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The Vajra: An Ancient Weapon of War

The Vajra: An Ancient Weapon of War


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The vajra is the most important ritual implement of Vajrayana Buddhism. It symbolizes an impenetrable, immovable and indestructible state of knowledge and enlightenment.

Our knowledge of the vajra goes back to deep antiquity. Texts indicate that the vajra was not always a symbol of peace and tranquility but something very different. It first appears in ancient India where it was the primary weapon of the Vedic sky-god Indra, the king of the Devas. According the Hindu Puranas, the evil Asuras, Namuchi and Vritra removed all of the light and moisture from the earth. It made the land inhospitable to living beings. Indra battled the demon gods unsuccessfully and as a last resort called upon their supreme god Vishnu for help.

A weapon of the gods

Vishnu informed him that only a weapon that was neither solid nor liquid could kill Namuchi and Vritra. Vishnu had the divine carpenter Tvashta fashion Indra a marvelous weapon he could use to vanquish the dreadful Asuras. This new weapon, the vajra, emitted thunderbolts. With it, Indra annihilated Namuchi and Vritra and returned the much needed light and moisture back to the earth. The Rigveda describes this conflict thus.

Now I describe the glorious deeds of Indra, who holds Vajra. He killed the serpent and made waters flow. He broke the hearts of mountains.

He killed the serpent, which was taking refuge in mountain. Tvashta made the Vajra for him. Like the cows making sounds, flowing waters reached the sea.

Mighty Indra chose Soma, and drank from three containers. Generous Indra held Vajra in his hand, and killed first born among the serpents.

- Rigveda 1.32

The vajra, when used, was thrown at one’s opponent. Nitin Kumar, in his article Ritual Implements in Tibetan Buddhism , tells us, “As a hurled weapon the indestructible thunderbolt blazed like a meteoric fireball across the heavens, in a maelstrom of thunder, fire and lightning.”

Figure 1. A traditional image of a vajra

From destructive weapon to peaceful scepter

Traditional images of the vajra (Figure 1.) depict it as a metal shaft with three, five or nine prongs that emanate from lotus blossoms on either end. Originally, according to the ancient Indian text the Rigveda, when Indra used his vajra it had open prongs (Figure 2.). Buddhist legend suggests that Shakyamuni, the Buddha himself, took the vajra from Indra and forced its prongs closed, thus transforming it from a destructive weapon into a peaceful scepter.

Figure 2. A vajra with open prongs

A lightning weapon across cultures

Scholars contend that there is no relationship between Indian, Greek, Australian, and Norse mythology, nor the cosmology of the Americas. They believe that each civilization conceived of their gods independently and that a deeper, older, universal tradition does not exist. If this were the case, then the foundation of these societies; their myths, traditions, beliefs and iconography should be unique to them, their location and their history. The tales of war, intrigue and conquest that come out of American history are vastly different from those of England, France, India and China. So too are the customs, traditions and the symbols that represent the nation. Yet when we look at a wide range of ancient and indigenous groups a pattern of commonality exists. Myths and symbols found in India readily appear in the oral and written descriptions of other cultures. They also appear in their artistic images. These representations seem to transcend time and location.

The symbol of thunder or a thunderbolt as a tool of destruction, for example, surfaces in many ancient civilizations. Mythology unfailingly associates lightning with a sky god, the god of thunder, who uses it as a weapon.

In the western world, the thunderbolt is most readily associated with the Greek sky god Zeus. With it, he defeated the Titans and took control of the Greek pantheon. Myth tells us, that Zeus freed the Cyclopes, the master builders, who were imprisoned in the depths of the underworld - Tartarus. In gratitude for their release, they gave him a marvelous weapon, the thunderbolt. In another story, Zeus used his formidable weapon to battle the largest and most fearsome creatures in all of Greek mythology, the hundred-headed serpent Typhon. Early images of Zeus depict show him holding a rod like thunderbolt, while others show this deadly weapon with its ends splayed into three prongs (Figure 3.).

Figure 3. Left: Zeus is depicted with a rod-like thunderbolt. Right: Zeus holds a thunderbolt with ends splayed into three prongs.

The vajra of the Sumerians

A vajra-like weapon also appears in Sumerian cosmology. Its use is recorded in the Babylonian Epic of Creation, the Enuma Elish. A battle between the sky god Marduk (Bel) and serpent Tiamat is detailed on the fourth tablet of this ancient document. The evil and powerful Tiamat, according to the Enuma Elish, was devising treacherous plans against Ea and the other reigning gods. The gods were afraid to invoke her evil wrath and search for a solution. Ea attempted to confront Tiamat, but instead of fighting, backed down. Marduk, his son, stepped forward and volunteered to fight the enraged serpent, on one condition… if he were successful, he would have dominion over the entire universe.

The gods agreed and provided Marduk with mighty weapons including a bow, a mace and a net to use in his battle against Tiamat. Images of this epic scene show Marduk holding a three tipped scepter in his hand (Figure 4.). Subsequent images clearly depict this same deadly three-pronged weapon (Figure 5.).

Figure 4. Marduk depicted with a three-tipped scepter

Figure 5. Marduk fighting Tiamat with the three-pronged weapon

They gave him the unrivalled weapon, the destroyer of the enemy [saying]:
"Go, cut off the life of Tiâmat.
"Let the wind carry her blood into the depth [under the earth]."
The gods, his fathers, issued the decree for the god Bel.
They set him on the road which leadeth to peace and adoration.

-Enuma Elish

The vajra in Norse mythology

The Rigveda also offers an alternative description of the vajra. Some texts represent it as a notched metal club with thousands of prongs. We find this form of the vajra in numerous other cultures. The most well-known stories that portray the vajra in its club-like form come from Norse cosmology. They are associated with the sky god Thor. His mighty hammer Mjölnir was the most fearsome weapon in Norse mythology. Images of the thunder god Thor traditionally show him carrying his mighty hammer. Some texts describe Mjölnir as a hammer, while others refer to it as an ax or club.

The master builders, the dwarfs, in the depths of the earth, made Mjölnir. The Norse Skáldskaparmál, which can be found in the Snorri's Edda, describes Mjölnir as a hammer which would not fail. As a weapon, it could level mountains. It goes on to state that if aimed it at anything; it would never miss its target. It informs us that in addition to never missing its target, it would always find its way back to the hand of its owner.

Thor used his mighty hammer to battle his deadliest foe, the giant serpent Jörmungandr. In these tales, the Midgard Serpent, Jörmungandr is not killed. It would not be until near the end of the world in the apocalyptic battle of Ragnarök, that Thor would clash with Jörmungandr the final time.

The Slavic vajra

In Slavic mythology, we learn of the evil serpent Veles who ascended from the underworld and stole something of value from the sky god Perun. Perun, using lightning bolts, would vanquish Veles back to his underground realm annually. His deadly axe, like Thor’s mighty hammer was used to subdue evil and overcome the iniquitous serpent Veles. It too would return to his hand after being thrown.

Irish mythology has a vajra too

In Irish mythology, the magical weapon of the hero of Ulster Cúchulainn is the Gae Bolga or lightning spear. Cúchulainn fought and killed his childhood friend and foster brother, Ferdia with this magical weapon. The Gae Bolga is described as a dart or spear, which separates into multiple barbs when entering the body, causing fatal wounds. It was next to impossible to withdraw once it had impaled the body. The Irish Book of Leinster describes the devastating effects of the Gae Bolga as such:

It entered a man's body with a single wound, like a javelin, then opened into thirty barbs. Only by cutting away the flesh could it be taken from that man's body.” - Book of Leinster

The Chinese vajra

In China, the legend of Hua-hu Tiao Devours Yang Chien describes a magical spike carried by Huang T'ien Hua which sounds remarkably similar to Indra’s vajra.

The Chin-kang, deprived of their magical weapons, began to lose heart. To complete their discomfiture, Huang T'ien Hua brought to the attack a matchless magical weapon. This was a spike 7 1/2 inches long, enclosed in a silk sheath, and called 'Heart-piercer.' It projected so strong a ray of light that eyes were blinded by it. Huang T'ien Hua, hard pressed by Mo-li Ch'ing, drew the mysterious spike from its sheath, and hurled it at his adversary. It entered his neck, and with a deep groan the giant fell dead. - Myths & Legends of China – E. T. C. Werner

Finding myths, with similar storylines, and their corresponding images in relatively close geographic areas, while interesting, does not fully support the universality of the gods. When we uncover similar narratives and corresponding imagery, in remote regions of the world, this concept takes on a more serious tone. Myths of a vajra-like weapon are found all over the world. In Australia, the sky gods, the Wati Kutjara brothers, wield a magical boomerang, Wo-mur-rang or club. Boomerangs are known for their ability, once thrown, to return to their owner. Legend states that their father Kidili attempted to rape some of the first women. Throwing their wo-mur-rang, they castrated their father where he disappeared into a water hole.

The vajra in South American cultures

In the new world we encounter a similar deadly lightning weapon used by the sky gods. In the Aztec culture there is the god Huitzilopochtli. Huitzilopochtli, with his weapon Xiuhcoatl, “ the fire serpent ”, killed his sister Coyolxauhqui soon after he was born. The Mayan rain deity Chaac and the later Aztec Tlaloc are both depicted carrying their lightning axe (Figure 6.). Sometimes they are depicted holding snakes, which represent lightning bolts, which they would hurl from the mountaintops where they made their retreat. In Peru, we find the god Illapa who is described as a man wielding a club in his left hand and a sling in his right.

Figure 6. Aztec god Tlaloc depicted carrying a lightning axe

The thunderstone

A variation of the lightning motif is the concept of the thunderstone. It is believed that thunderstones fall from the sky when the gods are battling each other. This idea is widely held throughout Africa. The Yoruba of southwestern Nigera, for example, believe their axe carrying storm god Shange creates thunder and lightning and casts "thunderstones" down to earth. The elders of this culture would search wherever lightning struck for these magical stones.

The thunder-producing weapon, the vajra, is only one example of the enormous number of commonalities found in myth, legend, culture and iconography around the world. Similarities exist throughout Greek, Sumerian, Norse, Aztec, Australian and American cosmology. These parallels include the gods, their lives and their amazing weapons. They also include the laws and customs that govern our lives - the very fabric of society.

Universality of symbolism

The universality of symbolism found around the world implies something else. Weapons, like the vajra, were not born from the imagination of man. They did not come into being as part of a cultures evolution. They were real. They were tangible. Someone somewhere in our remote past saw it and documented it. It is only through an actual encounter with a marvelous weapon that emitted thunder that a clear and specific portrayal of it could be made.

Likewise, if tools like the vajra are genuine then we are forced to accept that the gods who wielded these weapons were factual individuals as well. This newfound knowledge would open the door to a revolutionary new understanding of who we are. It would challenge the basis of our society and could cause us to reevaluate not only our place in the universe, but everything we hold to be true.

All images courtesy of Dr Rita Louise

By Rita Louise

Bestselling author, Dr. Rita Louise is the host of Just Energy Radio and the Founder of the Institute Of Applied Energetics . You can visit her website at http://www.soulhealer.com


Among all the innovative inventions that have emerged in the modern world, no other achievement has had far reaching consequences as harvesting nuclear energy. Though this has the ability to solve the energy crisis of the world, but at the same time, it does also have the capability to wipe out entire cities. Hiroshima and Nagasaki came to news for all the wrong reasons, that is known by almost all high school students across the world.

But were this the first-time weapons like this had been used? Have they never been used before? There are many lesser known facts, the story about which never has been told. The following lines are a reflection of the forgotten pages of ancient mythology, which never found expression in popular chapters of human history.


The Vajra | A Planetary Weapon of the Ancient Gods

The vajra is the most important ritual implement of Vajrayana Buddhism. In Sanskrit, the word vajra is defined as something hard or mighty, as in a diamond. It symbolizes an impenetrable, immovable and indestructible state of knowledge and enlightenment.

Our knowledge of the vajra goes back to deep antiquity. Texts indicate that the vajra was not always a symbol of peace and tranquility but something very different. It first appears in ancient India where it was the primary weapon of the Vedic sky-god Indra, the king of the Devas.

According the Hindu Puranas, the evil Asuras, Namuchi and Vritra removed all of the light and moisture from the earth. It made the land inhospitable to living beings. Indra battled the demon gods unsuccessfully and as a last resort called upon their supreme god Vishnu for help.

Vishnu informed him that only a weapon that was neither solid nor liquid could kill Namuchi and Vritra. Vishnu had the divine carpenter Tvashta fashion Indra a marvelous weapon he could use to vanquish the dreadful Asuras.

