History of Volador I - History

History of Volador I - History

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Volador I

(Sch: t. 114; 1. 110'0"; b. 23'5"; dr. 12'3"; dph. 11'6"; s. 7 k.)

The first Volador-a wooden-hulled schooner with an auxiliary engine-was designed by William Gardiner and built in 1926 at Wilmington, Calif., by William Muller. The vessel was acquired for the Navy by the Port Director, San Pedro, Calif., from W. L. Valentine, on 2 February 1942. Delivered to the Section Base, San Pedro, on that day, Volador was classified as a miscellaneous auxiliary, unclassified IX-59, and was placed "in service" on 19 February 19i2.

In July of that year, she was temporarily transferred Homeported at San Pedro, Volador operated locally under the aegis of the 11th Naval District into 1943 to the Coast Guard for operational training duties for Coast Guard district personnel.

On 17 August 1943, Volador was delivered to the War Shipping Administration which transferred the schooner to the War Department for operation by the Army. Volador (IX-59) was struck from the Navy list on 3 September 1943.

History of Volador I - History

By Dorothy Schwieder, professor of history, Iowa State University

Marquette and Joliet Find Iowa Lush and Green

In the summer of 1673, French explorers Louis Joliet and Father Jacques Marquette traveled down the Mississippi River past the land that was to become the state of Iowa. The two explorers, along with their five crewmen, stepped ashore near where the Iowa river flowed into the Mississippi. It is believed that the 1673 voyage marked the first time that white people visited the region of Iowa. After surveying the surrounding area, the Frenchmen recorded in their journals that Iowa appeared lush, green, and fertile. For the next 300 years, thousands of white settlers would agree with these early visitors: Iowa was indeed lush and green moreover, its soil was highly productive. In fact, much of the history of the Hawkeye State is inseparably intertwined with its agricultural productivity. Iowa stands today as one of the leading agricultural states in the nation, a fact foreshadowed by the observation of the early French explorers.

Before 1673, however, the region had long been home to many Native Americans. Approximately 17 different Indian tribes had resided here at various times including the Ioway, Sauk, Mesquaki, Sioux, Potawatomi, Oto, and Missouri. The Potawatomi, Oto, and Missouri Indians had sold their land to the federal government by 1830 while the Sauk and Mesquaki remained in the Iowa region until 1845. The Santee Band of the Sioux was the last to negotiate a treaty with the federal government in 1851.

The Sauk and Mesquaki constituted the largest and most powerful tribes in the Upper Mississippi Valley. They had earlier moved from the Michigan region into Wisconsin and by the 1730s, they had relocated in western Illinois. There they established their villages along the Rock and Mississippi Rivers. They lived in their main villages only for a few months each year. At other times, they traveled throughout western Illinois and eastern Iowa hunting, fishing, and gathering food and materials with which to make domestic articles. Every spring, the two tribes traveled northward into Minnesota where they tapped maple trees and made syrup.

In 1829, the federal government informed the two tribes that they must leave their villages in western Illinois and move across the Mississippi River into the Iowa region. The federal government claimed ownership of the Illinois land as a result of the Treaty of 1804. The move was made but not without violence. Chief Black hawk, a highly-respected Sauk leader, protested the move and in 1832 returned to reclaim the Illinois village of Saukenauk. For the next three months, the Illinois militia pursued Black Hawk and his band of approximately 400 Indians northward along the eastern side of the Mississippi River. The Indians surrendered at the Bad Axe River in Wisconsin, their numbers having dwindled to about 200. This encounter is known as the Black Hawk War. As punishment for their resistance, the federal government required the Sauk and Mesquaki to relinquish some of their land in eastern Iowa. This land, known as the Black Hawk Purchase, constituted a strip 50 miles wide lying along the Mississippi River, stretching from the Missouri border to approximately Fayette and Clayton Counties in Northeastern Iowa.

Today, Iowa is still home to one Indian group, the Mesquaki, who reside on the Mesquaki Settlement in Tama County. After most Sauk and Mesquaki members had been removed from the state, some Mesquaki tribal members, along with a few Sauk, returned to hunt and fish in eastern Iowa. The Indians then approached Governor James Grimes with the request that they be allowed to purchase back some of their original land. They collected $735 for their first land purchase and eventually they bought back approximately 3,200 acres.

Iowa's First White Settlers

The first official white settlement in Iowa began in June 1833, in the Black Hawk Purchase. Most of Iowa's first white settlers came from Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Indiana, Kentucky, and Virginia. The great majority of newcomers came in family units. Most families had resided in at least one additional state between the time they left their state of birth and the time they arrived in Iowa. Sometimes families had relocated three or four times before they reached Iowa. At the same time, not all settlers remained here many soon moved on to the Dakotas or other areas in the Great Plains.

Iowa's earliest white settlers soon discovered an environment different from that which they had known back East. Most northeastern and southeastern states were heavily timbered settlers there had material for building homes, outbuildings, and fences. Moreover, wood also provided ample fuel. Once past the extreme eastern portion of Iowa, settlers quickly discovered that the state was primarily a prairie or tall grass region. Trees grew abundantly in the extreme eastern and southeastern portions, and along rivers and streams, but elsewhere timber was limited.

In most portions of eastern and central Iowa, settlers could find sufficient timber for construction of log cabins, but substitute materials had to be found for fuel and fencing. For fuel, they turned to dried prairie hay, corn cobs, and dried animal droppings. In southern Iowa, early settlers found coal outcroppings along rivers and streams. People moving into northwest Iowa, an area also devoid of trees, constructed sod houses. Some of the early sod house residents wrote in glowing terms about their new quarters, insisting that "soddies" were not only cheap to build but were warm in the winter and cool in the summer. Settlers experimented endlessly with substitute fencing materials. Some residents built stone fences some constructed dirt ridges others dug ditches. The most successful fencing material was the osage orange hedge until the 1870s when the invention of barbed wire provided farmers with satisfactory fencing material.

Early settlers recognized other disadvantages of prairie living. Many people complained that the prairie looked bleak and desolate. One woman, newly arrived from New York State, told her husband that she thought she would die without any trees. Emigrants from Europe, particularly the Scandinavian countries, reacted in similar fashion. These newcomers also discovered that the prairies held another disadvantage - one that could be deadly. Prairie fires were common in the tall grass country, often occurring yearly. Diaries of pioneer families provide dramatic accounts of the reactions of early Iowans to prairie fires, often a mixture of fear and awe. When a prairie fire approached, all family members were called out to help keep the flames away. One nineteenth century Iowan wrote that in the fall, people slept "with one eye open" until the first snow fell, indicating that the threat of fire had passed.

Pioneer families faced additional hardships in their early years in Iowa. Constructing a farmstead was hard work in itself. Families not only had to build their homes, but often they had to construct the furniture used. Newcomers were often lonely for friends and relatives. Pioneers frequently contracted communicable diseases such as scarlet fever. Fever and ague, which consisted of alternating fevers and chills, was a constant complaint. Later generations would learn that fever and ague was a form of malaria, but pioneers thought that it was caused by gas emitted from the newly turned sod. Moreover, pioneers had few ways to relieve even common colds or toothaches.

Early life on the Iowa prairie was sometimes made more difficult by the death of family members. Some pioneer women wrote of the heartache caused by the death of a child. One women, Kitturah Belknap, had lost one baby to lung fever. When a second child died, she confided in her diary:

"I have had to pass thru another season of sorrow. Death has again entered our home. This time it claimed our dear little John for its victim. It was hard for me to give him up but dropsy on the brain ended its work in four short days. We are left again with one baby and I feel that my health is giving way."

