 1920s and ‘30s, but it eventually fell victim to the Great Depression. Today, nearly 2800 people live here. Have you visited any of these “living” ghost towns?
Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]
What was the result of the peace negotiations in Geneva that followed the French defeat in Vietnam?
At the peace negotiations in Geneva that followed the French defeat in Vietnam the Vietnamese were forced to accept the division of the country into North and South Vietnam.
Name the writer who wrote a play based on the lives of Trung sisters.
Phan Boi Chau wrote a play based on the lives of the Trung sisters in 1913.
What were the two bases of colonial economy in Vietnam?
The two bases of coldriial economy in Vietnam were rice cultivation and rubber plantation.
Who were called colons in Vietnam?
French people living in Vietnam were called colons.
What was main aim of the Scholar’s Revolt of 1868?
The main aim of the Scholar’s Revolt of 1868 was to oppose the spread of Catholicism and to uproot French power.
Name the writer who wrote a play based on the lives of the TVung sisters.
Refer to answer 2
What was the main aim to establish Tonkin Free School in Vietnam by French?
The Tonkin Froe School was started in 1907 to provide western-style education. The school encouraged the adoption of western styles.
Name the writer who wrote the book The History of the Loss of Vietnam.
Phan Boi Chau wrote the book The History of the Loss of Vietnam.
Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]
How did nationalism emerge in Vietnam through the efforts of different sections of society to fight against the French? Analyse.
Nationalism in Vietnam emerged through the efforts of different sections of the society in the following ways.
- Many religious movements from the 18th century were hostile to western presence. An early movement against French control and spread of Christianity was the Scholars Revolt of 1868, led by the officials of the imperial court.
- In the late 19th century, the resistance to French domination was led by Chu Trinh (1867-1940), an eminent nationalist. He was the major figure in anti-colonial resistance and formed the Revolutionary Society (Duy Tan Hoi). Another revolutionary was Phan Chu Trinh, who was hostile to monarchy and opposed the idea of resisting the French with the help of the court. His desire was to establish a democratic republic.
- ‘Go East Movement’ became popular in the early 20th century. The main objective was to overthrow the puppet emperor and re-establish the Nguyen dynasty, that had been deposed by the French. These nationalists wanted foreign help and arms and appealed to the Japanese as fellow Asians. Developments in China inspired the Vietnamese. China became a republic in 1911. Inspired by these, the Vietnamese students organised the Association for the Restoration of Vietnam.
‘The Ho Chi Minh Trail became advantageous to Vietnamese in the war against the US.’ Support the statement with arguments.
The Ho Chi Minh Trail was a usual way in which the Vietnamese, with limited resources, fought the war against the US, who had the advantage of advanced technology.
- The Vietnamese Trail was an immense network of footpaths and roads which moved through Laos and Cambodia, i.e. from north to south. Most part of the trail was outside Vietnam, neighbouring Laos and Cambodia with branch lines extending to South Vietnam.
- There were support bases and hospitals along the trail for soldiers to get rest and medical services.
- Along the trail, supplies were transported in trucks and in some parts porters, mainly women, carried the cargo on their backs or on bicycles. The US regularly bombed this trail to disrupt supplies but the damage was repaired very quickly.
‘French tried to solve educational problems in Vietnam in different ways.’ Support the statement.
The French tried to solve the educational problems in Vietnam in different ways.
- The French systematically dismantled the traditional educational system and established French schools, glorifying themselves and justifying their colonial rule. However, not all teachers and students blindly follow the new curriculum and sometimes even resisted them.
- The French needed an educated labour force but they feared that education would create a problem. Once educated, the Vietnamese would question colonial domination and French citizens in Vietnam might lose their jobs.
- French opened schools like Tonkin Free School to spread western-style education. Subjects included science, hygiene and French and the schools encouraged western style such as short haircuts.Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]
‘US entry into the war in Vietnam marked a new phase that proved costly to Vietnam as well as to the Americans.’ Analyse the statement.
US entry into the war in Vietnam marked a new phase that proved costly to Vietnam as well as to the Americans. The statement can be analysed giving the following reasons.
- From 1965 to 1972, over 3,403,100 United States services personnel served ‘ in Vietnam. Even though United States had the advanced technology and medical supplies, casualties were very high. About 47,244 died in battle and many were listed as disabled.
- Thousands of United States troops arrived with heavy weapons and tanks, and backed by powerful bombers—B52s. The widespread use of chemical weapons—Napalm, Agent Orange and phosphorous bombs—destroyed many villages and jungles. Civilians died in large numbers.