This new weapon, the vajra, emitted thunderbolts. With it, Indra annihilated Namuchi and Vritra and returned the much needed light and moisture back to the earth.

The Rigveda describes this conflict thus:

“Now I describe the glorious deeds of Indra, who holds Vajra. He killed the serpent and made waters flow. He broke the hearts of mountains. He killed the serpent, which was taking refuge in the mountain.

Tvashta made the Vajra for him. Like the cows making sounds, flowing waters reached the sea. Mighty Indra chose Soma, and drank from three containers. Generous Indra held Vajra in his hand, and killed the first born among the serpents.” – Rigveda 1.32

The vajra, when used, was thrown at one’s opponent. Nitin Kumar, in his article Ritual Implements in Tibetan Buddhism, tells us:

“As a hurled weapon the indestructible thunderbolt blazed like a meteoric fireball across the heavens, in a maelstrom of thunder, fire and lightning.”

Traditional images of the vajra depict it as a metal shaft with three, five or nine prongs that emanate from lotus blossoms on either end. Originally, according to the ancient Indian text the Rigveda, when Indra used his vajra it had open prongs.

Buddhist legend suggests that Shakyamuni, the Buddah himself, took the vajra from Indra and forced its prongs closed, thus transforming it from a destructive weapon into a peaceful scepter.

Can Weapons Of The Gods Like The Vajra Be Found Around The World?

Scholars contend that there is no relationship between Indian, Greek, Australian, Norse and the cosmology of the Americas. They believe that each civilization conceived of their gods independently and that a deeper, older, universal tradition does not exist.

If this were the case, then the foundation of these societies their myths, traditions, beliefs and iconography should be unique to them, their location and their history. The tales of war, intrigue and conquest that come out of American history are vastly different from those of England, France, India and China.

So too are the customs, traditions and the symbols that represent the nation. Yet when we look at a wide range of ancient and indigenous groups, a pattern of commonality exists. Myths and symbols found in Indian readily appear in the oral and written descriptions of other cultures.

They also appear in their artistic images. These representations seem to transcend time and location.

The symbol of thunder or a thunderbolt as a tool of destruction, for example, surfaces in many ancient civilizations. Mythology unfailingly associates lightning with a sky god, the god of thunder, who uses it as a weapon.

In the western world, the thunderbolt is most readily associated with the Greek sky god Zeus. With it, he defeated the Titans and took control of the Greek pantheon. Myth tells us, that Zeus freed the Cyclopes, the master builders, who were imprisoned in the depths of the underworld – Tartarus.

In gratitude for their release, they gave him a marvelous weapon, the thunderbolt. In another story, Zeus used his formidable weapon to battle the largest and most fearsome creatures in all of Greek mythology, the hundred-headed serpent Typhon.

Early images of Zeus depict show him holding a rod like thunderbolt while others show this deadly weapon with its ends splayed into three prongs.

A vajra-like weapon also appears in Sumerian cosmology. Its use is recorded in the Bablyonian Epic of Creation, the Enuma Elish. A battle between the sky god Marduk (Bel) and serpent Tiamat is detailed on the fourth tablet of this ancient document.

The evil and powerful Tiamat, according to the Enuma Elish, was devising treacherous plans against Ea and the other reigning gods. The gods were afraid to invoke her evil wrath and searched for a solution.

Ea attempts to confront Tiamat, but instead of fighting backs down. Marduk, his son, steps forward and volunteers to fight the enraged serpent, on one condition… If he is successful, he will have dominion over the entire universe.

The gods agree and provide Marduk mighty weapons including a bow, a mace and a net to use in his battle against Tiamat.

Images of this epic scene show Marduk holding a three tipped scepter in his hand. Subsequent images clearly depict this same deadly three-pronged weapon.

“They gave him the unrivaled weapon, the destroyer of the enemy [saying]: “Go, cut off the life of Tiâmat. “Let the wind carry her blood into the depth [under the earth].” The gods, his fathers, issued the decree for the god Bel. They set him on the road which leadeth to peace and adoration.” – Enuma Elish

Other Forms Of The Vajra

The Rigveda also offers an alternative description of the vajra. Some texts represent it as a notched metal club with thousands of prongs. We find this form of the vajra in numerous other cultures.

The most well known stories that portray the vajra in its club-like form come from Norse cosmology. They are associated with the sky god Thor.

Thor’s mighty hammer Mjölnir was the most fearsome weapon in Norse mythology. Images of the thunder god Thor traditionally show him carrying his mighty hammer. Some texts describe Mjölnir as a hammer, while others refer to it as an ax or club.

The master builders, the dwarfs, in the depths of the earth, made Mjölnir. The Norse Skáldskaparmál, which can be found in the Snorri’s Edda describes Mjölnir as a hammer which would not fail. As a weapon, it could level mountains.

It goes on to state that if aimed it at anything, it would never miss its target. It informs us that in addition to never missing its target, it would always find its way back to the hand of its owner.

Thor used his mighty hammer to battle his deadliest foe, the giant serpent Jörmungandr. In these tales, the Midgard Serpent, Jörmungandr is not killed. It would not be until near the end of the world in the apocalyptic battle of Ragnarök, that Thor will clash with Jörmungandr the final time.

In Slavic mythology we learn of the evil serpent Veles who ascends from the underworld and steals something of value to the sky god Perun. Perun, using lightning bolts, would vanquish Veles back to his underground realm annually.

His deadly axe, like Thor’s mighty hammer was used to subdue evil and overcome the iniquitous serpent Veles. It too would return to his hand after being thrown.

In Irish mythology, the magical weapon of the hero of Ulster Cúchulainn is the Gae Bolga or lightning spear. Cúchulainn fights and kills his childhood friend and foster brother, Ferdia with this magical weapon.

The Gae Bolga is described as a dart or spear, which separates into multiple barbs when entering the body, causing fatal wounds. It was next to impossible to withdraw once it had impaled the body. The Irish Book of Leinster describes the devastating effects of the Gae Bolga as such:

“It entered a man’s body with a single wound, like a javelin, then opened into thirty barbs. Only by cutting away the flesh could it be taken from that man’s body.” – Book of Leinster

In China, the legend of Hua-hu Tiao Devours Yang Chien describes a magical spike carried by Huang T’ien Hua which sounds remarkably similar to Indra’s vajra:

“The Chin-kang, deprived of their magical weapons, began to lose heart. To complete their discomfiture, Huang T’ien Hua brought to the attack a matchless magical weapon. This was a spike 7 1/2 inches long, enclosed in a silk sheath, and called ‘Heart-piercer.’

It projected so strong a ray of light that eyes were blinded by it. Huang T’ien Hua, hard pressed by Mo-li Ch’ing, drew the mysterious spike from its sheath, and hurled it at his adversary. It entered his neck, and with a deep groan the giant fell dead.” – Myths & Legends of China – E. T. C. Werner

Finding myths, with similar storylines, and their corresponding images in relatively close geographic areas, while interesting, does not fully support the universality of the gods.

When we uncover similar narratives and corresponding imagery, in remote regions of the world, this concept takes on a more serious tone. Myths of a vajra-like weapon are found all over the world.

In Australia, the sky gods, the Wati Kutjara brothers, wield a magical boomerang, Wo-mur-rang or club. Boomerangs are known for their ability, once thrown, to return to their owner. Legend states that their father Kidili attempted to rape some of the first women. Throwing their wo-mur-rang, they castrated their father where he disappeared into a water hole.

Vajra Like Weapons In The New World

In the new world we encounter a similar deadly lightning weapon used by the sky gods. In the Aztec culture there is the god Huitzilopochtli. Huitzilopochtli, with his weapon Xiuhcoatl, “the fire serpent”, killed his sister Coyolxauhqui soon after he was born.

The Mayan rain deity Chaac and the later Aztec Tlaloc are both are depicted carrying their lightning axe. Sometimes they are depicted holding snakes, which represent lightning bolts, which they would hurl from the mountaintops where they made their retreat.

In Peru, we find the god Illapa who is described as a man wielding a club in his left hand and a sling in his right.

A variation of the lightning motif is the concept of the thunderstone. It is believed that thunderstones fall from the sky when the gods are battling each other. This idea is widely held throughout Africa.

The Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria, for example, believe their axe carrying storm god Shange creates thunder and lightning and casts “thunderstones” down to earth. The elders of this culture would search wherever lightning struck for these magical stones.

The thunder-producing weapon, the vajra, is only one example of the enormous number of commonalities found in myth, legend, culture and iconography around the world.

Similarities exist throughout Greek, Sumerian, Norse, Aztec, Australian and American cosmology. These parallels include the gods, their lives and their amazing weapons. They also include the laws and customs that govern our lives – the very fabric of society.

The universality of symbolism found around the world implies something else. Weapons, like the vajra, were not born from the imagination of man. They did not come into being as part of a culture’s evolution. They were real. They were tangible.

Someone somewhere in our remote past saw it and documented it. It is only through an actual encounter with a marvelous weapon that emitted thunder that a clear and specific portrayal of it could be made.

Likewise, if tools like the vajra are genuine then we are forced to accept that the gods who wielded these weapons were factual individuals as well. This newfound knowledge would open the door to a revolutionary new understanding of who we are.

It would challenge the basis of our society and could cause us to reevaluate not only our place in the universe, but everything we hold to be true.

According to author and researcher Wayne Herschel, the Vajra was not a weapon, but a device capable of opening stargates to other planets (even though it could have easily been both).

Wayne Herschel’s research is very compelling and the evidence that he gathered is in support of his claims.

According to Herschel, “the Trident forks called Vajra create the opening of the cosmic conduit wormhole star gate.”

Wayne is a veteran decoder of ancient star maps and he was able to find significant evidence that the Vajras were being used as portal openers by the ETs that we worshiped as gods in ancient times:

But, in my opinion, Wayne Herschel’s greatest achievement was to locate the actual sun and orbiting home planet of those who interfered with our species for eons:


Mysterious and Mighty Magical Weapons of the Ancients

Humankind has always pursued better ways to more effectively kill each other. It is the nature of the beast for us to want the means to gain the upper hand against our enemies, to better and annihilate them if need be. We have been in a perpetual arms race since time unremembered, practically since the first flickers of consciousness danced within our ancestor’s brains, going from hand, to stick, to stone, to sword, and beyond, ever trying to outdo those who would threaten or oppose us. In a great many tales throughout history there have been those who succeeded in gaining the ultimate weapon, in the form of artifacts of incredible magical might, which decimated the enemy with their supernatural power but which today remain buried and lost in time. Here are tales of fantastical mystical objects of war, weapons with godlike powers, and magical military might.

Some of the most famous and indeed most mysterious mystical weapons of the ancient world are biblical in nature, and perhaps none is as well-known as the fabled Lost Ark of the Covenant, best known to most as the Nazi face melting MacGuffin from the popular film Raiders of the Lost Ark, but it is an actual artifact with a long tradition of mystery. The Ark itself was supposedly an ornate, gold gilded chest that held the stone tablets onto which had been written the Ten Commandments given to Moses by God. The Ark was said to be built around 3,000 years ago based on plans that were revealed in a vision from God Himself that Moses had while Israel was camped at the foot of Mt. Sinai. The Book of Exodus says that after the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt, Moses was called to the top of Mt. Sinai by God and was given two tablets inscribed with the Ten Commandments, after which he later received his vision outlining the design of the Ark in order to transport the tablets.

The Ark is said to be made up of intricately gold plated acacia wood, and to be adorned with a crown of pure molded gold and two large, golden angels. The Bible describes its dimensions as approximately 131×79×79 cm or 52×31×31 inches. The Ark was carried with the use of two poles that were put through four rings arranged at its four feet. Far from being merely a vessel in which to transport the tablets, the Ark was believed to be the actual throne of God, and that wherever it went, He went as well. The Ark was only carried by powerful priests, and was always totally concealed from view by blue cloth and lamb skins, and not even the priests themselves were allowed to look upon it. The Israelites carried the Ark with them during their 40 year trek across the desert, during which time it was usually carried around 2,000 cubits in front of their army, and it proved to be a powerful weapon in their plight.

There are numerous accounts of the Ark unleashing its alleged mighty, godlike powers. In 1,400 BC, when Joshua led the Israelites across the Jordan River into The Promised Land, the Ark is said to have caused the waters to stop flowing and dry out, allowing them all to pass unhindered. On another occasion, the Israelites besieged the city of Jericho, with God commanding that the Ark be carried around the perimeter of the city once a day for seven days while blowing on trumpets crafted of ram horns. On the seventh day, the Israelites gave out a thunderous shout, and the once formidable and impenetrable walls of the city of Jericho spectacularly collapsed to the ground in a cloud of dust and pieces, allowing the Israelites to enter.