But for the pioneers who remained on the land 1, and most did, the rewards were substantial. These early settlers soon discovered that prairie land, although requiring some adjustments, was some of the richest land to be found anywhere in the world. Moreover, by the late 1860s, most of the state had been settled and the isolation and loneliness associated with pioneer living had quickly vanished.

Transportation: Railroad Fever

As thousands of settlers poured into Iowa in the mid-1800s, all shared a common concern for the development of adequate transportation. The earliest settlers shipped their agricultural goods down the Mississippi River to New Orleans, but by the 1850s, Iowans had caught the nation's railroad fever. The nation's first railroad had been built near Baltimore in 1831, and by 1860, Chicago was served by almost a dozen lines. Iowans, like other Midwesterners, were anxious to start railroad building in their state.

In the early 1850s, city officials in the river communities of Dubuque, Clinton, Davenport, and Burlington began to organize local railroad companies. City officials knew that railroads building west from Chicago would soon reach the Mississippi River opposite the four Iowa cities. With the 1850s, railroad planning took place which eventually resulted in the development of the Illinois Central, the Chicago and North Western, reaching Council Bluffs in 1867. Council Bluffs had been designated as the eastern terminus for the Union Pacific, the railroad that would eventually extend across the western half of the nation and along with the Central Pacific, provide the nation's first transcontinental railroad. A short time later a fifth railroad, the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Pacific, also completed its line across the state.

The completion of five railroads across Iowa brought major economic changes. Of primary importance, Iowans could travel every month of the year. During the latter ninetieth and early twentieth centuries, even small Iowa towns had six passenger trains a day. Steamboats and stagecoaches had previously provided transportation, but both were highly dependent on the weather, and steam boats could not travel at all once the rivers had frozen over. Railroads also provided year-round transportation for Iowa's farmers. With Chicago's pre-eminence as a railroad center, the corn, wheat, beef, and pork raised by Iowa's farmers could be shipped through Chicago, across the nation to eastern seaports, and from there, anywhere in the world.

Railroads also brought major changes in Iowa's industrial sector. Before 1870, Iowa contained some manufacturing firms in the eastern portion of the state, particularly all made possible by year-around railroad transportation. Many of the new industries were related to agriculture. In Cedar Rapid, John and Robert Stuart, along with their cousin, George Douglas, started an oats processing plant. In time, this firm took the name Quaker Oats. Meat packing plants also appeared in the 1870s in different parts of the state: Sinclair Meat Packing opened in Cedar Rapids and John Morrell and Company set up operations in Ottumwa.

As Iowa's population and economy continued to grow, education and religious institutions also began to take shape. Americans had long considered education important and Iowans did not deviate from that belief. Early in any neighborhood, residents began to organize schools. The first step was to set up township elementary schools, aided financially by the sale or lease of section 16 in each of the state's many townships. The first high school was established in the 1850s, but in general, high schools did not become widespread until after 1900. Private and public colleges also soon appeared. By 1900, the Congregationalists had established Grinnell College. The Catholics and Methodists were most visible in private higher education, however. As of 1900, they had each created five colleges: Iowa Wesleyan, Simpson, Cornell, Morningside, and Upper Iowa University by the Methodists and Marycrest, St. Ambrose, Briar Cliff, Loras, and Clarke by the Catholics. Other church colleges present in Iowa by 1900 were Coe and Dubuque (Presbyterian) Wartburg and Luther (Lutheran) Central (Baptist) and Drake (Disciples of Christ).

The establishment of private colleges coincided with the establishment of state educational institutions. In the mid-1800s, state officials organized three state institutions of higher learning, each with a different mission. The University of Iowa, established in 1855, was to provide classical and professional education for Iowa's young people Iowa State College of Science and Technology (now Iowa State University), established in 1858 was to offer agricultural and technical training. Iowa State Teachers' College (now University of Northern Iowa), founded in 1876 was to train teachers for the state's public schools.

Iowans were also quick to organize churches. Beginning in the 1840s, the Methodist Church sent out circuit riders to travel throughout the settled portion of the state. Each circuit rider typically had a two-week circuit in which he visited individual families and conducted sermons for local Methodist congregations. Because the circuit riders' sermons tended to be emotional and simply stated, Iowa's frontiers-people could readily identify with them. The Methodists profited greatly from their "floating ministry," attracting hundreds of converts in Iowa's early years. As more settled communities appeared, the Methodist Church assigned ministers to these stationary charges.

Catholics also moved into Iowa soon after white settlement began. Dubuque served as the center for Iowa Catholicism as Catholics established their first diocese in that city. The leading Catholic figure was Bishop Mathias Loras, a Frenchman, who came to Dubuque in the late 1830s. Bishop Loras helped establish Catholic churches in the area and worked hard to attract priests and nuns from foreign countries. Before the Civil War, most of Iowa's Catholic clergy were from France, Ireland, and Germany. After the Civil War, more and more of that group tended to be native-born. Bishop Loras also helped establish two Catholic educational institutions in Dubuque, Clarke College and Loras College.

Congregationalists were the third group to play an important role in Iowa before the Civil War. The first group of Congregationalist ministers here were known as the Iowa Band. This was a group of 11 ministers, all trained at Andover Theological Seminary, who agreed to carry the gospel into a frontier region. The group arrived in 1843, and each minister selected a different town in which to establish a congregation. The Iowa Band's motto was "each a church all a college." After a number of years when each minister worked independently, the ministers collectively helped to establish Iowa College in Davenport. Later church officials move the college to Grinnell and changed its name to Grinnell College. The letters and journal of William Salter, a member of the Iowa Band, depict the commitment and philosophy of this small group. At one point, Salter wrote the following to his fiancee back East:
"I shall aim to show that the West will be just what others make it, and that they which work the hardest and do the most for it shall have it. Prayer and pain will save the West and the Country is worth it. " 2

Throughout the nineteenth century, many other denominations also established churches within the state. Quakers established meeting houses in the communities of West Branch, Springdale, and Salem. Presbyterians were also well represented in Iowa communities. Baptists often followed the practice of hiring local farmers to preach on Sunday mornings. And as early as the 1840s, Mennonite Churches began to appear in eastern Iowa. The work of the different denominations meant that during the first three decades of settlement, Iowans had quickly established their basic religious institutions.

By 1860, Iowa had achieved statehood (December 28, 1846), and the state continued to attract many settlers, both native and foreign-born. Only the extreme northwestern part of the state remained a frontier area. But after almost 30 years of peaceful development, Iowans found their lives greatly altered with the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861. While Iowans had no battles fought on their soil, the state paid dearly through the contributions of its fighting men. Iowa males responded enthusiastically to the call for Union volunteers and more than 75,000 Iowa men served with distinction in campaigns fought in the East and in the South. Of that number, 13,001 died in the war, many of disease rather than from battle wounds. Some men died in the Confederate prison camps, particularly Andersonville, Georgia. A total of 8,500 Iowa men were wounded.

Many Iowans served with distinction in the Union Army. Probably the best known was Grenville Dodge, who became a general during the war. Dodge fulfilled two important functions: he supervised the rebuilding of many southern railroad lines to enable Union troops to move more quickly through the South and he directed the counter intelligence operation for the union Army, locating Northern sympathizers in the South who, in turn, would relay information on Southern troop movements and military plans to military men in the North.