- The effect of the war was felt within the United States as well. Many were against the war and critical of the government for getting involved in the war, which was indefensible.
- The anger spread in the United States, when youth were recruited for the war. Compulsory service in the armed forces could be waived for university graduates. It meant that those Americans, who were sent to-fight the war, did not belong to the privileged elite but were minorities and children of working-class families.
- The United States media and films played a major role in criticising the war. John Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now showed the moral confusion that the war had caused in the United States.
‘The peace negotiations in Geneva followed the division of Vietnam that set inmotion a series of events that turned Vietnam into a battlefield.’ Analyse the statement with arguments.
The peace negotiations in Geneva followed the division of Vietnam that set in motion a series of events that turned Vietnam into a Battlefield. This statement can be analysed giving the following arguments.
- At the Geneva convention held in 1954, after the defeat of France, Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of Vietnam into North and South Vietnam. This division gave birth to a series of events that turned Vietnam into a battlefield of death and destruction.
- North Vietnam was led by Ho Chi Minh and the communists whereas South Vietnam was under Bao Dai, who Was later overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Dinh Diem.
- Diem built a repressive and authoritarian government. Anyone opposing the regime was called a communist and was put into jail and killed.
- Diem retained a French law, Ordinance 10, that permitted Christianity but outlawed Buddhism. His dictatorial rule was opposed and the people united under the banner of National Liberation Front (NLF).
- With the support of Ho Chi Minh’s government, the NLF fought for the unification of the country. The US government feared the alliance. It was worried about the communist gaining power, decided to intervene, sending in troops and arms.
‘Women were represented as warriors as well as workers in Vietnam in the 1960s.’ Analyse the statement with examples.
Women played an important role in Vietnam, as warriors as well as workers in the 1960s, during their struggle against the US.
- During the anti-imperialist struggle against the US, women, whether young or old, played an important role. They were brave fighters. They formed women militia and shot down fighter planes.
- Stories have shown women as dedicated workers. They had rifle in one hand and hammer in the other. Nguyen Thi Xuan was reported to have shot down a jet with just 20 bullets.
- Besides being warriors, women managed other works also. They helped in nursing the wounded, constructing underground rooms and tunnels and fighting the enemy.
- The women volunteers protected 2195 km long Ho Chin Minh Hail and guarded 2500 key points.
- They built six airstrips, neutralised tens of thousands of bombs, transported cargo, weapons and food and shot down fifteen planes. There were about 1.5 million women in regular army, the militia, local forces and professional teams
Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]
How was the maritime silk route useful for Vietnam?
The maritime silk route was useful for Vietnam as it brought in goods, people and new ideas.
What is the meaning of concentration camps?
Concentration camps were the prisons where people were detained without due process of law. In these camps, prisoners were tortured and given brutal treatment.
Why were Nghe An and Ha Tinh provinces called the electrical fuses of Vietnam?
These two provinces were called the electrical fuses of Vietnam because besides being the poorest, these provinces were the first to blow, when the system was under pressure.
Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]
Describe the major protest that erupted in Saigon Native Girls School in 1926, in Vietnam.
In 1926, in the Saigon Native Girls School, a Vietnamese girl, sitting in one of the front seats, was asked to move to the back seat of the class and give her front seat to a local French student.
The Vietnamese girl refused to do so. The French principal expelled the Vietnamese girl and the other students who supported this. This led to a protest by other Vietnamese students who were angry at the discrimination. The widespread protests compelled school authorities to take back all students to the school.
How did Paul Bernard argue in favour of economic development of Vietnam? Explain.
Paul Bernard, an influential writer and policy-maker argued in favour of economic development of Vietnam in the following ways. According to him:
- The economy of the colonies needed to be developed. The purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits.
- If the economy of the colony was developed and the standard of living of the people improved, they would buy more goods leading to more profits. the market would expand leading to better profit for French business
How was the eduction policy unfavourable to the Vietnamese students during the colonial period? Explain.
During the colonial period, educational policy was unfavourable to Vietnamese students in the following ways.
- The Tonkin Free School was started in 1907 to provide western style education including science, hygiene and French. It encouraged western styles like having short haircuts. It was against Vietnamese culture as they traditionally kept long hair.
- School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule that was unacceptable to the Vietnamese.
- The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward and capable only of manual labour.
Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]
Describe the major problems in the field of education for the French in Vietnam.