The Ark would go on to be used against the Philistines in battle, with the hopes that this powerful weapon would help the Israelites ultimately win. However, God had not ordered the Israelites to go to war with the Philistine army, and was displeased that the Ark would be used without His consent. Subsequently, the Israelites lost the war and the Ark was captured by the Philistines, who hoped that they would now be able to harness its vast holy powers for their own ends. Unfortunately for them, rather than a great ally, the Ark proved to be more of a curse upon them, causing misfortune wherever it went, such as disease and even a plague of mice. After seven months of the Ark bringing them nothing but misery, the Philistines returned it to the Israelites, and it was taken to the village of Beth-shemesh. Here it would once again display its vast power when a large group of curious villagers decided to look upon it and were immediately struck down dead by its almighty wrath.

The Ark would ultimately end up in Jerusalem, where it was housed in a temple built by King Solomon. In 587 BC, the Babylonians descended upon the city, destroying everything in their path, including Solomon’s Temple, where the Ark had been kept. It is not known what happened to the Ark of the Covenant after this, and it has through the years become one of the most mysterious and most highly sought after ancient relics in the world, with countless quests to try and locate it. Next to the Holy Grail itself, there is perhaps no other Biblical relic that has inspired so many to try and obsessively hunt it down. Was the Ark destroyed? Was it hidden away before the sacking of Jerusalem? Was it stolen? Did it ever really even exist at all? These are questions for which no one has any definitive answers, but there are many who have tried to figure them out.

Since the Ark’s disappearance there have been numerous theories as to its whereabouts, with its location estimated to be in wildly varying places, from Africa to even Japan, and occasional claims to have even found it. One recurring theory is that the Ark was whisked away by the Knights Templar, but where they hid it remains unclear, with the Chartres Cathedral crypt, the Languedoc region of France, or the Rosslyn Chapel in Scotland being popular choices. Other theories revolve around the idea that during the destruction of Jerusalem at the hands of the Babylonians, the Ark was spirited away and hidden somewhere in a vast warren of passages beneath the First Temple. Since this site is home to the Dome of the Rock shrine, which is sacred in Islam, it is impossible to conduct any sort of excavation here to see if the story has any truth to it.

One very prominent theory is that the Ark was moved to a secure place far from Jerusalem, in Ethiopia. In Aksum, Ethiopia there is a place called the Church of St. Mary of Zion, where the Ark is said to be interred. A lone monk has been given the duty of guarding this sacred relic, never leaving the church and constantly, dutifully keeping watch over it. It is said that the monk devotes his entire life to the Ark’s safekeeping, after which another will be given the duty upon his death. It is difficult to determine just how genuine this claim is, as no one but the solitary monk is allowed to enter the church, and only this one guardian is allowed to lay eyes upon the Ark. The church could be housing anything or nothing at all. No one knows, and the location of the Ark of the covenant and indeed whether it ever even really existed at all remain unknown.

Another fairly remarkable supposed Biblical weapon of potent magical might is the Spear of Destiny, or also called the Spear of Longinus, which is said to have been forged by the ancient Hebrew prophet Phineas, as well as being the very one used by the Roman centurion Longinus to stab Christ during the Crucifixion and which is rumored to grant its wielder the power to rule the world. Indeed, the legend explicitly states, “whosoever possesses this Holy Lance and understands the powers it serves, holds in his hand the destiny of the world for good or evil.” This legend is perhaps why a long list of leaders, kings, emperors, and conquerors throughout recorded history have sought it out and even claimed to have held it, such as Attila the Hun, Herod the Great, Constantine, Maurice the Manichean, Alaric, Theodoric, Charles Martel, Charlemagne the Great, Frederick Barbarossa, Heinrich I the Fowler, Otto I the Great, and Pope John XII, among many others, all of whom reported great successes with the spear.

The problem is, the spear has been lost to history and it is not even certain if these leaders had ever held the actual Spear of Destiny or if it even really existed or not. Indeed, there are scores of conflicting tales of what happened to the spear, where it went, and even what it looked like, all made more confusing by the fact that there were said to be numerous fakes and recreations that had been crafted over the centuries. During Constantine the Great’s alleged tenure with the relic his spiritual advisor, Eusebius of Caesarea, described it:

It was a long spear, overlaid with gold. On the top was fixed a wreath of gold and precious stones, and within this the symbol of the Savior’s name, two letters indicating the name of Christ by means of its initial characters – those letters the emperor was in the habit of wearing on his helmet at a later period. From the spear was also suspended a cloth, a royal piece, covered with a profuse embroidery of most brilliant precious stones and which, being also richly interlaced with gold, presented an indescribable degree of beauty to the beholder. The emperor constantly made use of this sign of salvation as a safeguard against every adverse and hostile power, and commanded that it should be carried at the head of all his armies.

None other than Adolf Hitler himself was long fascinated by the Spear, a fascination which started long before he was even the notorious Nazi leader, back when he was just a humble art student. As he toured the Hofsburg Treasure House in Vienna in 1912, his eyes fell upon one of the lances rumored to be the actual Spear of Destiny, which had been housed there for safekeeping after a long history of changing hands and being lost and found again numerous times. There was no certainty at all that the gilded lance that was in Vienna, which was referred to as the Holy Lance of Longinus, was the actual legendary Spear of Destiny, and in fact there were other such relics around the world that made the same claim at the time, but Hitler himself certainly seems to have been convinced that it was, saying of first time he saw it:

I knew with immediacy that this was an important moment in my life…I stood there quietly gazing upon it for several minutes, quite oblivious to the scene around me. It seemed to carry some hidden inner meaning which evaded me, a meaning which I felt I inwardly knew, yet could not bring to consciousness…I felt as though I myself had held it in my hands before in some earlier century of history – that I myself had once claimed it as my talisman of power and held the destiny of the world in my hands. What sort of madness was this that was invading my mind and creating such turmoil in my breast?

Alleged tip of the Spear of Destiny at Vienna

Believing this artifact to be the real Spear of Destiny, one of the first things he did when the Nazis took Vienna in 1938 was to steal it for himself and have it sent it off to Nuremburg, and there have even been theories that Hitler’s real reason for starting World War II was to get a hold of it. Whether this is true or not, Hitler got his spear, although it does not seem to have granted him great power when he needed it the most, and his planned invasion of England failed, followed by his devastating defeat at the Battle of Normandy on June 6, 1944. After this it is not clear just what happened to Hitler’s supposed Spear of Destiny. It was supposedly returned to Vienna, but there are theories that this was actually a clever fake and that the real one is still out there.

One theory is that it was hidden away in one of the many underground bunkers, caves, caverns and catacombs that the Nazis used to store the numerous treasures they had looted from their enemies. Another is that it was kept by the Allied forces, and the famous general George S. Patton was allegedly obsessed with it, even believing himself to be a reincarnation of someone who had wielded it in the past, and he made great efforts to convince the United States to retain it and give back a fake to Austria. In this scenario the real spear is still in the possession of the United States, and is even the reason why the country has managed to remain such a top world power for so long. Still another idea was that the SS leader Himmler took it and that it now resides in the care of a secret society he formed called “The Knights of the Holy Lance.”

An even wilder theory was put forward in Dr. Howard A. Buechner’s 1988-89 books Hitler’s Ashes – Seeds Of A New Reich and Adolf Hitler and the Secrets of the Holy Lance, in which he claims that the Nazi leader had the spear sent to a secret base out in Antarctica after the war, after which it was recovered again in 1979 by an expedition led by a mysterious individual known as Col. Maximilian Hartmann, which has in turn raised conspiracy theories that the real Spear of Destiny is in the possession of this shadowy cabal bent on world domination. In the end, although we know Hitler did steal this lance, no one has any idea of whether it was the real Spear of Destiny, and in fact we have no idea at all of whether it was ever a real object to begin with, or if it is just where the genuine artifact is located. The Spear of Destiny has become a magnet for various conspiracy theories, and the insane stories of Nazi involvement have gone on to become the stuff of movies, comic books, and legend. The real whereabouts of the Spear of Destiny and whether it really holds its legendary vast powers are a mystery.

Staying on the Biblical theme we come to the legendary Staff of Moses, also called the “Rod of God” or “The Staff of God,” first mentioned in the Book of Exodus, and which was according to the lore imbued with powers beyond imagination by God Himself when he encountered Moses at the burning bush atop Mount Horeb. God supposedly began by turning Moses’ staff into a serpent and then back into a staff, upon which it was shown to have an array of powers that would become apparent throughout his journeys. Among the feats Moses was said to perform with the staff were producing water from stone and of course parting the Red Sea, among others.

One of the greatest shows of power Moses demonstrated with the staff was during the Battle at Rephidim, in which the Israelites clashed with the Amalekites. At some point in this fierce melee, Moses is said to have simply held the staff up in the air and proclaiming that they would prevail, which made it so. According to the story, whenever he lowered his staff the enemy would begin winning again, and so he held the Staff of God up high until the enemy was vanquished. In Biblical lore, the brother of Moses, Aaron, is also said to have been in possession of a magical rod, perhaps even the very same one, which he used to turn the Nile blood red and help usher in the Plagues of Egypt.

Of course with such a powerful artifact there has long been speculation as to whether it ever really existed, and where it might be now. The main theory is that it was passed down for generations by the Judean Kings, after which it disappeared when the First Temple was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem in 587 BC. In this version of events, the staff was either destroyed itself, or was carried away by the exiled Jews as they fled. The Staff of Moses has also been variously claimed to have been put on display at the Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Turkey, along with other Holy relics, or that it was claimed by Muslims and sequestered away along with the Tablet of Moses. In the end no one really knows what happened to this potent weapon of ancient might or whether it was ever real at all.

Of course there are such powerful and legendary weapons outside of the confines of the Bible and from other places in the world, and one of these is a mysterious weapon from ancient India called the Vajra, which appears in ritual object in the lore of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Said to be a weapon of the gods, in particular the Vedic sky-god, Indra, the Vajra is typically described as being fashioned of a material that is as hard as diamond and widely touted as being completely indestructible, as well as being possessed of vast powers such as hurling thunderbolts. It features most notably in the story of Indra’s battle against the evil demons Asuras, Namuchi and Vritra, after being forged by the divine carpenter Tvashta on orders of the supreme god Vishnu. The Vajra is often described as being thrown at enemies to cause mass devastation, and one description says it was an “indestructible thunderbolt blazed like a meteoric fireball across the heavens, in a maelstrom of thunder, fire and lightning.”

The weapon itself is typically said to look like a metal shaft-like handle tipped with an array of sharp prongs like daggers at the end reminiscent of a lotus flower, although it is also said to have been once transformed into a scepter by the Buddha Shakyamuni. It was supposedly forged from iron and gold mixed with bronze or stone in a certain magical combination, and besides its powerful energy bolts and indestructibility, the Vajra was also said to have the ability to cut through any substance, control the weather, and also had the power to banish darkness and bring fertility. Interestingly, legends of very similar weapons can be found in various far-flung cultures, including Chinese, Sumerians, Norse, Slavic, and Irish myths. There have long been claims that the legendary Vajra is housed at some temple or another, but this is unsubstantiated. In the end we don’t know. Is there any truth to the Vajra, and did it even exist? Was it possibly even some form of ancient technological device? Who knows?

The island nation of Japan too has its stories of god-like magical weapons, and perhaps the most popular is the tale of what is known as the Muramasa’s swords. Among the greatest and most legendary of Japan’s famed swordsmiths was the one called Muramasa Sengo, who lived and pursued his craft during the Muromachi period (14th-15th century AD). Both Muramasa and his school of sword making were renowned for the extraordinary quality and sharpness of their blades, which made the weapons highly prized and sought after by warriors and generals. Indeed, Muramasa became well regarded as being one of the finest swordsmiths who had ever lived, but he also became notorious for his rather brash, volatile nature, and a dark curse that was increasingly believed to imbue his famed swords.