Another Iowan, Cyrus Carpenter, was 31 years old when he entered the army in 1861. Living in Ft. Dodge, Carpenter requested a commission from the army rather than enlisting. He was given the rank of captain and was installed as quartermaster. Carpenter had never served in that capacity before, but with the aid of an army clerk, he proceeded to carry out his duties. Most of the time, Carpenter was responsible for feeding 40,000 men. Not only was it difficult to have sufficient food for the men, but Carpenter constantly had to keep his supplies and staff on the move. Carpenter found it an immensely frustrating task, but most of the time, he managed to have the food and other necessities at the right place at the right time.

Iowa women also served their nation during the war. Hundreds of women knitted sweaters, sewed uniforms, rolled bandages, and collected money for military supplies. Women formed soldiers' relief societies throughout the state. Annie Wittenmyer particularly distinguished herself through volunteer work. She spent much time during the war raising money and needed supplies for Iowa soldiers. At one point, Mrs. Wittenmyer visited her brother in a Union army hospital. She objected to the food served to the patients, contending that no one could get well on greasy bacon and cold coffee. She suggested to hospital authorities that they establish diet kitchens so that the patients would receive proper nutrition. Eventually, some diet kitchens were established in military hospitals. Mrs. Wittenmyer also was responsible for the establishment of several homes for soldiers' orphans.

The Civil War era brought considerable change to Iowa and perhaps one of the most visible changes came in the political arena. During the 1840's, most Iowans voted Democratic although the state also contained some Whigs. Iowa's first two United States Senators were Democrats as were most state officials. During the 1850s, however, the state's Democratic Party developed serious internal problems as well as being unsuccessful in getting the national Democratic Party to respond to their needs. Iowans soon turned to the newly emerging Republican Party the political career of James Grimes illustrates this change. In 1854, Iowans elected Grimes governor on the Whig ticket. Two years later, Iowans elected Grimes governor on the Republican ticket. Grimes would later serve as a Republican United States Senator from Iowa. Republicans took over state politics in the 1850s and quickly instigated several changes. They moved the state capital from Iowa City to Des Moines, they established the University of Iowa and they wrote a new state constitution. From the late 1850s until well into the twentieth century, Iowans remained strongly Republican. Iowans sent many highly capable Republicans to Washington, particularly William Boyd Allison of Dubuque, Jonathan P. Dolliver of Ft. Dodge, and Albert Baird Cummins of Des Moines. These men served their state and their nation with distinction.

Another political issue facing Iowans in the 1860s was the issue of women's suffrage. From the 1860s on, Iowa contained a large number of women, and some men, who strongly supported the measure and who worked endlessly for its adoption. In keeping with the general reform mood of the latter 1860s and 1870s, the issue first received serious consideration when both houses of the General Assembly passed a women's suffrage amendment in 1870. Two years later, however, when the legislature had to consider the amendment again before it could be submitted to the general electorate, interest had waned, opposition had developed, and the amendment was defeated.

For the next 47 years, Iowa women worked continually to secure passage of a women's suffrage amendment to Iowa's state constitution. During that time, the issue was considered in almost every session of the state legislature, but an amendment was offered (having passed both houses of the state legislature in two consecutive sessions) to the general electorate only once, in 1916. In that election, voters defeated the amendment by about 10,000 votes.

The arguments against women's suffrage ranged from the charge that women were not interested in the vote to the charge that women's suffrage would bring the downfall of the family and would cause delinquency in children. Regarding the defeat of the 1916 state referendum on the female vote, Iowa-born Carrie Chapman Catt, a leader for the women's suffrage cause, argued that the liquor interests in the state should accept responsibility as they had worked hard to defeat the measure. During the long campaign to secure the vote, however, the women themselves were not always in agreement as to the best approach to secure a victory. Catt herself led the final victorious assault in 1918 and 1919 in Washington with her "winning plan." This called for women to work for both state (state constitutions) and national (national constitution) amendments. Finally, in 1920, after both houses of the United States Congress passed the measure and it had been approved by the proper number of states, woman's suffrage became a reality for American women everywhere.

Iowa: Home for Immigrants
While Iowans were debating the issues of women's suffrage in the post Civil War period, the state itself was attracting many more people. Following the Civil War, Iowa's population continued to grow dramatically, from 674,913 people in 1860 to 1,194,020 in 1870. Moreover, the ethnic composition of Iowa's population also changed substantially. Before the Civil War, Iowa had attracted some foreign-born settlers, but the number remained small. After the Civil War, the number of immigrants increased. In 1869, the state encouraged immigration by printing a 96-page booklet entitled Iowa : The Home of Immigrants . The publication gave physical, social, educational, and political descriptions of Iowa. The legislature instructed that the booklet be published in English, German, Dutch, Swedish, and Danish.

Iowans were not alone in their efforts to attract more northern and western Europeans. Throughout the nation, Americans regarded these new comers as "good stock" and welcomed them enthusiastically. Most immigrants from these countries came in family units. Germans constituted the largest group, settling in every county within the state. The great majority became farmers, but many also became craftsmen and shopkeepers. Moreover, many German-Americans edited newspapers, taught school, and headed banking establishments. In Iowa, Germans exhibited the greatest diversity in occupations, religion, and geographical settlement.

The Marx Goettsch family of Davenport serves well as an example of German immigrants. At the time of his emigration in 1871, Goettsch was 24 years old, married and the father of a young son. During a two-year term in the German Army, Goettsch had learned the trade of shoemaking. Goettsch and his family chose to settle in Davenport, among Germans from the Schleswig-Holstein area. By working hard as a shoemaker, Goettsch managed not only to purchase a building for his home and shop, but also to purchased five additional town lots. Later, Goettsch had homes built on the lots which he rented out. He had then become both a small business man and a landlord.

During the next 25 years, Goettsch and his wife, Anna, raised six children and enjoyed considerable prosperity. For Marx and Anna, life in America, surrounded by fellow German-Americans, did not differ greatly from life in the old country. For their children, however, life was quite different. The lives of the Goettsch children - or the second generation - best illustrate the social and economic opportunities available to immigrants in the United States. If the family had remained in Germany, probably all five sons would have followed their father's occupation of shoemaker. In the United States, all five pursued higher education. Two sons received Ph.D.s, two sons received M.D.s, and one son became a professional engineer. With the third generation, education was also a crucial factor. Of seven grandchildren, all became professionals. Moreover, five of the seven were female. As the Goettsch experience indicates, opportunities abounded for immigrants settling in Iowa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The newcomers and their children could take up land, go into business, or pursue higher education. For most immigrants, these areas offered a better, more prosperous life than their parents had known in the old country.

Iowa also attracted many other people from Europe, including Swedes, Norwegians, Danes, Hollanders, and many emigrants from the British Isles as shown by the following table. After 1900, people also emigrated from southern and eastern Europe. In many instances, immigrant groups were identified with particular occupations. The Scandinavians, including Norwegians, who settled in Winneshiek and Story Counties Swedes, who settled in Boone County and Danes, who settled in southwestern Iowa were largely associated with farming. Many Swedes also became coal miners. The Hollanders made two major settlements in Iowa, the first in Marion County, and the second in northwest Iowa.

Proportionately far more southern and eastern immigrants, particularly Italians and Croatians, went into coal mining than did western and northern Europeans. Arriving in Iowa with little money and few skills, these groups gravitated toward work that required little or no training and provided them with immediate employment. In Iowa around the turn of the century, that work happened to be coal mining.

Thank you!