The following were the main problems in the field of education for the French in Vietnam.
- The main problem was to decide how far should the Vietnamese be educated because the French, living in Vietnam, were scared that they might lose their jobs to the educated Vietnamese.
- The elites in Vietnam were greatly influenced by Chinese culture. To consolidate their power, the French had to counter the Chinese influence. So they systematically dismantled traditional system and established a French school for the Vietnamese.
- The main problem for the French was thus to come out with a strategy to replace Chinese, the language used by elite, by another language acceptable to the Vietnamese.
- There were two broad opinions. While one group emphasised the need to use the French language, the other group suggested that Vietnamese should be taught in lower classes and the French in higher classes.
- The first group felt that by learning French the Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilization of France and would be solidly tied to European France. The Vietnamese educated in French would respect French sentiments and ideals and realise the superiority of French culture and work for the French.
Describe the ‘Rat Hunt’ activity introduced by the French in Vietnam.
- In 1903, the modern part of Hanoi was struck by bubonic plague caused and spread by rats.
- The large sewers in the modern part of Hanoi became the breeding ground for the rats and also acted as a great transport system allowing the rats to move freely and enter well-cared-for homes through drains.
- To stem the invasion of rats, the French in 1902 hired Vietnamese workers and paid them for each rat they caught.
- Rats began to be caught in thousands but there was no end to rat invasions. The Vietnamese now started a collective bargaining. Those who did the dirty job of entering sewers, realised that if they came together they could negotiate higher bounty. They discovered innovative ways for making profit. Since they were paid when they gave the tail of a rat as a proof they started dipping the tail of the rats and releasing them, so that the process could be repeated over and over again. Defeated by the resistance, the French were forced to scrap the rat hunt programme.
Describe the Scholar’s Rovolt of 1868 against the spread of Christianity in Vietnam.
The following points describe the Scholar’s Revolt of 1868 against the spread of Christianity in Vietnam.
- The Scholar’s Revolt was organised by the Vietnamese in 1868 against the French control and the spread of Christianity.
- It was led by officials at the imperial court who were against the spread of Catholicism by the French.
- They led a general uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces where many Cathloics were killed.
- The French crushed the movement.
- However the uprising served to inspire other patriots to rise up against the French.
Describe any five steps taken by the French for the development of Mekong Delta Region.
The following were the five steps taken by the French for the development of Mekong Delta Region.
- The French built canals and draining lands to increase cultivation. The vast system of irrigation increased rice production and allowed the export of rice to international market. Eventually Vietnam became the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
- The French organised various infrastructure projects to help to transport goods for trade.
- They moved military garrisons to control the entire region.
- Trans-Indo-China rail network was constructed to link the northern and southern parts of Vietnam and China.
- They pressurised the government in Vietnam to develop the infrastructure further.
‘The role of women varied in the anti-imperialist movement in Vietnam.’ Examine the statement.
Refer to answer 14
Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]
Why did major protest erupt in 1926 in the Saigon Native Girls School in Vietnam? Explain.
Refer to answer 18
How did the students in Vietnam fight against colonial government efforts to prevent Vietnamese from qualifying for ‘white-collar jobs’? Explain.
The students in Vietnam fight against colonial government efforts to prevent Vietnamese from qualifying for ‘white-collar jobs’ as the
- students all over Vietnam protested and resisted French efforts to prevent Svhite-collar’ jobs to the Vietnamese. They were inspired by patriotic feelings among educated students, who were convinced that is was their duty to fight for the benefit of the people.
- the Vietnamese elite and French saw that their position was threatened by the new educated Vietnamese students.
- Vietnamese students, by 1920, were forming political parties such as Party of Young Annan and publishing nationalist journals such as Annanese student.
Explain the ideas of Phan Chu Trinh to establish a democratic republic in Vietnam
The following were the ideas of Phan Chu Trinh to establish a democratic republic in Vietnam.
- He was intensely hostile to the idea of monarchy and opposed to the idea of taking help from the court to resist the French.
- He was profoundly influenced by the democratic ideals of the West and did not want a complete rejection of Western Civilisation.
- He accepted the ideal of liberty and demanded that the French should establish legal and educational institutions and develop agriculture and industries.
Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]
‘The measures taken by the French to control the spread of bubonic plague in Hanoi created a serious problem.’ Explain the statement.
The measures taken by the French to control the spread of bubonic plague in Hanoi created a serious problem. This statement can be explained in the following ways.