Many of such rumors began with the abrasive, venomous personality of Muramasa himself. In addition to being obviously a brilliant swordsmith, he was also purported to be rather insane and prone to flying into sudden fits of violent rage, during which he would lash out at anyone unlucky enough to be nearby. This unbalanced mind, which teetered on the brink of total madness, combined with his relentless perfectionism and unbridled passion for crafting lethal swords to congeal into an unstable mix of genius, bloodlust, intense focus, and insanity, and these qualities were said to be mystically passed on to the katana he forged. Adding to this was Muramasa’s alleged habit of feverishly praying to whoever would listen that his swords become “great destroyers,” and his swords gained a rather ominous reputation despite their popularity and high demand.

Numerous dark and sinister qualities were increasingly attributed to the supposed curse of Muramasa’s swords. Perhaps the most persistent was that the swords had a tendency to possess their wielders in a sense, sending them into a berserk battle rage and in some versions granting them superior swordsmanship, and bestowing them with temporary superhuman strength and resistance to pain and damage. The cursed Muramasa swords were also said to have a thirst for blood, and that if they weren’t sated by that spilled by the enemy then they would turn on their owners, forcing them to commit suicide to appease them. Indeed, it was often said that as soon as a Muramasa blade was drawn it ruthlessly demanded blood before it could be replaced back into its scabbard, meaning almost certain doom for the wielder if there was no one else around to vent the sword’s bloodlust upon. Even when not drawn the swords were said to sometimes hungrily call out to be released, or to try and compel their owners to go out hunting for some poor soul to murder.

Although undeniably potent weapons formidable in battle, this dark curse allegedly made the swords and their wielders dangerous for everyone around them. Many tales sprung up of Muramasa swords turning on their owners, lashing out to strike down and drink in the blood of anyone within reach, including not only enemies, but allies and even family members, which the wielder could do nothing to stop while held in thrall to the sword’s evil frenzy. Tales describing samurai armed with Muramasa swords lashing out at dear friends, allies, and family as they watched helplessly as their own bodies cut them down were numerous. At their most bloodthirsty and rage-fueled the swords were said to hardly discriminate between friend and foe, and used their owners merely as instruments with which to help them kill. It was not uncommon to hear of the owners of Muramasa swords slowly going insane as they were warped and twisted to their weapons’ demonic will, sometimes killing themselves to escape the dark, madness inspiring prison.

This sinister reputation eventually ended up being further fueled when the Tokugawa Shogunate, which was the last feudal government in Japan, was established in 1603 by the shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu, who firmly believed that Muramasa blades were cursed, and blamed them for the deaths of many of his friends, allies, and relatives. Indeed, apparently the shogun’s father, Matsudaira Hirotada, and his grandfather, Matsudaira Kiyoyasu, were both cut down when their retainers were overcome by a murderous trance while wielding such swords. Tokugawa even claimed that he had been badly cut by a Muramasa katana that was being carried by one of his samurai guards as he inspected his ranks. In later days his own wife and adopted son were allegedly executed using a Muramasa blade. All of this stoked rumors that Muramasa swords had it in for the Tokugawa family, and that they had a special affinity for killing members of his clan.

This notion became so prevalent that Ieyasu Tokugawa eventually banned Muramasa katana in his domain. Many of them were subsequently melted down or otherwise destroyed, but since they were so revered for their sheer quality others were hidden or had any distinguishing features altered or removed, even in the face of severe punishment for owning one, typically the forcing of the guilty party to commit ritual suicide, or seppuku. Despite this, Muramasa katana continued their trajectory to legendary status. Considering these katana were thought to be able to seek out and kill the shogun and his family, there was also a renewed demand for the swords among Tokugawa’s enemies, which resulted in some enterprising lesser swordsmiths forging clever fake replicas for profit. In fact, because of the number of such forgeries crafted during this era it is to this day difficult to reliably tell if a purported Muramasa katana is authentic or not. Were there ever magical cursed katanas in feudal Japan. It remains a mystery.

With such stories as we have looked at here, it is nearly impossible to disentangle pure myth and legend from any reality, and these powerful artifacts remain firmly lodged into the world of speculation and the unknown. Were these truly instruments of the great mystical powers they attributed with or are they merely mythical constructs? Did they exist but were exaggerated by spectacular tales? There are many who believe that if they do indeed exist then such artifacts are still out there somewhere, hidden away where we may never find them. With all of the fantastical stories orbiting them, these ancient weapons of magical might will probably retain their secrets until when they are found, if ever.


Zeus and his Thunderbolt

As mentioned above one example of the Vajra existing in other Cultures is within Greek mythology, depicting Zeus (Sky Father) and his Weapon of Lightning. Zeus was the youngest son of the Titan, Cronus (The devourer of children), and Rheia (both children of Ouranos and Gaia). Cronus would devourer every recently born child he would have, Rheia however didn’t let that happen to Zeus so she fled and handed him over to Mount Dikte. Once he grew older, Zeus recruited Metis to his cause, where she later served the Titan Cronus (Zeus Father) a magical drought. This caused the Titan to spit out all the Six-Giant sons he had eaten. It is said that, in gratitude for that act, the Weapon of Lighting was given to Zeus by the Cyclops, the master builders, who were at the time of the great battle imprisoned by the Titans. Zeus eventually defeated the Titans and the Hundred-Headed Serpent Typhon.


The earliest historic event was the migration of the Ethiopian humans to Australia. With civilisations establishing in different parts of the globe humans evolved socially always in a forward direction. Though some regressions took place locally due to conflicts and deseases, human societies always sprung back. Events like the extiction of dinosaurs did not occur in the relatively small time frame of human evolution on this planet. Therefore it is difficult to believe that such weapons of mass destruction existed in the past. When imagination runs riot anything can be said but without supporting paleontological evidence such tales can only be treated as myths.

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About the AuthorBy profession, Petros Koutoupis is a software developer and anentrepreneur. When not overwhelmed with being a goodhusband and an excellent father (of two), and during the littlefree time he may have, Petros enjoys immersing himself withtopics of ancient history and theology. He is fluent in thelanguage of Greek, and has been a self-taught student ofSeptuagintal Greek and Biblical Hebrew for quite some timewith additional knowledge in Aramaic, Ugaritic, and Akkadiangrammar. His work focuses specifically on the Iron Age of bothMesopotamian and Levantine history and as of recent years,Late Bronze Age Greece, leading to a quest to unravel themysteries of our history.Author website: www.PetrosKoutoupis.comProject website: www.AnAgeOfHeroes.comTwitter: www.twitter.com/pkoutoupisGoogle+: plus.google.com/+PetrosKoutoupisGoogle+ Page: plus.google.com/+Anageofheroes 48

The Vajra: An Ancient Weapon of War By Dr. Rita LouiseThe vajra is the most important ritual implement of VajrayanaBuddhism. In Sanskrit, the word vajra is defined as somethinghard or mighty, as in a diamond. It symbolizes an impenetrable,immovable and indestructible state of knowledge andenlightenment.Our knowledge of the vajra goes back to deep antiquity. Textsindicate that the vajra was not always a symbol of peace andtranquility but something very different. It first appears inancient India where it was the primary weapon of the Vedicsky-god Indra, the king of the Devas. According the HinduPuranas, the evil Asuras, Namuchi and Vritra removed all of thelight and moisture from the earth. It made the landinhospitable to living beings. Indra battled the demon godsunsuccessfully and as a last resort called upon their supremegod Vishnu for help.Vishnu informed him that only a weapon that was neither solidnor liquid could kill Namuchi and Vritra. Vishnu had the divinecarpenter Tvashta fashion Indra a marvelous weapon he coulduse to vanquish the dreadful Asuras. This new weapon, thevajra, emitted thunderbolts. With it, Indra annihilatedNamuchi and Vritra and returned the much needed light andmoisture back to the earth. The Rigveda describes this conflictthus.Now I describe the glorious deeds of Indra, who holds Vajra. Hekilled the serpent and made waters flow. He broke the hearts ofmountains. 49

He killed the serpent, which was taking refuge in mountain.Tvashta made the Vajra for him. Like the cows making sounds,flowing waters reached the sea.Mighty Indra chose Soma, and drank from three containers.Generous Indra held Vajra in his hand, and killed first bornamong the serpents.- Rigveda 1.32The vajra, when used, was thrown at one’s opponent. NitinKumar, in his article Ritual Implements in Tibetan Buddhism,tells us, “As a hurled weapon the indestructible thunderboltblazed like a meteoric fireball across the heavens, in amaelstrom of thunder, fire and lightning.” Figure 1. A traditional image of a vajraTraditional images of the vajra (Figure 1.) depict it as a metalshaft with three, five or nine prongs that emanate from lotusblossoms on either end. Originally, according to the ancientIndian text the Rigveda, when Indra used his vajra it had openprongs (Figure 2.). Buddhist legend suggests that Shakyamuni,the Buddha himself, took the vajra from Indra and forced itsprongs closed, thus transforming it from a destructive weaponinto a peaceful scepter. 50

Figure 2. A vajra with open prongsScholars contend that there is no relationship between Indian,Greek, Australian, and Norse mythology, nor the cosmology ofthe Americas. They believe that each civilization conceived oftheir gods independently and that a deeper, older, universaltradition does not exist. If this were the case, then thefoundation of these societies their myths, traditions, beliefsand iconography should be unique to them, their location andtheir history. The tales of war, intrigue and conquest that comeout of American history are vastly different from those ofEngland, France, India and China. So too are the customs,traditions and the symbols that represent the nation. Yet whenwe look at a wide range of ancient and indigenous groups apattern of commonality exists. Myths and symbols found inIndia readily appear in the oral and written descriptions ofother cultures. They also appear in their artistic images. Theserepresentations seem to transcend time and location.The symbol of thunder or a thunderbolt as a tool of destruction,for example, surfaces in many ancient civilizations. Mythologyunfailingly associates lightning with a sky god, the god ofthunder, who uses it as a weapon.In the western world, the thunderbolt is most readilyassociated with the Greek sky god Zeus. With it, he defeated theTitans and took control of the Greek pantheon. Myth tells us,that Zeus freed the Cyclopes, the master builders, who wereimprisoned in the depths of the underworld - Tartarus. In 51

gratitude for their release, they gave him a marvelous weapon,the thunderbolt. In another story, Zeus used his formidableweapon to battle the largest and most fearsome creatures in allof Greek mythology, the hundred-headed serpent Typhon.Early images of Zeus depict show him holding a rod likethunderbolt, while others show this deadly weapon with itsends splayed into three prongs (Figure 3.). Figure 3. Left: Zeus is depicted with a rod-like thunderbolt. Right: Zeus holds a thunderbolt with ends splayed into three prongs.A vajra-like weapon also appears in Sumerian cosmology. Itsuse is recorded in the Babylonian Epic of Creation, the EnumaElish. A battle between the sky god Marduk (Bel) and serpentTiamat is detailed on the fourth tablet of this ancient document.The evil and powerful Tiamat, according to the Enuma Elish,was devising treacherous plans against Ea and the otherreigning gods. The gods were afraid to invoke her evil wrathand search for a solution. Ea attempted to confront Tiamat, butinstead of fighting, backed down. Marduk, his son, steppedforward and volunteered to fight the enraged serpent, on onecondition… if he were successful, he would have dominion overthe entire universe. 52

The gods agreed and provided Marduk with mighty weaponsincluding a bow, a mace and a net to use in his battle againstTiamat. Images of this epic scene show Marduk holding a threetipped scepter in his hand (Figure 4.). Subsequent imagesclearly depict this same deadly three-pronged weapon (Figure5.). Figure 4. Marduk depicted with a three tipped scepter Figure 5. Marduk fighting Tiamat with the three-pronged weapon 53

They gave him the unrivalled weapon, the destroyer of theenemy [saying]:\"Go, cut off the life of Tiâmat.\"Let the wind carry her blood into the depth [under the earth].\"The gods, his fathers, issued the decree for the god Bel.They set him on the road which leadeth to peace and adoration.-Enuma ElishThe Rigveda also offers an alternative description of the vajra.Some texts represent it as a notched metal club with thousandsof prongs. We find this form of the vajra in numerous othercultures. The most well-known stories that portray the vajra inits club-like form come from Norse cosmology. They areassociated with the sky god Thor. His mighty hammer Mjölnirwas the most fearsome weapon in Norse mythology. Images ofthe thunder god Thor traditionally show him carrying hismighty hammer. Some texts describe Mjölnir as a hammer,while others refer to it as an ax or club.The master builders, the dwarfs, in the depths of the earth,made Mjölnir. The Norse Skáldskaparmál, which can be foundin the Snorri's Edda, describes Mjölnir as a hammer whichwould not fail. As a weapon, it could level mountains. It goes onto state that if aimed it at anything it would never miss itstarget. It informs us that in addition to never missing its target,it would always find its way back to the hand of its owner.Thor used his mighty hammer to battle his deadliest foe, thegiant serpent Jörmungandr. In these tales, the MidgardSerpent, Jörmungandr is not killed. It would not be until nearthe end of the world in the apocalyptic battle of Ragnarök, thatThor would clash with Jörmungandr the final time. 54