In cities, increasing urbanization rendered the night-watch system completely useless as communities got too big. The first publicly funded, organized police force with officers on duty full-time was created in Boston in 1838. Boston was a large shipping commercial center, and businesses had been hiring people to protect their property and safeguard the transport of goods from the port of Boston to other places, says Potter. These merchants came up with a way to save money by transferring to the cost of maintaining a police force to citizens by arguing that it was for the “collective good.”

In the South, however, the economics that drove the creation of police forces were centered not on the protection of shipping interests but on the preservation of the slavery system. Some of the primary policing institutions there were the slave patrols tasked with chasing down runaways and preventing slave revolts, Potter says the first formal slave patrol had been created in the Carolina colonies in 1704. During the Civil War, the military became the primary form of law enforcement in the South, but during Reconstruction, many local sheriffs functioned in a way analogous to the earlier slave patrols, enforcing segregation and the disenfranchisement of freed slaves.

In general, throughout the 19th century and beyond, the definition of public order &mdash that which the police officer was charged with maintaining &mdash depended whom was asked.

For example, businessmen in the late 19th century had both connections to politicians and an image of the kinds of people most likely to go on strike and disrupt their workforce. So it’s no coincidence that by the late 1880s, all major U.S. cities had police forces. Fears of labor-union organizers and of large waves of Catholic, Irish, Italian, German, and Eastern European immigrants, who looked and acted differently from the people who had dominated cities before, drove the call for the preservation of law and order, or at least the version of it promoted by dominant interests. For example, people who drank at taverns rather than at home were seen as “dangerous” people by others, but they might have pointed out other factors such as how living in a smaller home makes drinking in a tavern more appealing. (The irony of this logic, Potter points out, is that the businessmen who maintained this belief were often the ones who profited off of the commercial sale of alcohol in public places.)

At the same time, the late 19th century was the era of political machines, so police captains and sergeants for each precinct were often picked by the local political party ward leader, who often owned taverns or ran street gangs that intimidated voters. They then were able to use police to harass opponents of that particular political party, or provide payoffs for officers to turn a blind eye to allow illegal drinking, gambling and prostitution.

This situation was exacerbated during Prohibition, leading President Hoover to appoint the Wickersham Commission in 1929 to investigate the ineffectiveness of law enforcement nationwide. To make police independent from political party ward leaders, the map of police precincts was changed so that they would not correspond with political wards.

The drive to professionalize the police followed, which means that the concept of a career cop as we’d recognize it today is less than a century old.

Further campaigns for police professionalism were promoted as the 20th century progressed, but crime historian Samuel Walker’s The Police in America: An Introduction argues that the move toward professionalism wasn’t all good: that movement, he argues, promoted the creation of police departments that were “inward-looking” and “isolated from the public,” and crime-control tactics that ended up exacerbating tensions between police and the communities they watch over. And so, more than a half-century after Kennedy’s 1963 proclamation, the improvement and modernization of America’s surprisingly young police force continues to this day.

A version of this article also appears in the May 29 issue of TIME.

> CUBAN POPULAR PHRASES: “As a dollar flyer rocket” (Como Un Volador de a Peso). + FRASES POPULARES CUBANAS: “Como un Volador de a peso”.

‘As a dollar flyer rocket’. (Como un Volador de un Peso). A phrase coined by Cubans of old. Flying rockets light up the night and the minds of Cubans to create popular phrases.

Fireworks make their appearance in Europe, in Italy at the end of the quattrocento, as a typically craft activity, which can hardly be mechanized without losing some of its most outstanding virtues.

Florence seems to have been the center of this event, which saw a great boom during the sixteenth century, with fireworks displays frequently offered at civic or religious festivals and, above all, the day of St. Peter and St. Paul.

Pyrotechnics as we know it today is born with the discovery of black powder, and this is produced, according to Chinese documentation, in the 9th century AD, under the Thang dynasty, by one or more unknown alchemists.

The flying rocket is undoubtedly the oldest piece of aerial fire, witnessed in China as early as the twelfth century of our era, and the dimensions of the cartridge (without the cane or rudder) can vary from about 6 by 40 mm up to 25 by 200.

A Chinese monk named Li Tian is credited with the invention of fireworks.

It is said that when George Washington was sworn in as the first president of the United States on the faraway date of April 1789, all the bells rang with joy and joy, and the city was lit with fireworks in the night.

In Cuba, as in other Latin countries, pyrotechnics also arrived very early and although there are no well-founded notes on the subject in the Christmas celebrations and religious and patriotic celebrations of yesteryear fireworks were reasons of singular interest.

In Jaruco, a city on the outskirts of Havana, Porfirio Hernández, nicknamed “the pilot”, who became famous for his bitter street debates about baseball, fired one of those thunderous devices when his team Almendares wins the game.

The picaresque creole was in charge of introducing to the speech of men, women and children a locution related to the most sonorous and fast of the artifacts used and that in the decade of the 40 of century XX had a cost of a weight in all the national territory.

The speed with which this explosive rises to the sky and its price of sale to the public in that time, they agreed and then, the phrase was born like a flying of to weight, to identify the fast movements of one or several people when walking.

Frases Populares Cubanas: “Como un Volador de a peso”.

‘Como un volador de a peso’. Una frase que acuñaron los cubanos de antaño. Los cohetes voladores iluminan la noche y la mente de los cubanos para crear frases populares.

Los fuegos artificiales, hacen su aparición en Europa, en la Italia de fines del quattrocento, como una actividad típicamente artesanal, que difícilmente podrá ser mecanizada sin perder algunas de sus virtudes más sobresalientes.

Florencia parece haber sido el centro de este suceso, que conoció un gran auge durante el siglo XVI, con espectáculos de fuegos artificiales ofrecidos frecuentemente en fiestas cívicas o religiosas y, sobre todo, el día de San Pedro y San Pablo.

La pirotecnia tal y como hoy la entendemos nace con el descubrimiento de la pólvora negra y éste se produce, según documentación en China, en el siglo IX de nuestra era, bajo la dinastía Thang, por uno o varios alquimistas desconocidos.

El cohete volador, es sin duda la pieza más antigua de fuego aéreo, atestiguada en China ya en el siglo XII de nuestra era, y las dimensiones del cartucho (sin la cana o timón) pueden variar extraordinariamente, desde unos 6 por 40 mm hasta 25 por 200.

A un monje chino llamado Li Tian, se le acredita la invención de los fuegos artificiales.

Se dice que cuando George Washington fue juramentado como el primer presidente de Estados Unidos en la lejana fecha de abril de 1789, todas las campanas repicaron de júbilo y alegría, y la ciudad estaba iluminada con fuegos artificiales en la noche.

En Cuba como en otros países latinos la pirotecnia llegó también muy temprano y aunque no existen apuntes bien fundamentados al respecto en las fiesta navideñas y celebraciones religiosa y patrióticas de antaño los fuegos artificiales constituían motivos de singular interés.

En Jaruco, una ciudad ubicada en las afueras de La Habana, Porfirio Hernández, alias “el piloto”, que cobró fama por sus enconados debates callejeros sobre béisbol, disparaba uno de aquellos estruendosos dispositivos cuando su equipo Almendares gana el juego.

La picaresca criolla se encargó de introducir al habla de hombres, mujeres y niños una locución relacionada con el más sonoro y rápido de los artefactos empleados y que en la década del 40 del siglo XX tenía un costo de un peso en todo el territorio nacional.

La velocidad con que este explosivo se eleva al cielo y su precio de venta al público en aquella época, coincidieron y entonces, nació la frase como un volador de a peso, para identificar los rápidos movimientos de alguna o varias personas al andar.