- To prevent the rat invasion, a rat hunt was started in 1902. Vietnamese workers were employed by the French and paid them for each rat killed.
- Since thousands of rats were to be caught, the situation went out of hand.
- Those who entered the sewers, found if they came together, they would get a higher bounty. The bounty was given when the tail was shown as a proof, that the rat has been killed.
- The rat-catchers clipped the tail of the rat and released it. The process could be repeated. Some people even started raising rats to get a bounty.
- Ultimately the French had to cancel the bounty programme. Rat hunt had created a serious problem. The bubonic plague swept through the area in 1903 and in subsequent years.
Explain with examples how religious groups played an important role in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam.
Religious groups played an important role in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam.
- Scholars Revolt: An early movement against the spread of Christianity and French control was the Scholar’s Revolt in 1868. It was led by the officials of the imperial court who were angered by the spread of Catholicism and French power. They led a general uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces where over a thousand Catholics were killed. Vietnamese organisers of this movement were angry because from 17th to 18th century, nearly 3,00,000 Vietnamese were converted to Christianity by the French. Although the French crushed the movement, it had great impact on the Vietnamese.
- Hoa Hao Movement: The movement began in 1939 in the fertile Mekong delta and gained a lot of popularity. This movement used popular religious ideas in the anti-French uprisings of the 19th century. Hoa Hao Movement was started by Huynh Phu So. He performed miracles and helped the poor. He was opposed to the sale of child brides, gambling, use of alcohol and opium. The French tried to suppress the movement.Movements like this always have a contradictory relationship with mainstream nationalism. Political parties took their support but disliked their activities. Yet they helped in arousing anti-imperialist sentiments.
Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]
‘Women were represented not only as warriors but also as workers in Vietnam.’Support the statement with examples.
Refer to answer 14
Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]
Explain any three steps taken by the French to develop cultivation in Mekong delta.
Refer to answer 24
Explain the contribution of Ho Chi Minh in the freedom movement of Vietnam.
The following points sum up the contribution of Ho Chi Minh in the freedom movement of Vietnam.
- Ho Chi Minh was the leaders of the Vietnamese struggle for independence and unification. He brought together the nationalist groups and established the Vietnamese Communist Party.
- In 1940, Japan occupied Vietnam. So nationalists had to fight the Japanese as well as the French. The League for the Independence of Vietnam, which came to be known as Vietminh fought the Japanese occupation and recaptured Hanoi. Ho Chin Minh became the Chairman of Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945. He led the Communist Party.
- After the US intervention in Vietnam, he supported NLF (National Liberation Front) with resources and army against the US. He died in 1969, a few years before the unification of Vietnam.
Explain the views of Phan Chu Trinh as a nationalist.
Refer to answer 28
Why was the ‘Tonkin School’ started in Vietnam? Explain any three reasons.
The Tonkin Free School was started in Vietnam in 1907 because of the following reasons.
- The Vietnamese elite were strongly influenced by Chinese culture. In order to counter this it was necessary to have western influence on the people and this was done through Tonkin Free Schools. It was to provide western- style education.
- The school encouraged the adoption of western style. For example, having short-hair.
- The approach of the school was to make students think modern and look ‘modern’.
How were women shown as warriors in Vietnam? Explain with three example.
Refer to answer 14
Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]
How were Vietnamese nationalists inspired by Japan and China to set up a democratic republic? Explain with examples.
Vietnamese nationalists had a close relationship with Japan and China. They were inspired by these two countries in the following ways.
- Japan had modernised itself and had resisted colonisation by the West.
- Japan’s victory over Russia in 1907 proved its military capabilities.
- Developments in China also inspired Vietnamese nationalists. China overthrew the long established monarchy in 1911 and set up a republic.
- Inspired by these developments, Vietnam students organised the Association for the Restoration of Vietnam.
- Now, the nature of the anti-French independence movement changed from setting up a constitutional monarchy to setting up a democratic republic.
Describe any five features of the ‘go east movement’.
The main features of the go east movement were as following.
- The ‘go east movement’ became popular in the first decade of the 20th century. In 1907-1908, about 300 Vietnamese students went to Japan to acquire modern education.
- The primary objective for many of them was to acquire means and formulate plans to drive away the French from Vietnam, to overthrow the puppet emperor and establish Nguyen dynasty that had been overthrow by the French.
- The nationalists looked for foreign help. They appeared to Japan as fellow Asians. Japan had successfully resisted the foreigners, modernised herself and defeated Russia in 1907.
- Vietnamese students established a branch of the Restoration Society in Tokyo.