In Slavic mythology, we learn of the evil serpent Veles whoascended from the underworld and stole something of valuefrom the sky god Perun. Perun, using lightning bolts, wouldvanquish Veles back to his underground realm annually. Hisdeadly axe, like Thor’s mighty hammer was used to subdue eviland overcome the iniquitous serpent Veles. It too would returnto his hand after being thrown.In Irish mythology, the magical weapon of the hero of UlsterCúchulainn is the Gae Bolga or lightning spear. Cúchulainnfought and killed his childhood friend and foster brother,Ferdia with this magical weapon. The Gae Bolga is described asa dart or spear, which separates into multiple barbs whenentering the body, causing fatal wounds. It was next toimpossible to withdraw once it had impaled the body. The IrishBook of Leinster describes the devastating effects of the GaeBolga as such:It entered a man's body with a single wound, like a javelin, thenopened into thirty barbs. Only by cutting away the flesh couldit be taken from that man's body.” - Book of LeinsterIn China, the legend of Hua-hu Tiao Devours Yang Chiendescribes a magical spike carried by Huang T'ien Hua whichsounds remarkably similar to Indra’s vajra.The Chin-kang, deprived of their magical weapons, began to loseheart. To complete their discomfiture, Huang T'ien Hua broughtto the attack a matchless magical weapon. This was a spike 7 1/2inches long, enclosed in a silk sheath, and called 'Heart-piercer.'It projected so strong a ray of light that eyes were blinded by it.Huang T'ien Hua, hard pressed by Mo-li Ch'ing, drew themysterious spike from its sheath, and hurled it at his adversary.It entered his neck, and with a deep groan the giant fell dead. -Myths & Legends of China – E. T. C. Werner 55

Finding myths, with similar storylines, and their correspondingimages in relatively close geographic areas, while interesting,does not fully support the universality of the gods. When weuncover similar narratives and corresponding imagery, inremote regions of the world, this concept takes on a moreserious tone. Myths of a vajra-like weapon are found all overthe world. In Australia, the sky gods, the Wati Kutjara brothers,wield a magical boomerang, Wo-mur-rang or club. Boomerangsare known for their ability, once thrown, to return to theirowner. Legend states that their father Kidili attempted to rapesome of the first women. Throwing their wo-mur-rang, theycastrated their father where he disappeared into a water hole.In the new world we encounter a similar deadly lightningweapon used by the sky gods. In the Aztec culture there is thegod Huitzilopochtli. Huitzilopochtli, with his weaponXiuhcoatl, “the fire serpent”, killed his sister Coyolxauhqui soonafter he was born. The Mayan rain deity Chaac and the laterAztec Tlaloc are both depicted carrying their lightning axe(Figure 6.). Sometimes they are depicted holding snakes, whichrepresent lightning bolts, which they would hurl from themountaintops where they made their retreat. In Peru, we findthe god Illapa who is described as a man wielding a club in hisleft hand and a sling in his right. 56

Figure 6. Aztec god Tlaloc depicted carrying a lightning axeA variation of the lightning motif is the concept of thethunderstone. It is believed that thunderstones fall from the skywhen the gods are battling each other. This idea is widely heldthroughout Africa. The Yoruba of southwestern Nigera, forexample, believe their axe carrying storm god Shange createsthunder and lightning and casts \"thunderstones\" down toearth. The elders of this culture would search whereverlightning struck for these magical stones.The thunder-producing weapon, the vajra, is only one exampleof the enormous number of commonalities found in myth,legend, culture and iconography around the world. Similaritiesexist throughout Greek, Sumerian, Norse, Aztec, Australian andAmerican cosmology. These parallels include the gods, their 57

lives and their amazing weapons. They also include the lawsand customs that govern our lives - the very fabric of society.The universality of symbolism found around the world impliessomething else. Weapons, like the vajra, were not born fromthe imagination of man. They did not come into being as partof a cultures evolution. They were real. They were tangible.Someone somewhere in our remote past saw it anddocumented it. It is only through an actual encounter with amarvelous weapon that emitted thunder that a clear andspecific portrayal of it could be made.Likewise, if tools like the vajra are genuine then we are forcedto accept that the gods who wielded these weapons werefactual individuals as well. This newfound knowledge wouldopen the door to a revolutionary new understanding of who weare. It would challenge the basis of our society and could causeus to reevaluate not only our place in the universe, buteverything we hold to be true.Copyright © 2015 Rita Louise Inc. – www.soulhealer.com 58

About the Author:Bestselling author, Dr. Rita Louise is the host of Just EnergyRadio and the Founder of the Institute Of Applied Energetics.She is the author of the books The ET Chronicles, Avoiding TheCosmic 2X4, Dark Angels and The Power Within as well ashundreds of articles that have been published worldwide. Sheis also the producer of the videos iKon: Deconstructing TheArchetypes Of The Ancients, The Truth About The Nephilim andDeceit, Lies & Deception: The Reptilian Agenda. Dr. Rita hasappeared on radio and television and has spoken atconferences covering topics such as health and healing, ghosts,intuition, ancient mysteries and the paranormal.Website:http://www.soulhealer.comRadio Show:http://www.justenergyradio.com 59

Stonehenge: Mounds, Artifacts, and Intrigue By Maria WheatleyStonehenge stands within a vast ritual landscape. Encircling thetowering stones was once over 800 round mounds adding tothe temple’s splendour. From within these enigmatic moundssome of the finest artifacts have been unearthed. They are thearchaeological Holy Grail to understanding the spirituality anddaily life of a culture long gone. Monuments like Stonehengepreserve their mathematical, astronomical and engineeringcapabilities like a megalithic library. Written in stone they area legacy of their incredible achievements.Bronze Age (c2500-750 BC orthodox dating) burial goods, suchas jet from the Baltic, beads form Egypt and delicate andintricately designed gold artifacts reveal international tradeand artistic craftsmanship. Such finds adorn several Britishmuseums attracting publicity and attention.Yet, some of the mound artifacts are very intriguing andchallenge our understanding of ancient Britain. My researchhas located documented evidence of an entire skeleton of agiant unearthed just one mile from Stonehenge, which was ‘13feet and 10 inches tall’, strange metal objects and curious chalkplaques all of which were found in the round mounds ofSalisbury Plain. Interestingly, the old English name forStonehenge was The Giant’s Dance perhaps the medieval namewas derived from the large skeletons that have been found inand around Salisbury Plain. 60

Figure 1. The Giant’s Dance - The old name for StonehengeSalisbury PlainStonehenge stands like a guardian overlooking the vastSalisbury Plain. The area is managed by the MoD (Military ofDefence) and it contains numerous prehistoric monuments. Iliken it to Area 51 in the USA as it contains military ‘no-go’zones. The armed services use it to practice manoeuvres, tolaunch laser guided weapons and as an intense firing range.Round mounds are plentiful in and around the Plain, some ofwhich housed burials, although not all are so easily explained.One fascinating find came from a Plain barrow that wasexcavated in 1955. The excavated skull showed signs ofsurgery. Initially, a blanket explanation was given – the skullhad been trepanned. Trepanning is a surgical technique ofscraping out a deep round groove in part of the skull. It wasthought that prehistoric trepanning may have been applied torelieve epilepsy, serve headaches and even cataracts.Archaeologists say our ancestors thought these illnesses werecaused by evil-spirits. 61

Thus, in one particular view, trepanning was partly a shamanicresponse to alleviate symptoms. One image portrays a shabbylooking caveman hacking away at a skull of an uncomfortablepatient which implies a primitive and superstitious people thatdid not fully understand the implications of their surgicalactions. Such Dark Age medieval association is, I believe, atinsult to our prehistoric forefathers.Prehistoric cancer treatmentAccording to archaeological dating the surgery occurredbetween c2000 and 1600 BC. Roger Watson, a DocumentationOfficer of finds, Devizes Museum, Wiltshire postulates that theyoung man underwent a major surgical operation for ‘a braintumour that involved the cutting away of a disk of bonemeasuring 32 mm in diameter from his cranium. The cut wasprobably made with a blade made of flint which is razor sharp.What was used for an anaesthetic or to sterilize, to close thewound we don't know at all.’Around the Stonehenge environs, numerous Bronze Agepatients survived this type of repeated operation. Flint is razorsharp and an ideal medium for fine cutting and scraping.However, the young man whose skull was investigated byWatson lived in an era when copper was widely available.There is evidence that copper metal may have been used tomake surgical instruments that supported the surgeon’s flintknife. We know that a surgeon’s operational kit is far more thanjust knives.Whilst the skull is defiantly an artefact unearthed by anantiquarian centuries ago, which has only recently been re-examined by Watson, who, incidentally has pushed theboundaries of prehistoric medical awareness away from 62

superstition into an objective surgical dimension. Thankfully,we are now eroding the restrictions of intellectual arroganceand beginning to see prehistory in a new light.Compared to other regional monumental sites, such as thenearby Avebury Henge, or sites further afield such asmegalithic sites in Scotland, the Stonehenge mounds have astatistically higher proportion of trepanned skulls. Stonehengemay have been England’s first surgical capital.Let us consider another unusual artefact that may have beenassociated with prehistoric surgery, which is worthy of ourscholarly attention. Not far from Stonehenge, was anextraordinary ‘round barrow cemetery’- labelled as such byarchaeologists in the 1950s - yet only a few of the moundsactually contained burials. Centuries ago, this was recognizedby an antiquarian who observed: I cannot help remarking ofhaving found so many empty cists [barrows]. Figure 2. Round mound on Salisbury Plain 63

One of the larger mounds, sadly removed by the plough, wasthe exact dimension of Stonehenge cannot be coincidental.Standing out from the other barrows due to its exaltedelevation it gained the attraction of antiquarian enquiry. Deepwithin the mound was a cremation and a wooden box, inside ofwhich was a wooden sheaf lined with fabric ‘the web of whichcould still be distinguished’ some 4200 years later – so wellpreserved the artefact within the confines of the mound. Whenopened they saw a copper (or brass) instrument which isshown below (left). Its corroded dimensions are similar to apair of household scissors some 6.75 inches long, Instantly explained as an ‘article of ornament rather than utility’ has stuck for centuries. The latest theory purports it to be a scarf or cloak pin yet intriguingly it appears similar to past surgical instruments that were commonly used in the medieval period (right). Similarities like this should not be dismissed. In addition, whilst it may be a scarf pin, it must be noted that it was found in close proximity to an actual trepanned skull, which is © Maria Wheatley of little consequence to the archaeologicalanalysis of the object. By expanding the limitations of orthodoxinterpretation, we potentially have evidence of surgicalprocedures preserved in bone and brass, located close to oneanother amid one of the most unusual mound complexes inEngland. The patient went on to live for many years after hissurgery testified by his perfectly healed bone. 64

Artifacts and strange mound burialsWhen it comes to artifacts the most widely documented findsin the Stonehenge environ is the famous Bush Barrow. This isbecause the skeleton of ‘a stout man’ was accompanied withexquisite gold burial goods. Most books and websites onStonehenge have written of this remarkable find. However, wewill focus on some more unusual and thitherto unreportedfinds. The following illustrations that accompany my researchwere taken from Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine. Theextensive volumes can be easily accessed at the UK’s NationalMonuments Records Office, Wiltshire, UK.A few miles south of Stonehenge and gracing the Salisbury Plainwas another exceptionally large barrow that instantly arousedthe attention of early excavators. Village rumours had hintedthat the ancient round barrows housed gold and so shepards,farmers and small landowners believing they were about to hita golden jackpot reached for their shovels. Previously, themounds had stood virtually unmolested for nearly 4000 years.If these early gravediggers did not find gold they simply threwaway the artifacts. However, a few were kept and later passedon to antiquarians that were more serious.Within one mound an extraordinary burial of an ‘extremelylarge man’ was unearthed and at his feet there was ‘a massivehammer of dark-coloured stone’. Other curious findsaccompanied him, one of which was an object of twisted copperor brass. Theories abound as to what it was - from a dog collar- to a bucket handle! Whilst the giant skeleton and the massivehammer may be far more interesting than the brass object, allhave seemingly vanished into the ethers. 65