China Built a Flying Saucer

Is the Chinese government making an investment in flying saucers? It looks that way, based on images circulating from this past weekend's 5th China Helicopter Exposition, held in the northern Tianjin region. The mockup in this photo sure resembles the classic model of a UFO:

The expo, run by the regional Tianjin government, the Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC), and the Chinese People's Liberation Army Ground Force, offered a chance for businesses to "demonstrate their innovations and technologies," according to its website. That's common enough for an expo, but the builders of this mockup seem to have gone the extra mile. It's assumed that a subsidiary of the state-owned AVIC built the demonstration, but it's unclear which one.

Online translations show that the ship is called a Super Great White Shark.

A rough translation from Twitter provides a description for the vehicle.

The vehicle certainly looks unconventional, but the Chinese military wouldn't be the first to try out the circular design. The U.S. military has toyed with many circular vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) vehicles, most notably the Avro Canada VZ-9 Avrocar. A joint collaboration between the Army and Air Force, each division wanted the round flyer for different reasons.

The Army saw it as an all-terrain troop transport and reconnaissance craft, while the Air Force envisioned a craft that could hover below enemy radar and then zoom up to supersonic speed. Builders tried to please both parties, and in the process, they failed both.

It appears that Chinese builders have gone bigger than the Avrocar ever did the test models were under 5 feet tall, but had an 18-foot wingspan. Until the vehicle is in the air, however, it's impossible to say if these engineers have solved the problems that others faced over 50 years ago.


Part or all of this entry has been imported from the 1913 edition of Webster’s Dictionary, which is now free of copyright and hence in the public domain. The imported definitions may be significantly out of date, and any more recent senses may be completely missing.
(See the entry for volador in
Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.)

Adjective Edit

volador m sg (feminine singular voladora, neuter singular volador or voladoro, masculine plural voladores, feminine plural voladores)

Etymology Edit

Pronunciation Edit

Adjective Edit

volador (feminine voladora, masculine plural voladors, feminine plural voladores)

Further reading Edit

    in Diccionari de la llengua catalana, segona edició, Institut d’Estudis Catalans. in Gran Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana, Grup Enciclopèdia Catalana. in Diccionari normatiu valencià, Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua. in Diccionari català-valencià-balear, Antoni Maria Alcover and Francesc de Borja Moll, 1962.

Adjective Edit

volador (feminine voladora, masculine plural voladores, feminine plural voladoras)

Modern Day Celebrations

In Poland, the ancient December solstice observance before Christianity involved people showing forgiveness and sharing food. It was a tradition that can still be seen in what is known as Gody.

In the northwestern corner of Pakistan, a festival called Chaomos takes place among the Kalasha or Kalash Kafir people. It lasts for at least seven days, including the day of the December solstice. It involves ritual baths as part of a purification process, as well as singing and chanting, a torchlight procession, dancing, bonfires, and festive eating.

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1937 Federal Old Age Pensions started, 1942 United Nations established, 1929 Influenza Epidemic death toll over 200,000, 1914 Henry Ford introduces $5.00 per day wages, 2007 Apple introduces the Apple iPhone, 1952 "Today" Program Begins on NBC, 1966 Indira Gandhi becomes prime minister of India, 1920 Prohibition takes effect, 2008 Black Monday in worldwide stock markets, 1935 First Canned Beer Sold, 1926 John Logie Baird first public demonstration of a television system , 1951 Nevada Nuclear Test begin In Nevada 1986 The space shuttle Challenger explodes, 1969 The Beatles make their last public performance

1925 Sears Roebuck opens its first store, 1949 First 45 RPM vinyl record released, 1959 Barbie Doll invented by Ruth Handler, 2004 Facebook is founded by Mark Zuckerberg , 1910 Boy Scouts of America incorporated, 1952 Queen Elizabeth II becomes Queen, 1990 Nelson Mandela is released from prison after 27 years, 1929 St. Valentine's Day Massacre, 1879 1st Woolworth 5 Cents store opened, 1991 Gulf War Ends

1936 Hoover Dam (Boulder Dam) is completed, 1965 "The Sound of Music" starring Julie Andrews and Christopher Plummer has its world premiere in New York, 1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt inaugurated as the 32nd president of the United States, 1876 Alexander Graham Bell receives a patent for his revolutionary new invention the telephone , 1974 Work on the 800 mile long Alaska Oil pipeline begins, 1931 Nevada Legalizes Gambling, 1995 Sarin gas terrorist attack on the Japanese Subway, 1981 Prince Charles and Diana Wedding, 1963 The Beatles' first album "Please Please Me" is released in England, 1973 Pink Floyd release the album "Dark Side of the Moon," 1980 Mount St. Helen's Erupts 1961 U.S. President John F. Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps

2005 Pope John Paul II Dies, 2010 Apple Releases iPad, 1968 Martin Luther King Jr. murdered, 1865 Robert E. Lee surrenders, 1954 Bill Haley and the Comets record "Rock Around the Clock," 1999 Columbine High School Shooting, 2010 Deepwater Horizon explodes in the Gulf of Mexico, 1989 Student Protest Tiananmen Square , 1985 The Coca-Cola Company announced New Coke, 1956 Elvis Presley has his first number one hit with "Heartbreak Hotel," 1994 Nelson Mandela voted as President of South Africa

1931 The Empire State Building in New York officially opens, 1979 Margaret Thatcher becomes British Prime Minister , 1937 The German airship Hindenburg (the largest dirigible ever built) burst into flames, 1945 VE Day/Victory In Europe Declared, 1948 The independent state of Israel is proclaimed as British rule in Palestine came to an end, 1954 The United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education, 1977 First of the Star Wars films opens, 1911 The first ever running of the Indianapolis 500

1938 Superman appears for the first time in D.C. Comics, 1967 Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band released by the Beatles, 1989 Tiananmen Square Protests end when Chinese troops kill hundreds, 1944 World War II Operation Overlord/D-Day , 1994 O.J. Simpson police car chase following the murder of his wife Nicole Brown Simpson, 1982 The Falkland Islands War ends, 1975 The summer blockbuster movie "Jaws" is released, 1944 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the GI Bill, 1959 The St. Lawrence Seaway has its official opening, 1997 First Harry Potter book "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone" released in the UK

1776 United States Declaration of Independence signed, 1996 The first cloning of an animal Dolly the Sheep, 1985 The Greenpeace ship Rainbow Warrior is sunk, 2008 Oil hits an all time high of $147 a barrel, 1954 "Operation Wetback" is launched by the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1923 Insulin introduced, 1969 Apollo 11 astronauts make history when the first man lands on the moon , 1956 Suez Crisis begins 1971 Voting Age in the United States is lowered to 18

1990 Iraq Invades Kuwait, 1914 Germany and France declare war, 1989 The US Savings and Loan Crisis, 1974 Richard Nixon announces his resignation , 1945 Atomic Bomb dropped on Nagasaki, 1945 Truman announces Japanese surrender, 1981 IBM releases its first Personal Computer, 1914 Panama Canal opens, 1969 Woodstock Music Festival, 1968 Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia, 2005 Hurricane Katrina strikes New Orleans

1939 Britain and France declare war on Germany , 1956 Elvis Presley appears on Ed Sullivan's show, 2001 9/11 Attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon, 1975 Inflation hits 26% in the UK, 1960 Chubby Checker has a number 1 record with The Twist, 1937 J.R.R. Tolkien's "The Hobbit" published, 1908 First factory-built Ford Model T completed, 1981 Sandra Day O'Connor becomes first female U.S. Supreme Court justice in history