- Japanese Ministry clamped down on them and deported them to China or Thailand.
How did the entry of United States into the war in Vietnam Provo costly to the Vietnamese as well as to the Americans? Explain.
Refer to answer 12
Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]
Describe infrastructural projects which were developed bythe French conlonisers in Vietnam.
The infrastructural projects which were developed by the French colonisers in Vietnam were as follows.
- Construction of trans-Indo-China rail network that linked the northern and southern parts of Vietnam and China.
- The final link with Yunan in China was completed by 1910.
- The second link connected Vietnam to Siam (previously, Thailand) through the Cambodian capital Phnom Penh.These projects helped in the movements of goods for trade and move military garrisons.
Describe any three steps taken by the French to develop agriculture in Vietnam.
Steps taken by the French to develop agriculture in Vietnam were:
- The French began building canals and draining land in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.
- The vast system of irrigation works—canals and earthworks—built mainly with forced labour increased rice production.
- This was followed by infrastructure projects, like trans-Indo-China rail network, to help to transport of goods.
Describe any three steps taken by the French of suppress the movement inspired by Huynh Phu So.
The movement started by Huynh Phu So was the Hoa Hao movement. The French tried to suppress the movement started by Huynh Phu So in the following ways.
- The French declared him mad, called him the Mad Bonze.
- He was put in a mental asylum.
- The French authorities exiled him to Laos and sent many of his followers to concentration camps
Long Answer Type Questions [45 Marks]
‘The division of Vietnam set in motion a series of events that turned the country into a battlefield.’ Support the statement.
Refer to answer 13
What were the two major problems before the French in the Held of colonial education in Vietnam? How did they try to solve these problems? Explain.
Refer to answer 21
How did Japan and China inspired Vietnamese Nationalists to drive out the French from Vietnam? Explain.
Refer to answer 37
Short Answer Type Questions 13 Marks]
Explain the views of Paul Bernard regarding the economy of Vietnam.
Refer to answer 19
Describe the ‘rat hunt scheme’ ordered by the French in Hanoi.
Refer to answer 22
Explain the reactions within United States to its involvement in the Vietnam War during the 1960s.
National Liberation Front fought for the unification of Vietnam with the help of Ho Chi Minh. The US saw this alliance as a decisive alliance and feared that the communists may gain power. It led the US to intervene decisively and sent its troops and arms to Vietnam. The war proved costly for both the US and Vietnam in terms of casualties and loss of money. The effect of this war was felt within the US as well. Many were critical of the government for getting unnecessarily involved in the war. Compulsory service in the armed forces sparked their sentiments further. It was felt that those belonging to the privileges elite classes were exempted from this provision but people belonging to the minorities and working class had to follow this. The US media and films supported and criticised the war. John Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now reflected the moral confusion that the war had created in the US.
Explain any three features of the “go east movement” in Vietnam.
Refer to answer 38
Explain any three characteristics of the ‘Tonkin Free School’ in Vietnam.
Refer to answer 35
Explain any three points how school textbooks in Vietnam glorified the French and justified colonial rule.
The textbooks introduced in schools glorified the French and justified the colonial rule in the following ways.
- Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward capable only of manual work and could not have any intellectual thought and that they could work only in field.
- Vietnamese were portrayed as incapable of ruling themselves and that the only French rule could ensure peace in Vietnam.
- They stated that the Vietnamese were not creative by themselves but were skilled copyists.
- Books taught that since the establishment of the French rule the Vietnamese peasants no longer lived in fear of pirates and that they have created calm situation so that the peasants could ‘work with a good heart’. (any three)
Explain the role of women as warriors in Vietnam during the 1960s.
Refer to answer 14
Explain any three factors that led to the outbreak of bubonic plague in the modern part of Hanoi in 1903.
The factors that led to the outbreak of bubonic plague in the modern part of Hanoi in 1903 were as follows.
- The latest ideas of architecture and engineer were used to build a new modern city in the French-occupied region of Hanoi with wide avenues and well laid-out sewer system whilst the native region became the dumping ground and refused from the city drained into rivers which during rainy
. season overflowed into the street.
- The large sewer became an ideal breeding grounds for rats and also served as a wonderful transport system for them. The rat enter into the well- cared-for homes of the French through the sewage pipes.
- In order to overcome to the rat menace a rat hunt scheme was devised by the colonizers who paid to the natives to get rid of the rats. However, the natives took advantages of the scheme and did not kill the rats but just clipped their tails so that the process could be repeated.