Other artifacts that were commonly found in Plain barrows were circular shaped pieces of perfectly crafted copper. Once again, we are promptly informed that they were ‘ornamental’ or ‘ritualistic’. Yet, they may have been a part of a much largerobject or instrument that was ambiguously described. Longsince lost, the real meaning behind these well-made metallicobjects remains elusive.I must point out that the mounds from whence these artifactscame were very different from other mound burials. Unusualartifacts were housed in unusual mounds. Mounds which werelarger in elevation were often coined king or monarch moundsby antiquarians who instantly observed their distinctive traits.See for yourself how different the finds are. Most Bronze Agemounds are attributed to the Beaker people said to beEuropean migrants entering the British Isles from c2000 BConwards. Within these Beaker mounds, it was commonplace tohave cremated bones interned in a cup or vase shaped object -called a Beaker - and often with spear like objects or beads asshown below. Rarely are beakers found alongside the moreunusual artifacts. Figure 3. Beakers found in mound burials 66

We are looking at two different eras of burial one of whichprecedes the other and unlike archaeologists I suggest themore complex finds are earlier. We need to remember that thegeological features of the Stonehenge environs are problematicto preservation. Rainwater reacts to the chalk/calcium to forma weak hydrochloric acid and alongside ploughing hasremoved, in places, layers of chalk, systematically erasing thepast. Thus, remains are invariably found in features such aspits, ditches and burial mounds.One pit artefact which is particularly interesting andexceptionally well preserved will be discussed. Found deepwithin the pit hints that it was purposely deposited a bit like atime capsule.An image of Stonehenge?In a previous article for Ancient Origins, I wrote about theMesolithic activity in the Stonehenge environs, a possibleMesolithic wooden temple and a town. The Mesolithicpostholes close to Stonehenge were excavated in the late 1960sby Lord and Lady Vatcher. Whilst enthusiastic about excavatingthe ritual landscape they lacked the high standard andrequirements of modern day archaeological procedure.Nonetheless, during a dig in 1967 they located and cleared adeep and curious pit on the high ground east of Stonehengecalled King Barrow Ridge. This was once the settlement area ofthe people that built the large Cursus monument - a massiveearthen enclosure that coursed for 1.75 miles to the north ofStonehenge which looked like a gigantic container. The walls ofthe monument, long since ploughed, were some 6-8 feet high(c40000-3800 BC orthodox dating). 67

Within the pit lay two unusual chalk plaques and an antler pickwhich was used to carbon date the finds to c2900-2580 BC. Theantler pick may have had nothing whatsoever to do with thechalk plaques yet it was used to date the entire locale. The areawas also covered with Neolithic houses centuries before otherdomestic sites such as Durrington Walls. There were alsodistinct traces of a much earlier Mesolithic settlement (8000–4000 BC). Evidently, the area was known and occupied formillennia. It has been questioned whether or not the Vatchers’excavated the chalk plagues from a Mesolithic midden pit.Debate continues.Interestingly, one of the chalk plaques shows a stylized design similar to that of Stonehenge’s outer circle of linteled stones and may have been a sketch belonging to that era. However, if the artefact was from the Mesolithic period, the chalk plaque was some five thousand years older than Stonehenge. Thus, was the plaque a sketch of aninspired vision of that which was to come, a concept born in theso-called Dark Ages of the Mesolithic era and then ritualisticallydeposited into the deep pit? Understandably, one cannot placean entire plan of a monument upon one singular stylizedsketch. Nonetheless, if we overlook artifacts in a dismissivemanner we will lose sight of that which we are looking for, andproverbially throw the baby out with the bathwater.Sacred water, holy springClose to the deep pit was a spring that may have been reveredas medicinal by our Neolithic ancestors. In the ancient world,the sign for water that transcended cultural divides was thechevron pattern and even the ancient Egypt hieroglyph ΛΛ or 68

‘mu’ means water, as does the zodiacal sign of Aquarius (GreekZodiac). Another plague, which was found close to the spring,consisted of chevron patterns and I surmise that is wasrepresentative of the nearby Stonehenge spring water. Filteredthrough the chalk and pure subsoil’s the water would haverisen to the surface mineral rich. Incidentally, as a secondgeneration water diviner I know that underground streams‘emit’ a chevron pattern whilst coursing through rockysubsoil’s, which was first noted by the water diviner BenjaminTompkins in 1899, and I find it intriguing that this was aprehistoric way of expressing water. Figure 4. King Barrow Ridge. A row of Bronze Age mounds crown the hilltopYears later during the Bronze Age, King Barrow Ridge was apeaceful place. Numerous mounds were constructed thatcrowned the hilltop and eternally gazed towards Stonehenge.Undisturbed some mounds await excavation their secrets stillheld tight. The deep pit and old settlements were long gone bythe Bronze Age. Undoubtedly, inherited memories bestowedmeaning and serenity to all that visited for they knew the 69

meaning of this evocative landscape that time has lost. Today,the fast, intrusive and ugly A303 main road drowns out thesound of the skylarks, and memories of the past, as car after carwhizzes by and more alarmingly low flying military aircraftand flares disturb the ancestors of their slumber.Counterintuitive progress creeps ever closer in the guise ofroad improvements. The long debated Stonehenge tunnel maywell ease the sound of traffic but the air above will still bepoisoned with military noise. And even if the tunnel did get thego ahead – it has been mooted prior to every general electionfor nearly half a century - what would they find deep in thearteries that bypass Stonehenge? Would any unusual orspectacular archaeological find be reported to the generalpublic, to enliven the news, Facebook or Twitter? A few yearsago, a stone circle was found close to the new Stonehengevisitor’s centre which at the time should have made headlinenews. Around 30 metres wide and containing 22 stone (orpost) holes the circle was intimately related to its parentStonehenge. ‘Because this was a commercial operation (forclients of English Heritage), the results were confidential and thefind couldn’t be revealed to the public’, reported Stonehengearchaeologist Michael Parker Pearson. Even this top expert wasapparently denied the opportunity to thoroughly investigatethe site and went on to say ‘without archaeological excavationit’s impossible to know when this circle was constructed. Onlywhen it is investigated by spade and trowel will we know whetherit had anything to do with Stonehenge’.For many years now, we have known that Stonehenge has atleast nine stone circles surrounding it, and I predict that thereis more, probably totalling 12. Archaeological surveys in mypossession some 60 years old hint that they were bluestonecircles. New finds lie just beneath the surface, some of which 70

will be shown to be over 10,000 years old and date back to themysterious and elusive Mesolithic era, as was the case at theBlick Mead Mesolithic settlement close to Stonehenge. Let usnot forget that Stonehenge was a gigantic ceremonial centreand as new information is imparted we step ever closer to thepeople that constructed one of the wonders of the ancientworld.Copyright © 2015 Maria Wheatley 71

About the AuthorMaria is an international lecturer and an accomplished author. Herlatest book Divining Ancient Sites – insights into their creation exploresthe physical and metaphysical properties that underpin monumentalsites worldwide.Maria also leads tours of ancient sites as well as one-day workshopsexploring locations such as Avebury Henge, Stonehenge andGlastonbury. In 2015, Maria will host two unique tours of theSalisbury Plain, a restricted area of MoD ownership, which housessome extraordinary monuments rarely seen or visited by the generalpublic. For international visitors, Maria will be co-hosting an 8-daytour of some of the most spectacular ancient sites in SouthernEngland.Maria is also a professional tutor and runs the Avebury School ofEsoteric Studies, which teaches many subjects to certificated level. Theschool is afflicted to the prestigious Association of BritishCorrespondence Colleges ABCC. Maria is currently researching andwriting a new book From Stonehenge to Serpent Mound and her recentdiscoveries unveil many new insights into European and Americanmonumental building programme that unite distant cultures. Thebook exploresareasof prehistorythathave been thoroughlyneglectedand Maria will present a new, breathtaking vision of the ancient worldand the profound knowledge of its architects.www.theaveburyexperience.co.uk / [email protected] 72

Memnon’s Musical Statue By Ahmed OsmanThe most important statues in Egypt, after the Giza Sphinx, arethe two Colossi of Memnon in Western Luxor. The two giganticstatues, about 3500 years old, are also known as the musicalstatues. Figure 1. The two statues of MemnonThese massive twins of stone belonged to Pharaoh AmenhotepIII, who is known as being King Solomon of Egypt, with apeaceful empire and many wives. The king ordered the statuesto be erected in front of his memorial temple on the west bankof the Nile, opposite Luxor, ancient Thebes in Upper Egypt, torepresent the two natures of Man in ancient Egyptian beliefphysical and spiritual. They depict Amenhotep III in a seatedposition, his hands resting on his knees and his gaze facing 73

eastwards towards the Nile. Two shorter figures are alsocarved into the front of the throne alongside his legs: these areof his wife Tiye and his mother Mutemwiya, while the sidesdepict the Nile god Hapy.Figure 2. Side panel detail showing two flanked relief images ofthe deity Hapy and, to the right, a sculpture of the royal wife TiyThese Memnon statues are made from blocks of quartzitesandstone, which was quarried at el-Gabal el-Ahmar (nearmodern-day Cairo) and transported 675km (420mi) overlandto Thebes in the south. Including the stone platforms on whichthey stand – themselves about 4m (13ft) – the colossi reach atowering 18m (60ft) in height and weigh an estimated 720 tonseach, while the two figures are about 15m (50ft) apart. 74

Egyptologists disagree on the location where the Memnonstatues were carved while some believe that the statues weresculpted in the quarry and brought by boat to their presentposition, others suggest that the stone was brought to thelocation and the statues were made there. In any case, it isbelieved that Amenophis, Son of Habu, the great Egyptianarchitect, was responsible for the building operation of both theking’s memorial temple and his statues.Originally the two statues were identical to each other,although inscriptions and minor art may have varied. But nowthey are quite damaged, with the features unrecognizable, theupper levels consist of a different type of sandstone, and are theresult of a later reconstruction attempt by the Romans.The function of the Memnon Colossi was to guard the entranceto Amenhotep III’s memorial temple: a massive construct builtduring the pharaoh’s lifetime, where he was worshipped as agod-on-earth both before and after his departure from thisworld. When it was built, this temple complex was the largestand most opulent in Egypt. Covering a total of 35 hectares (86acres) even the Temple of Karnak, as it stood in Amenhotep’stime, was smaller. 75

Figure 3. Aerial view of the Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep IIIThe Israel SteleIt was here at the site of Amenhotep III’s mortuary temple thatFlinders Petrie, the British archaeologist, found the stele ofMerneptah, son of Ramses II, which is now in the CairoMuseum, and is known as the Israel stele. Merneptah used astele of Amenhotep III’s temple, to record on its other side theaccount of his victory over some Libyan invaders who camefrom the west, and included the Israelite among the Canaanitenations under his control. This is the only mention of “Israel” inany Egyptian text. However, while all other Canaanite nationsmentioned in the Merneptah stele have a determined location,Israel has only a man and woman determinative – drawingsshow only a couple rather than a map – indicating that at thattime they had not yet established a political entity, and werestill semi-nomadic people. 76

Figure 4. The Merneptah SteleAmenhotep IIIAmenhotep III sat on the throne at the start of the 14th centuryBC, when he was just 12 years old. Although he married hisinfant sister Sitamun to gain the right to the throne accordingto Egyptian customs, Amenhotep married the girl he loved inhis second year of reign, Tiye, the daughter of his minister Yuya,and insisted on making her his Great Royal Wife (Queen). Tocommemorate his marriage with Tiye, the king issued a largescarab and sent copies of it to foreign kings and princes. Whatshows how much the king loved Tiye is the fact that her name,unlike that of any other queen before, was placed in a royalcartouche, a distinction previously limited to the ruling 77