1927 Work begins on Mount Rushmore, 1947 US minimum wage of 40 cents per hour, 1973 Sydney Opera House opens , 1966 Aberfan Disaster, 1929 Wall Street crash (Black Monday)

1938 Seabiscuit race against War Admiral at Pimlico, 1969 Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) established, 1979 U.S. embassy in Tehran 90 hostages taken, 1960 Senator John F. Kennedy wins the election for the president of the United States, 1989 Berlin Wall comes down allowing East and West Berlin to visit, 1926 U.S. Route 66 established, 1990 Sir Tim Berners-Lee formal proposal for the World Wide Web

1990 Channel Tunnel links UK to Europe, 1984 Bhopal Chemical Accident , 1954 First Burger King is opened in Miami, 1941 US enters World War II, 1939 Gone With The Wind premieres, 1983 Harrods Department Store bombing, 1997 The film "Titanic" opened in American theaters, 2004 A tsunami caused by an earthquake under the Indian Ocean leaves 216,000 dead in 13 countries


Raised in the notorious Tepito district of Mexico City, he began his career wrestling under his father's name as Dr. Karonte, Jr. at the age of 13. In 2000, he adopted the name of Astro Boy and started getting noticed working undercards for Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre (CMLL). In, 2001, he traveled to Japan and began wrestling as Komachi in Michinoku Pro Wrestling before returning to CMLL

Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre

El Principe De Plata y Oro (2004–2009)

In 2004, he was repackaged as Místico with a religious persona. He debuted in Arena México in June and spent much of the following months teaming with Volador, Jr. and Misterioso, Jr. in the second or third matches on the card. He participated in the 6th Annual Leyenda de Plata tournament but his push didn't take off until he won the Gran Alternativa tag team tournament with established star, El Hijo del Santo, claiming "Místico es chévere". Shortly afterwards, the bookers began teaming him with other established técnicos (faces) such as Negro Casas and Shocker against the big rudo (heel) groups, Los Guerreros del Infierno and La Furia del Norte. His stature made him an underdog and his high flying moves such as diving arm-drags made him popular with Mexico City crowds. Wrestling Observer Newsletter voted Místico the 2006 "Performer of the Year", "Biggest Box Office Draw", and "Best Flying Wrestler" in their "Year-End Awards". He was also ranked third in Pro Wrestling Illustrated's list of the top 500 wrestlers of 2007.

In 2005, he continued working against Los Guerreros, winning important singles matches against Rey Bucanero, Mephisto and Tarzan Boy in CMLL's secondary arena, Arena Coliseo. He won his first title by defeating Guerreros member Averno for the NWA World Middleweight Championship on February 11. The match was well received by the audience in attendance and fans near the ring threw money into the ring as a sign of appreciation. Two weeks later, he participated in his first singles main event match when he faced Guerreros leader Último Guerrero in Arena México. He won the fall in two falls after Guerrero was disqualified in the first fall and was pinned in the second with a small package. The match sparked a program with the recently turned Dr. Wagner, Jr. teaming with Místico against Último Guerrero and Rey Bucanero. After that program died down, Místico became involved in a feud with Perro Aguayo, Jr. and his Los Perros del Mal group. After defeating Aguayo in a singles match, the two exchanged hair versus mask challenges so Místico was added to the already planned eight-man cage match where the last man in the cage lost his hair or mask. Místico joined Negro Casas, Heavy Metal, Universo 2000 and Máscara Mágica against Aguayo's group consisting of Damián 666, Halloween and Héctor Garza leading up to the match but neither Místico or Aguayo were involved in the finish of the match where Damián pinned Máscara Mágica.

In September, he reheated his feud with Último Guerrero with another singles match but in the third fall, he was attacked by Atlantis, turning Atlantis heel. Místico worked a short program with Atlantis but after he defeated Atlantis in a singles match in October, Atlantis focused more on former tag partner Blue Panther.

In 2006, Místico was the biggest star in Mexico. He main evented eighteen events during the year that drew more than ten thousand people. In the early part of the year, he teamed up with Black Warrior in two unsuccessful CMLL World Tag Team Championship challenges. In the second one, Black Warrior turned on Místico and the two began a feud. While Black Warrior was wrestling in Japan, Místico and Negro Casas defeated Averno and Mephisto for the CMLL World Tag Team Championship on April 14. When Warrior returned, the feud picked up again and Black Warrior handed Místico his first major singles defeat when he pinned him and took his NWA Middleweight Championship on a May 12 Arena México show. On September 29, Místico defeated Black Warrior in a mask versus mask match in the main event of the CMLL 73rd Anniversary Show, his first major mask win. On April 10, 2007, Místico defeated Mephisto to capture the CMLL World Welterweight Championship.

Capitalizing on Místico's popularity, the CMLL created a comic book starring Místico as an urban hero. The comic reached its 50th issue in December 2007.

The Wrestling Observer is reporting that Místico was injured on September 28 during a match in Toluca, Mexico. He reportedly was coming off the top rope to the floor attempting a spinning head scissors, but his opponent slipped and Místico landed on his head. He was rushed to the back, evaluated and then rushed to Mexico City for testing. It was ruled he had a contusion on his brain, while X-Rays have ruled out more serious injuries. He is said to be on medication right now to avoid further inflammation of the neck and spine

Sometime in 2007, WWE offered him a deal to sign with them but due to commitments with CMLL, he was unable to sign with them at the time. Reportedly, the likes of Dean Malenko, Paul London, and Rey Mysterio pushed WWE to offer him a deal in 2007-2008. In December 2007, the Mexico City newspaper The Record reported that WWE was back in talks with Místico. In March 2008, it was reported that Místico contacted TNA to see if they were interested in having him work for their promotion company. If TNA were to agree, Mistico would be featured as a special attraction due to his commitments with CMLL.

On March 10, 2008, Místico and Hector Garza became CMLL World Tag Team champions by defeating Averno and Mephisto. In April, the commission declared the title vacant after a match resulted in a double disqualification. Mistico and Garza reclaimed the tag team title by defeating Averno and Mephisto in a rematch. They eventually lost the title to Averno and Mephisto in December. On March 20, 2009, Mistico lost his CMLL World Welterweight Championship to Negro Casas in a title match. Subsequently, challenges were made for a Lucha de Apuesta between Místico and either El Felino or Mr. Niebla, but those plans were soon replaced by an Apuesta between Místico and Negro Casas, as the main event of the CMLL 76th Anniversary Show on September 18, 2009. Místico won the match two falls to one and then watched as Negro Casas was shaved bald. After the match Místico made an Apuesta challenge to El Felino, Casas' cornerman. On December 11, 2009 Místico won a cage match against El Sagrado, Blue Panther, El Terrible, El Felino, El Texano Jr., El Hijo del Fantasma and Tetsuya Naitō to win the Festival Mundial de Lucha Libre (World Festial of Wrestling) championship.