- Some natives began raising rats in their homes so the numbers of rats
actually increased instead of decreasing.
Explain any three developments in Japan and China that inspired Vietnamese nationalists.
Refer to answer 37
Explain three features of the ‘Ngo Dinh Diem’ regime.
Ngo Dinh Diem acquired power from Bao Dai after a coup. The following were the features of his regime.
- He built a repressive and authoritarian government.
- Anyone opposed him was called a communist and was jailed and killed.
- Christianity was permitted and Buddhism was outlawed.
Long Answer Type Question [45 Marks]
Explain any four ways in which teachers and students organised resistance against the French in Vietnam.
The teachers and students organised resistance against the French in Vietnam in the following ways.
- They began to oppose the curriculum either openly or in silent.
- Teachers modified and criticised the texts.
- Students protested against the colonial government in context of providing white-collar jobs only to French.
- Students formed various political parties such as Party of Young Annan and also published nationalist journals.
- Schools became a hub of political ideas and revolutions.
Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]
When did Vietnam gain formal independence?
Vietnam gained formal independence in September 1945. However it was only after three decades of fighting with France and US when it gained true independence.
Mention any two major barriers to economic growth in Vietnam.
The two major barriers to economic growth in Vietnam were as follows.
- High population levels
- Low agricultural productivity
- Extensive indebtedness among the peasants
In which area of Vietnam was Hoa Hao movement more popular?
The Hoa Hao movement was more popular in the fertile Mekong delta area.
Where was the rat hunting started in Vietnam?
Rat hunting was started in Vietnam in Hanoi.
Name the founder of the Hoa Hao Movement.
The founder of the Hoa Hao Movement was Huynh Phu So.
Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]
Why was conflict started in Vietnam against French colonizers in all areas of life? Explain.
The conflict started in Vietnam against the French colonizers in all areas of life due to the following reasons
- The French, in order to civilise the natives, introduced modern education and dismantled the traditional education system in Vietnam. They followed the policy of discrimination against the Vietnamese students and deliberately failed the Vietnamese students so that they cannot qualify for top jobs.
- Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mixture of Buddhism and Confucianism. French introduced Christianity against their interest which resulted inj the Hoa Hao Movement by the Vietnamese in 1939.
- The French textbooks too glorified French rule and ridiculed Vietnamese culture.
- French tried to create modern Vietnam with modern architecture and engineering skills to build a modern city in Hanoi but the native quarter was deprived off modern facilities.
What was the main motive of the French to develop the infrastructural projects in Vietnam? Explain how far did they succeed in their mission?
The main motive of the French in the development of infrastructural projects in Vietnam was as follows.
- To ensure the regular supply of natural resources and other necessary goods, . the French colonists took up various infrastructural development projects to make more profit.
- They began by building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation. The vast system of irrigation work—canals and earthworks—built mainly with forced labour increased rice production and enabled the export of rice in international market.
- To facilitate trade, various projects were started to transport goods for trade, to move military garrisons and control the entire region.
- Construction of trans-Indo-China rail network that linked northern Vietnam with southern Vietnam and China was completed by 1910.
- Paul Bernard, an influential policy-maker argued that the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits which is possible if the standard of living of the people improved to enable them to buy goods so infrastructural development to develop the economy of the colonies was necessary.
‘The schools became an important place for political and cultural battles in Vietnam against French colonialism.’ Support the statement with examples.
The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education, change their values, norms and perceptions. The Vietnamese intellectuals feared that Vietnam may Ibse not just their territory but also their culture. The schools became an important place for political and cultural battles in Vietnam against French colonialism in the following ways.
- They wanted to use education as a power to motivate the students to resist against the colonial rule.
- Teachers and students did not follow the curriculum framed by the French. While teaching, Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text which was against Vietnam.
- The Vietnamese students faced discrimination. In the Saigon Native Girls School, a Vietnamese girl was asked to vacant the front seat for a French student, but she refused and was expelled. Angry students protested and they too were expelled. This moved the people for an open protest and the government forced the school to take the students back.
- Some students’ groups have formed various political parties such as Party of Young Annan. They began to highlight the misrule of the French and made the people aware of their culture.
- Many of the Vietnamese students also sought to go to Japan and sought help to overthrow the French rule from Vietnam.
Describe the ideas of Phan Chu Trinh regarding the establishment of Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
Refer to answer 28
Describe the role of women in the anti-imperialist movement in Vietnam.
Refer to answer 14