Monarch. Furthermore, she is represented in art as being ofequivalent stature to the king. Figure 5. A marriage scarab of Amenhotep IIILeaving the royal residence at Memphis, Amenhotep built aroyal palace, Malkata, across the Nile at Thebes, close to hisfunerary temple, and a summer palace within the border city ofZarw in northern Sinai.Amenhotep III’s rule, which extended for about 38 years at thestart of the 14th century BC, marked the zenith of ancientEgyptian civilization, both in terms of political power andcultural achievement. His reign was a period of unprecedentedprosperity and artistic splendor, when Egypt reached the peakof its artistic and international power. His reign was one ofpeace and prosperity due to more international trade andstrong gold supply, not conquest and expansion. In order tokeep the empire he inherited between the northern RiverEuphrates and southern Nubia safe, the king also married some 78

royal princesses from Mitanni, Babylonia and Anatolia, and hada large Harem of more than 300 women.Before the end of his life, however, Amenhotep III suffered fromsome painful teeth problems, which his priests could not cure,so he brought the image of the Mesopotamian Goddess Ishtarhoping that it could relieve his pain. The goddess, however,failed to cure Amenhotep III, who died at the age of 50.AkhenatenAmenhotep III was followed on the throne by Amenhotep IV,his son from Queen Tiye whom he loved. The young king, wholater changed his name to Akhenaten, abandoned thetraditional Egyptian polytheism, introducing the worship ofone God, Aten, who is not represented in an image.As well as religion, Akhenaten also introduced a new kind of artthat completely differed from the traditional Pharaonic art ofhis predecessors. Colossi and wall-reliefs from the Aten Templeare highly exaggerated in relation to the formality and restraintwhich characterized ancient Egyptian art. Figure 6. Bust of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) 79

Musical statuesWith the exception of the damaged Memnon’s two Colossi,however, today very little remains of Amenhotep’s memorialtemple in Western Thebes. As it stands on the edge of the Nilefloodplain, successive inundations gnawed away at itsfoundations, and the Colossi were completely surrounded bywater. Figure 7. The Colossi of MemnonThe Greek geographer Strabo, writing in the early years of thefirst century AD, tells of an earthquake that took place in 27 BC,which shattered the northern colossus, collapsing it from thewaist up. Following its rupture, the statue was then reputed tosing every morning at dawn: a light moaning or whistling,probably caused by rising temperatures and the evaporation ofdew inside the porous rock. 80

This was supposed to be the voice of mythological Memnonresponding to the greeting of his mother, Eos, and they wereequated by the early Greek travellers with the figure ofMemnon, the son of Aurora whose mother, Eos, was thegoddess of dawn. The legend of the “Vocal Memnon”, the luckthat hearing it was reputed to bring, and the reputation of thestatue’s oracular powers, travelled the length of the knownworld, and a constant stream of visitors, including severalRoman Emperors, came to marvel at the statues.This curious phenomenon was attributed to the passage of airthrough the pores of the stone, caused chiefly by the change oftemperature at sunrise. Nevertheless, following the restorationof the statue by the Roman emperor Septimius Severus beforethe end of the second century AD, the sounds ceased.Memnon was said to be the son of Aurora the goddess of themorning. Memnon was also a hero of the Trojan War, a King ofEthiopia who led his armies from Africa into Aria Minor to helpdefend the beleaguered city but was ultimately slain byAchilles. Whether associating the Colossi with his name wasjust whimsy or wishful thinking on the part of the Greeks – theygenerally referred to the entire Theban Necropolis as the“Memnonium” – the name has remained in common use for thepast 2000 years. 81

Figure 8. Memnon in an engraving by Bernard Picart (1673–1733)In 2014 archaeologists discovered some missing parts of theMemnon Colossi statues, buried at the entrance of AmenhotepIII’s mortuary temple. A European/Egyptian archaeologicalmission discovered a collection of quartzite blocks that belongto the northern colossus, including a part of the statue’s arm, apainted belt and a man’s wrap skirt, which helpedarchaeologists in reconstructing both colossi so it can bereturned to their original glory.The quartzite blocks from the colossi have been missing sincean earthquake destroyed the mortuary temple in antiquity.Little remains now on the site, besides the statues, and variouspieces of the statues are still lying on the site, threatened byconstant irrigation of the privately-owned agricultural fieldsthey stand on.Copyright © 2015 Ahmed Osman 82

About the AuthorAhmed Osman is an Egyptian-born author who has beentrying to find the link between the stories of the Bible andancient Egyptian history. Born in Cairo in 1934, he studied lawin the university before working as a journalist. He moved toLondon in 1965, where he joined the Egypt ExplorationSociety, and studied the history and language of ancient Egypt.He also taught himself biblical Hebrew, and researched thehistory of both the Bible and the Kuran, before trying to lookfor origin of the biblical stories in Egyptian sources. 83

Lost Ancient High Technology in Egypt By Brien FoersterMost people know of the great construction achievements ofthe dynastic Egyptians such as the pyramids and temples of theGiza Plateau area as well as the Sphinx. Many books and videosshow depictions of vast work forces hewing blocks of stone inthe hot desert sun and carefully setting them into place.However, some of these amazing works could simply not havebeen made by these people during the time frame that we calldynastic Egypt.Up until the 7th century BC there was very little iron present inEgypt, as this material only became commonly used once theAssyrians invaded at that time in fact, the ancient Egyptiansregarded iron as an impure metal associated with Seth, thespirit of evil who according to Egyptian tradition governed thecentral deserts of Africa. A few examples of meteoric iron havebeen found which predate the Assyrians, but this consistslargely of small ornamental beads.The very basic problem that arises is that we find at many ofthe ancient sites in Egypt finely crafted works in basalt, granite,quartzite and diorite which are very hard stones that can't beshaped efficiently even by hardened iron tools. For most of thehistory of Egypt the tools used to shape stone consisted ofhardened bronze, which is much softer than iron. In this articlewe will see examples of ancient hard stone workmanship whichsimply could not have been created during the dynasticEgyptian time frame of about 2500 to 1500 BC, when mostacademics believe they were made. Only a few examples will bediscussed, and far more can be seen and read about in my LostAncient Technology Of Egypt book. 84

We start in Aswan, which is close to the border of Sudan, and itis here that we find the famous unfinished obelisk, and anothersmaller one, still attached to the granite bedrock. Figure 1. The large unfinished obelisk in the Aswan quarryArchaeologists claim the female ruler known as Hatshepsut,who came to the throne in 1478 BC sanctioned the constructionof the bigger of the two. It is nearly one third larger thanany ancient Egyptian obelisk ever erected. If finished, it wouldhave measured around 42 m (approximately 137 feet) andwould have weighed nearly 1,200 tons. The greatest questionsthat arise are, what tools could have been used to shape this 85

massive stone monument, and how were the Egyptiansplanning on raising it out of the pit in which it sits, taking intoaccount its immense size. To the former, most Egyptologistsbelieve that round and hand held stone dolerite pounders werethe main tools being used. Figure 2. Dolorite pounders on top of a piece of pink Aswan graniteIn basic terms, any tool should have a greater hardness than thematerial being cut or shaped. The pink granite of which theunfinished obelisk is composed has a Mohs hardness that sitsbetween the scale of 6 and 7, (the maximum being diamond at10) and thus is more or less the same hardness as dolerite,making the latter a poor material for shaping the former. Andbronze, the other tool substance known to and used by theancient Egyptians is much softer, being on average 3.5 on theMohs scale. 86

Other problems encountered at the unfinished obelisk is thatthere is very little room inside the trench to be able to create ahard blow, and such repeated efforts could also break thedolerite tool. According to engineer and expert machinistChristopher Dunn, author of Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt:Advanced Engineering in the Temples of the Pharaohs:'The unfinished obelisk offers compelling indirect evidenceregarding the level of technology its creator’s had reached – notso much by indicating clearly what methods were used, but by theoverpowering indications of what methods could not have beenused.'The idea that hand held pounders were responsible for theshaping of the unfinished obelisk has to be dismissed, and yet,what kind of technology could possibly have been responsible?Chris Dunn's opinion is that if one observes the pattern left bythe tool which did the actual shaping, especially in the walls ofthe trenches that surround the unfinished obelisk, there is aneven pattern which would unlikely have occurred if hand toolssuch as the pounders were used. According to Chris:'The horizontal striations are typical in cutting when the feed ofa tool that is removing material pauses along its path, withdrawnto remove waste, and the interruption of the tool leaves a markon the surface. Also, it could be that as the tool was rocked backand forth against the walls of the trench to clear the waste on thevertical wall, horizontal striations appeared where the toolpressed the cutting surface against the side wall to keep thetrench from narrowing.' In other words, some form oftechnology which the dynastic Egyptians simply did not have.And so this begs the question if the dynastic Egyptians couldnot have done this work, and the later Greeks and Romans werenot responsible, then who did and when? We have no choice 87

but to entertain the idea that a civilization existed before whatwe call the pharaohs and in fact had forms of what we wouldcall high technology, and that these people lived in the areaprior to 3100 BC. Figure 3. “Scoop marks” beside the smaller of the two obelisksMany will of course ask where the tools are that could havedone work such as this. We do know that strange devices andmaterials have been found in archeological sites in differentparts of the world, and have been labeled, boxed and hidden outof view because they do not fit the conventional historicalparadigm. Sir William Flinders Petrie was one of the greatEgyptologists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Petriefound a number of core drills, many of which are now housedin the museum named after him at the University CollegeLondon in London England. The actual hollow drill bits havenot been found, but the cores made of limestone, alabaster,granite and other stones have. 88

Chris Dunn spent hours in the Petrie museum and was allowedto personally examine some of the drill cores. Here he discussesthe characteristics of one of them:'The most fascinating feature of the granite core Petrie describesis the spiral groove around the core indicating a feed rate of0.100 inch per revolution of the drill. It was 500 times greaterthan modern diamond drills, but the rotation of the drill wouldnot have been as fast as the modern drill's 900 revolutions perminute.' Figure 4. Granite drill core in the Petrie MuseumThe often times quoted idea that these drill cores wereachieved using a bow and copper tube with sand used as an 89

abrasive must be thrown out, as no modern replication of thesecores has been done to the level of efficiency as discussedabove.Making excavations in 1936, in the archaeological zone ofSaqqara, Petrie discovered the Tomb of Prince Sabu, who wasthe son of Pharaoh Adjuib, governor of the I Dynasty (3,000 BC.)Between utensils of funeral objects that were extracted,Emery's attention was powerfully drawn to an object that heinitially defined in his report on the Great Tombs of the IDynasty as: 'a container in the form of schist bowl.' Years later,in his previously mentioned work, Archaic Egypt, hecommented on the object with a word that perfectlysummarizes the reality of the situation and the discomfort theobject causes \"cachibache\" (a small hole that threatens tobecome a much larger hole.)According to the typical and expected view of thearchaeologists and Egyptologists, this object is no more than atray or the pedestal of some candelabrum, with a design aproduct of blind chance. I am personally quite amazed that sucha controversial piece is still on display in the Cairo museum,and wonder what even odder objects are hidden away in theirwarehouses. 90

Figure 5. The famous schist bowl or diskAt Karnak, which is a huge temple complex, we find manyexamples of ancient core drill holes, and one whose diameter isgreater than a human hand. As you can see in the photographthe wall of the drill itself was thinner than 21st centuryexamples, and even engineers and mining experts that haveseen it cannot explain what material the drill would have beenmade of to maintain its shape and stability at being so thin. 91

Figure 6. Large drill core at KarnakAnother perplexing site is what is called the Serapeum atSaqqara, containing massive granite boxes which manyacademics believe were created during dynastic times.However, the boxes in the Serapeum are examples of whatengineers such as Chris Dunn, I, and members of the KhemitSchool have major problems with as regards the conventionalEgyptologists’ explanations. According to the latter, in the 13thcentury BC, Khaemweset ordered that a tunnel be excavatedthrough the solid limestone bedrock, with side chambersdesigned to contain large granite sarcophagi weighing at least70 tonnes each, to hold the mummified remains of prize Apisbulls.Manufacturer Chris Dunn is a man who knows what precisionsurfaces look like, as he has been involved in making complexmetal parts for the aviation industry for decades. He hasstudied the boxes in the Serapeum many times, and has been 92

able to measure the flatness of their granite and limestonesurfaces using precise gauges. The following are his thoughts,as found in an article on his website www.gizapower.com:'The granite box inside Khafre's pyramid has the samecharacteristics as the boxes inside the Serapeum. Yet the boxes inthe Serapeum were ascribed to the 18th dynasty, over 1100 yearslater when stone working was supposedly in decline. Consideringthat this dating was based on pottery items that were found andnot the boxes themselves, it would be reasonable to speculatethat the boxes have not been dated accurately. Theircharacteristics show that their creators used the same tools andwere blessed with the same skill and knowledge as those whocreated Khafre's pyramid. Moreover, the boxes in both locationsare evidence of a much higher purpose than mere burialsarcophagi. They are finished to a high accuracy their cornersare remarkably square, and their inside corners worked down toa dimension that is sharper than what one would expect to findin an artifact from prehistory. All of these features are extremelydifficult to accomplish and none of them necessary for a mereburial box. 93

Figure 7. Yousef Awyan feeling the smoothness of the surfaceThe manufacturers of these boxes in the Serapeum not onlycreated inside surfaces that were flat when measured verticallyand horizontally, they also made sure that the surfaces they werecreating were square and parallel to each other, with onesurface, the top, having sides that are 5 feet and 10 feet apartfrom each other. But without such parallism and squareness ofthe top surface, the squareness noted on both sides would notexist.While it may be argued that modern man cannot impose amodern perspective on artifacts that are thousands of years old,an appreciation of the level of precision found in these artifactsis lacking in archaeological literature and is only revealed by anunderstanding what it takes to produce this kind of work. As anengineer and craftsman, who has worked in manufacturing forover 40 years and who has created precision artifacts in ourmodern world, in my opinion this accomplishment in prehistorydeserves more recognition. Nobody does this kind of work unless 94

there is a very high purpose for the artifact. Even the concept ofthis kind of precision does not occur to an artisan unless there isno other means of accomplishing what the artifact is intended todo. The only other reason that such precision would be created inan object would be that the tools that are used to create it are soprecise that they are incapable of producing anything less thanprecision. With either scenario, we are looking at a highercivilization in prehistory than what is currently accepted. To me,the implications are staggering. Figure 8. Astonishing precision of one of the Serapeum boxesThis is why I believe that these artifacts that I have measured inEgypt are the smoking gun that proves, without a shadow of adoubt, that a higher civilization than what we have been taughtexisted in ancient Egypt. The evidence is cut into the stone.' 95


5 Fletched Javelin

Most of us know that javelins were commonly used across the Greek and Roman worlds. However, many don&rsquot know that javelins were used well into the medieval period and beyond.