Feuding with Volado,Jr. (2010-2011)

On January 22, 2010 Místico teamed up with Averno to participate in CMLL's "Torneo Internacional de Parejas Increíbles" ("International Amazing Pairs tournament"), a tournament where CMLL teams up a Tecnico (Místico) and a Rudo (Averno) for a tournament. On the night of the tournament Místico and Averno showed some surprising team unity by wearing outfits that mixed the style of each wrestler. In the first round the team defeated Ephesto and Euforia, not showing any friction between the two, despite their long history of animosity. In the second round Místico's attitude seemingly changed as he began attacking Volador Jr., someone he usually teams with. Místico even went so far as to ripping up Volador's mask, a rudo move, and won the match after an illegal low blow to Volador, Jr. After the match Místico took the microphone and claimed that "all was fair in war and defending Mexico City", a comment that drew a lot of boos from the crowd. Místico continued to work a Rudo style in the semi-final match, ripping at Máscara Dorada's mask. When Místico's team lost to Dorada and Atlantis the two tecnicos argued after the match. Further hints at Místico potentially turning Rudo came a few days later as Volador, Jr. challenged Místico to a one on one match, a Super Libre (match with no rules) match if Místico would agree to it. The two met in the main event of an Arena México show on February 5, 2010 and this time Místico was clearly a Rúdo, tearing so viciously at Volador's mask that a new mask had to be brought to the ring during falls. In the second fall Místico pulled his mask off and threw it to Volador, Jr. in an attempt to get Volador, Jr. disqualified. The end came when Volador, Jr. reversed Místico's La Mística and won by applying the same move to Místico. Following the match Místico angrily proclaimed “¡Yo soy la máxima figura de la lucha libre!”. ("I am the greatest figure in wrestling"). On February 12, 2010 Místico lost the Mexican National Light Heavyweight Championship to Volador, Jr. losing two falls to one. On the February 26 CMLL Super Viernes show it was announced that Místico, Volador, Jr., La Sombra and El Felino would face off in a four way Lucha de Apuesta match as the main event of Homenaje a Dos Leyendas 2010. La Sombra was the first man pinned at Dos Leyendas and El Felino was the second, forcing the two to put their masks on the line. After a long match La Sombra pinned El Felino. After the match he unmasked and announced that his real name was Jorge Luis Casas Ruiz. Following Dos Leyendas Místico announced that he was done being a rúdo and returned to the técnico side, although Volador, Jr. kept suspicious of Místico. The storyline between the two cooled off for a bit, but in late May, 2010 tension resumed as Místico and Volador, Jr. faced off once again over the Mexican Light Heavyweight Championship, with Volador, Jr. retaining the belt. At the 2010 Sin Salida the two were on opposite sides of a Relevos incredibles, Místico teamed with Máscara Dorada and Mr. Águila while Volador, Jr. teamed with Averno and Negro Casas. Averno came to the ring wearing the same combined Averno/Místico mask he had worn for the Parejas Incredibles tournament and tried to convince Místico to join the rúdo side, only to turn around and reveal that both he and Volador, Jr. were wearing a combined Averno/Volador, Jr. mask underneath. Volador, Jr. worked as a rúdo throughout the match, losing the match for his team when he tried to cheat but was caught by the referee. On July 12, 2010, at the Promociones Gutiérrez 1st Anniversary Show, Místico participated in a match where 10 men put their mask on the line in a match that featured five pareja incredibles teams, with the losing team being forced to wrestle each other with their mask on the line. His partner in the match was El Oriental, facing off against the teams of Atlantis and Olímpico, La Sombra and Histeria, El Alebrije and Volador, Jr., Último Guerrero and Averno. Místico and El Oriental ended up being the last team and were forced to wrestle for their masks. After a long match Místico defeated El Oriental. After the match El Oriental was forced to remove his mask and show his face. On August 16, 2010 it was announced that Místico was one of 14 men putting their mask on the line in a Luchas de Apuestas steel cage match, the main event of the CMLL 77th Anniversary Show. Místico was the 11th and second to last man to leave the steel cage, keeping his mask safe. The match came down to La Sombra pinning Olímpico to unmask him.

International travel (2008–2011)

In July 2008, Místico travelled to China and participated in the second Beijing International Martial Arts Training Camp, organized by Belgium-based martial arts instructor Mike Martello. Throughout the training camp, Místico received instruction in Chinese traditional wrestling (shuaijiao) from Shuaijiao expert Yu Shaoyi (two times regional champion of Beijing) and joint-locking techniques (Qinna) from Mike Martello. The event was covered by Televisa, and was broadcast in a series of 16 clips during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

On January 4, 2009, Mistico made his debut for New Japan Pro Wrestling (NJPW) at Wrestle Kingdom III in the Tokyo Dome. Mistico wrestled in the opening match, teaming with Prince Devitt and Ryusuke Taguchi to defeat Averno, Gedo and Jado when Mistico made Averno submit using his trademark move "La Mística". After the match, Místico announced that he would like to return to New Japan Pro Wrestling and even stated he would like to challenge for the IWGP Junior Heavyweight Championship. On February 15, 2009 Místico successfully defended his CMLL Welterweight Championship against Mephisto on a NJPW Show in Sumo Hall, Tokyo. Místico injured his knee during the match, although he was back in action by the end of the week. Místico, Misterioso, Jr. and Okumura were scheduled to work for NJPW in early May but due to the outbreak of the Swine flue pandemic the tour was cancelled.

In August, 2009 Místico went on his third tour with NJPW, accompanied Okumura. On August 13, 2009 Místico teamed up with Tiger Mask IV to defeat Okumura and Tomohiro Ishii. On August 15, 2009, Místico defeated Tiger Mask IV to become the new IWGP Junior Heavyweight Champion. Upon his return to Mexico, Místico teamed with Tiger Mask IV and Shocker as they defeated Ultimo Guerrero, Atlantis, and Arkangel at Dragomania IV. Místico had his first successful IWGP Junior Heavyweight Championship defense, as he defended against Jushin Liger in the main event of a CMLL show in Puebla, Puebla on September 28, 2009. On November 8 at NJPW's Destruction '09 show Mistíco lost the IWGP Title back to Tiger Mask. Místico returned to Japan in January 2011, taking part in the CMLL and New Japan Pro Wrestling co–promoted Fantasticamania 2011 shows. On the first show on January 22 Místico teamed with IWGP Heavyweight Champion Hiroshi Tanahashi and IWGP Junior Heavyweight Champion Prince Devitt in a six-man tag team match, where they were defeated by Averno, Shinsuke Nakamura and Tetsuya Naitō, when Averno pinned Místico. At the second show the following day, Místico defeated Averno in a singles match, which would turn out to be his final match for CMLL.

World Wrestling Entertainment

On January 30, 2011 SuperLuchas Magazine confirmed that Urive had signed a contract with World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE). On February 24, WWE held a press conference in Mexico City to introduce Urive under his new name, Sin Cara, which translates literally to "Without a Face". On March 25, 2011, Sin Cara made his WWE debut at Raw's live event at Assembly Hall in Champaign, Illinois, defeating Primo in a singles match. On March 28, WWE announced that Sin Cara would be making his televised debut on the April 4 edition of Raw. In his debut appearance, Sin Cara attacked WWE United States Champion Sheamus, saving former champion Daniel Bryan and establishing himself as a face. On the same week's edition of SmackDown, Sin Cara made a similar appearance, this time attacking Jack Swagger and cementing his face status. On the April 11 episode of Raw, Sin Cara made his televised in-ring debut, defeating Primo. The next week in London, Sin Cara teamed with John Cena to defeat the then WWE Champion, The Miz and Alex Riley.