In fact, medieval javelins were more advanced than their ancient counterparts and were a lot more accurate. These special medieval weapons, often called fletched javelins, had feather fletchings at the bottom of their shafts which steadied the javelin in flight.

They resembled giant arrows and appeared semi-regularly in medieval artwork. They were also built differently from regular javelins, with crafters using lighter, less durable wood but larger and heavier heads to cause more damage on impact. They found considerably more use in the early medieval period, which then declined as the popularity of the longbow and crossbow grew.

The fletched javelin was also used in other parts of the world. In the Americas, native cultures used a special kind of sling known as an atlatl. This wooden tool could be used to launch a fletched javelin with twice the strength of a regular throw just by flicking the wrist. A similar leather sling was used by the ancient Greeks to launch javelins, but that stopped well before the Middle Ages. [6]

There isn&rsquot an exact term for these medieval javelins, though they are most commonly referred to as either fletched javelins or war darts. As they are thrown and have fletchings, they are technically darts. They probably wouldn&rsquot be accepted by your local darts club, though.


Below is the list of the most deadly weapon considered above all others in Hindu epics.

1. Trishula

Trishula is a three spear headed weapon carried by Lord Shiva himself and is considered the most powerful weapon that upon unleashed can be heavily destructive and cannot be stopped or controlled by any means except for Shiva himself. The Trishula can nullify any supernatural weapons existed.

2. Sudharshana Chakra

Lord Krishna in Mahabharata

Sudharshana Chakra is a spinning disc-like weapon with 108 serrated edges seen on the index finger of Lord Vishnu. It was gifted by Lord Shiva to Vishnu that was formed from the dust of the sun and scraps taken from the trident of Shiva and made by the architect of Gods – Vishwakarma.

3. Pashupatastra

Shiva gives Pashupatastra to Arjuna

According to Hindu theory Pashupatastra is the most powerful weapon after the weapons of Lord Shiva and Lord Vishnu. It is the most irresistible and destructive weapon that is discharged by the mind, the eyes, the words, or a bow. In Mahabharata epic, Arjuna received it from Lord Shiva but never came into use.

4. Brahmanda Astra

Image by Nisachar on DeviantArt.com

Brahmanda is believed to manifest the 4 heads of Brahma, which can nullify most of all the powerful weapons released at it. This weapon can even swallow Brahmastra and neutralize it. It was created by Saptarishis to counter any weapon ever created. Brahmarishi Vashistha used it in defense to Vishwamitra’s attack of all divine weapons.

5. Brahmashira

Brahmashira is considered 4 times more powerful weapon than Brahmastra. When used, it can devastate the place to such great deal leaving it infertile for decades. Indrajit (Meghanada) used it in Ramayana epic killing 670 million Vanaras. In Mahabharata, Aswasthama used it to finish the dynasty of Pandavas.

6. Narayanastra

Narayanastra, when used, would create millions of arrows and a disc-like weapon that is considered very destructive. It is one of the weapons that had to be obtained from Lord Vishnu in the form of Narayana which can be used only once in a lifetime.

7. Bhargavastra

Artwork by jubjubjedi on DeviantArt

Bhargavastra is a weapon of Parashurama given to Karna which when used inflicts more powerful weapons, powerful than the Indrastra. It can destroy the whole planet if not retracted.

8. Vajrayudha

Vajrayudha, Vajra, in short, is the weapon of Indra, King of devas, It released bolts of powerful lightning making it one of the most powerful weapons known.

9. Teen Baan

Teen Baan is a weapon of Barbarika in Mahabharata Epic that he received as a boon from Devi Siddhidatri. It is believed if Barbarika participated in the Mahabharata war, he could finish the war in 30 seconds with the use of Teen Baan. The weapon is an arrow used 3 times, one to choose the target, other to choose the target to be saved and third to destroy all the targets not chosen.

10. Brahmastra

Brahmastra is the most popular and known weapon in Hindu stories and it’s very destructive considered as powerful as nuclear weapons today. When released could be very disastrous as well as it can counter other supernatural weapons in defense.


Texts define his lyrics. this: Diamond, Thunder Axe, a bunch of lightning crossed, acting as a symbol of the deities of the true teachings of the Buddha.

In ind. Vajra mythology was known long before Buddhism as thunderous ax god Indra and other gods.

Her epithets: copper, gold, iron, stone, with 4 or 100 angles, 1,000 teeth.
Vajra may look the disk and can be cross-shaped.

She attributed the ability to cause rain and be a symbol of fertility.
In Buddhism, the image of Vajra is that the captured lightning in the middle of the beam with curved ends (known single, double, triple, krestoobr. Variants).

In Sanskrit, the word means both "Lightning" and "diamond".
Vajra is a mace or scepter symbolizes strength and indestructibility.
It can be interpreted as one of the world axis images, recording the impact on the bottom of the upper world.

Originally vajra is an attribute of Indra, the god of thunder.
It is known as the destroyer of demons, led the gods against the asuras. Killer snake Vritra, Indra crushed his fiery club, vajra, beating, so chaos, releasing water, created life and the sun.

Vajra acts as a central symbol of one of the branches of Buddhism — Vajrayana (The name of which is connected with this subject), where it embodies the absolute and indestructible being in opposition to the illusory idea of reality.

Like a bolt of lightning, Vajra makes its way into the darkness of ignorance like a diamond, it destroys the remaining indestructible.

Symbolizes masculine, way, compassion, activity usually kept in her right hand.
Pair vajra Vajrayana is subject to the bell, ghanta, symbolizes the feminine, fruit, wisdomit is held in the left hand.

Bell with a handle in the form of the vajra represents the power of faith.
Vajra has five metal rods, four of which, with curved ends in a horizontal plane, are located around the center, forming a kind of a lotus flower.

Vajra of nine rods, is less common. She is portrayed as a scepter and is an attribute of many Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.

Vajra is used as a symbol and as a weapon in India, Nepal, Tibet, Bhutan, Siam, Cambodia, Myanmar, China, Korea and Japan.

Excerpts from the book by prof. Torchinov EA (S-Pb.)
"Introduction to Buddhism — a course of lectures" (lecture 7).


Early in the second half of I millennium BC. e. in Mahayana Buddhism gradually emerges and formed a new direction, or Jan ("Chariot"), known as Vajrayana or Tantric Buddhism, and this trend may be the final stage of the development of Buddhism in their homeland — in India.

The word vajra, part of the name "Vajrayana" was originally used to refer to the Indian thunderous scepter of Zeus — the Vedic god Indra, but gradually changed its meaning. (See note. 1.) The fact that one of the meanings of the word "Vajra" — "diamond", "adamant". Within Buddhism, the word "Vajra" began to be associated with one hand, initially perfect nature waking consciousness, this indestructible diamond, but on the other — the very awakening, enlightenment, like a thunderclap or a momentary flash of lightning. Buddhist ritual vajra, just as ancient Vajra, is a type of scepter symbolizing the awakened consciousness, and Karuna (compassion) and upayu (skillful means) in opposition prajna — upaya (prajna and emptiness symbolizes the ritual bell, Connection vajra and bell in the hands of the priest crossed ritual symbolizes awakening as the result of integration (yugannadha) wisdom and method, of emptiness and compassion. Consequently, Vajrayana word can be translated as "The Diamond Chariot", "Thunder Chariot," etc. The first translation is most common.

  • Vajra — short metal rod with symbolic analogy with diamond — can cut anything but himself — and lightning — the irresistible force.
  • In Hindu mythology — a gear drive, Thunder Axe Indra
  • Vajra is a magic wand Initiates followers
  • Its forged for Indra singer Ushana.
  • Vajra was forged for Indra Tvashtar
  • It is made from the skeleton sage — hermit Dadhichi.
  • There is a version that originally symbolized the phallus vajra bull.
  • Vajra was associated with the sun.
  • Fourfold or has crossed vajra symbols close to the symbolism of the wheel.
  • Vajra is five bodies Dhyani Buddhas.
  • Vajra means skill or upaya.
  • Vajra symbolizes strength and determination.
  • Vajra symbolizes the male principle, the way compassion.
  • Vajra is interpreted as a sign of fertility.
  • Vajra represents the absolute and indestructible being, as opposed to the illusory idea of reality.
  • Vajra in conjunction with a bell involves merging the male and female nature.
  • Vajra symbolizes the indestructible state.
  • Vajra symbol luminous indestructible nature of mind.
  • Vajra symbol of the power of the Buddha on the evil spirits or elementals.

One Of The Most Dangerous Weapons Of The Gods?

An unknown, terrible and powerful ancient weapon could have contributed to the collapse of one or several advanced technologically civilizations that existed in the distant past.

Could it be that the mysterious and terrible vajra - a powerful thunderbolt throwing light - was one of such unbelievable weapons?

When in the early twentieth century, people began to understand the unbelievable potential of radioactive decay, they also began to understand that it was not the first time the existence of a radioactive isotope appeared in the history of humankind.

The artifact can be found in many places. This one is in an ancient religious complex atop a hill in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

This concept was proposed by Frederick Soddy (2 September 1877 – 22 September 1956), an English scientist who in fact, predicted the existence of a radioactive isotope but Soddy also suggested that there was once an ancient but extremely advanced civilization capable of harnessing of energy of nuclear reactions.

However, due to the misuse of this source of energy, this ancient civilization was almost completely destroyed.

Many of us believe that Mahabharata and the Ramayana are not science fiction works, but the reality . Not only did sophisticated aircraft exist such as Vimanas and Vailixi but also existed and were in use terrible nuclear weapons.

Did anything of this highly sophisticated ancient heritage survive until today?

Vajra is a Sanskrit word which defies translation because of its numerous meanings, but essentially vajra is an indestructible substance, usually represented by diamond.

Indra - most important god in Vedic religion - is frequently portrayed wielding a powerful thunderbolt - vajra, which in later Buddhism becomes a diamond sceptre, the Vajrayan.
Was Indra's vajra one of his weapons used against enemies like the demon Vritra described as both snake and dragon?

According to early Vedic texts, this demon, also known as the Enemy, had transformed himself into a fearsome "snake" with no less than 99 coils. Unfortunately for local farmers these tremendous coils were blocking up the rivers and streams and causing a great drought.

So horrifying was Vritra that none of the gods dared intervene and it was only Indra who found the courage, to fight the beast with one of his thunderbolts. As we know also Zeus was the bearer of the thunderbolt, wielding his weapon against the powers of darkness.

Zeus, the bearer of the thunderbolt, wielding his weapon against the powers of darkness.

The substance of vajra fully controls devious influences, including heavenly demons and outside ways. The light, which is the characteristic mark of vajra, has the power to break up all darkness, yet protects itself from all destruction.

According to ancient traditions, Vajra itself is a thunder of a thousand blades forged from iron, or gold mixed with bronze or stone.

This powerful device could not only destroy the enemy in form of attacking flying machine, but it also had the ability to cause rain and was a symbol of fertility.


Watch the video: VAJRA (July 2022).


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