In the 2011 WWE Draft, Sin Cara was drafted to SmackDown!, making his first appearance as part of the roster on the April 29 episode with a win over Jack Swagger. Sin Cara then started a storyline with Chavo Guerrero, who began guest commentating his matches and, much to Sin Cara's dismay, even helped him win matches by interfering in them. Sin Cara made his pay-per-view debut on May 22 at Over the Limit, defeating Chavo Guerrero. Afterwards, Sin Cara moved on to feuding with Cody Rhodes and Ted DiBiase, while teaming with Daniel Bryan, with the two saving each other from two–on–one beatdowns on the June 3 and 10 editions of SmackDown. Sin Cara's undefeated streak came to an end on the July 1 edition of SmackDown, when he was defeated by former World Heavyweight Champion Christian. On July 18, Sin Cara participated in the second annual Money in the Bank PPV, but was unsuccessful in winning the ladder match to earn a World Heavyweight Championship opportunity, after being taken out of the match with a storyline injury. The following day, WWE announced that it had suspended Sin Cara for 30 days for his first violation of its Wellness program. He would later claim in an interview that he did not know what he had tested positive for and claimed to only have gotten a routine injection for an injured knee in Mexico.

Feud with Sin Cara Negro (2011-2012)

The Sin Cara character returned on August 9 at the taping of the August 12 edition of SmackDown, defeating Tyson Kidd however with Urive still serving his suspension, Sin Cara was in this appearance portrayed by WWE developmental wrestler Hunico, while also having gone by the ring name "Mistico" in Mexico. After another week of Arias portraying Sin Cara, Urive returned under the mask on August 20 at a live event in Tacoma, Washington. On August 26 it was reported that Urive had been sent home from the week's SmackDown tapings, with Arias once again appearing on TV under the Sin Cara mask. During Urive's time away from WWE, the Sin Cara character seemingly turned heel by attacking Daniel Bryan.

At the tapings of the September 16 edition of SmackDown, Urive returned as the original Sin Cara, confronting the impostor version of the character. On the September 19 edition of Raw, the original Sin Cara was booked to face Cody Rhodes, but was prior to the start of the match attacked by the impostor character. After a brief brawl, the impostor would flee the ring defeated. On the September 23 edition of SmackDown, the impostor Sin Cara attacked the original version during his match with Daniel Bryan, then took his place in the match and pinned Bryan for the win. The following week the impostor revealed a new black attire to distinguish himself from the original version, while also explaining that he was going to steal the Sin Cara identity from Urive, just as Urive had stolen the Místico identity from him, leading to a match between the two Sin Caras at Hell in a Cell. To further help the distinguishment between the two characters, WWE began referring to the original as Sin Cara "Azul" (Blue) and the impostor as Sin Cara "Negro" (Black). At the pay-per-view on October 2, Sin Cara Azul defeated Sin Cara Negro in a singles match. After being defeated by WWE Champion Alberto Del Rio on the October 7 edition of SmackDown, Sin Cara Azul was again attacked by Sin Cara Negro. The rivalry culminated in a Mask vs. Mask match at the October 16 taping of SmackDown in Mexico City, where Sin Cara Azul was victorious, unmasking Sin Cara Negro by force after the match. He competed on Team Orton at Survivor Series, but suffered an injury during the match, keeping him out of action for 6 months.

On June 1, 2012, Sin Cara returned on Smackdown with a new costume with red and white colors. He faced off against Heath Slater and won. Sin Cara then made a return to Raw the following Monday, showing a different entrance and variant of his finisher, defeating Hunico. Three days later, Sin Cara returned to Raw, defeating old rival Hunico in a singles match. This rekindled their feud and on June 17 at No Way Out, Sin Cara defeated Hunico. On the July 9 episode of Raw, Sin Cara defeated Heath Slater to qualify for the World Heavyweight Championship Money in the Bank Ladder match at the Money in the Bank pay-per-view event, but was unsuccessful in the match itself, which was won by Dolph Ziggler.

Teaming with Rey Mysterio (2012-2013)

In August, Sin Cara rekindled a feud with Cody Rhodes, who claimed he was wearing a mask to cover his ugly face. Sin Cara scored pinfalls over Cody Rhodes in consecutive matches on both Raw and SmackDown, both times taking advantage of Rhodes trying to remove his mask. He then also saved fellow masked wrestler Rey Mysterio from being unmasked by Rhodes and afterward teamed up with Mysterio to put one of his masks on Rhodes. After defeating WWE Intercontinental Champion The Miz in a non-title match. Sin Cara was granted an opportunity to win the title at Night of Champions in a fatal four-way, which also included Rhodes and Mysterio and saw The Miz retain the title. The following day on Raw, Sin Cara and Mysterio teamed up to defeat Epico and Primo in a tag team match. Sin Cara and Mysterio entered a tournament to determine the number one contenders to the WWE Tag team Championship, defeating Epico and Primo and the Prime Time Players (Darren Young and Titus O'Neil) to advance to the finals. Sin Cara and Mysterio lost the final tournament match to Team Rhodes Scholars (Cody Rhodes and Damien Sandow) on the October 22 episode of Raw. At Survivor Series, Sin Cara and Mysterio were victorious in a 10-man elimination match alongside Brodus Clay, Justin Gabriel, and Tyson Kidd against the Prime Time Players, Epico and Primo, and Tensai. On December 16 at TLC: Tables, Ladders, & Chairs, Sin Cara and Mysterio were defeated by Team Rhodes Scholars in a number one contenders tables match for the WWE Tag Team Championship. Two days later, Sin Cara suffered a legitimate leg injury and was written off television following an attack by The Shield.

Sin Cara returned on January 27, 2013, at the Royal Rumble, entering the Royal Rumble at number twenty nine, but was eliminated by Ryback. On the following episode of Smackdown, Sin Cara and Rey Mysterio defeated WWE Tag Team Champions Team Hell No (Daniel Bryan and Kane) in a non-title match. After spending two months off of television due to further injuries Sin Cara returned at a WWE house show on May 10 at Shreveport,Louisiana, teaming up with Adrian Neville and Bo Dallas in a winning effort against Michael McGillicutty and the Prime Time Players. Sin Cara returned to television on the May 15 episode of Superstars, defeating Intercontinental Champion Wade Barrett in a non-title match. During the August 19 episode of Raw, Sin Cara dislocated his ring finger during a match with Alberto Del Rio. Beginning on the December 2 Raw, Jorge Arias (Hunico) reprised his role as Sin Cara. In late January 2014, Urive announced his return to wrestling in Mexico, likely signifying an end to his time in WWE.

Asistencia Asesoría y Administración (2014–2015)

On February 19, 2014, the Wrestling Observer Newsletter reported that Urive had signed with Asistencia Asesoría y Administración and would be making his debut two days later. At the end of AAA's February 21 event, AAA's main rudo stable, La Sociedad, attacked the promotion's top tecnicos with help from the debuting Black Warrior. This led to AAA president Marisela Peña Roldán revealing her own surprise wrestler, Urive, who appeared on the darkened entrance stage, but did not enter the ring or say anything. It was later reported that Urive was under a WWE non-compete clause until May and could therefore not show his mask. On May 17, Urive made another appearance, during which he was referred to only as a "mysterious wrestler", attacking La Sociedad and targeting especially his old rival Averno, who was making his AAA debut. On May 28, AAA revealed promotional material, which suggested Urive would be returning to the Místico ring name, however, on June 5, the promotion revealed his new ring name as Myzteziz. The ring name is exclusive to AAA and Urive will continue to work as Sin Cara outside of the promotion. Myzteziz made his in-ring debut on June 7 at Verano de Escándalo, where he, Cibernético and La Parka defeated Averno, Chessman and El Hijo del Perro Aguayo in a six-man tag team main event, with Myzteziz submitting the AAA Latin American Champion Chessman for the win.

Watch the video: Evolution of Horizon Zero Dawn 2011-2021 (May 2022).