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K-2 SS-33 - History

K-2 SS-33 - History

K—2

(SS-33: dp. 392 (surf.), 521 (subm.); 1. 153'7"; b. 16'8", dr. 13'1"; s 14 k. (surf.), 10.5 k. (subm.); cpl.28; a. 4 18" tt.; cl. K-1)

During construction Cachalot ( SS-33) was renamed K-2 17 November 1911 and launched 4 October 1913 by Fore River Shipbuilding Co., Quiney, Mass.; sponsored by Mrs. Ruth Chamberlain Melintee; and commissioned 31 January 1914, Lns. R. Moses in command.

After trials and exercises in New England waters throughout the spring and summer of 1914, R~ joined the 4th Division Atlantic Torpedo Flotilla, Newport, R.I., 9 October. She commenced operations immediately and for almost 3 years operated along the American coast from New England to Florida conducting experiments to develop the techniques of submarine warfare.

As World War I raged in Europe, guarding the vital shipping lanes across the Atlantic became imperative. K-2 departed New London, Conn., 12 October 1917 and arrived in the Azores for patrol duty 27 October. She was among the flrst U.S. submarines to engage in patrol duty during the war, and cruised in these waters searching for enemy U-boats. K-2 continued these vital patrols until 20 Oetober 1918 when she sailed for North America arriving Philadelphia 10 November to resume coastal operations.

From 1919 to 1923 she cruised along the East Coast engaging in submarine development experiments. These early exercises coupled with the great strides made in naval technology greatly contributed to the excellence of the U.S. submarine force in later years. After her arrival at Hampton Roads 15 November 1922, K-2 remained there until she decommissioned 9 March 1923. She was sold as scrap 3 June 1931.

The second K-2 (SSR-2) was renamed Bass (q.~.) 15 December 1955.


USS K-2 (SS-33) - USS K-2 (SS-33)

USS K-2 (SS-33) volt a K-osztályú tengeralattjáró , az Egyesült Államok Haditengerészete . Köleit a Fore River Shipbuilding Company rakta le Quincy-ben, Massachusetts- ben, Cachalot néven , így ő lett az Egyesült Államok Haditengerészetének első hajója , amelyet elneveztek a cachalot-nak , amely a spermium-bálna másik neve , de 1911. november 17-én az építkezés során , átnevezték K-2-re . Ő indította be október 4, 1913 által támogatott Mrs. Ruth Chamberlain MCENTEE, és megbízást január 31-én 1914- zászlós R. Mózes parancsot.


The Naval Warfare of World War One, 1914-1918

The former German submarine UB 148 at sea, after having been surrendered to the Allies. UB-148, a small coastal submarine, was laid down during the winter of 1917 and 1918 at Bremen, Germany, but never commissioned in the Imperial German Navy. She was completing preparations for commissioning when the armistice of November 11 ended hostilities. On November 26, UB-148 was surrendered to the British at Harwich, England. Later, when the United States Navy expressed an interest in acquiring several former U-boats to use in conjunction with a Victory Bond drive, UB-148 was one of the six boats allocated for that purpose.

The dreadnoughts represented a revolution in warship design and yet their construction was based on the centuries-old definition of the purpose of naval campaigning as being the head-on confrontation of two opposing battle fleets. During the First World War, not only did senior naval officers trained in the days of sail learn to command brand new ships and weaponry untested in wartime they also witnessed a transformation in warfare that turned the war at sea from a traditional surface encounter into a complex balancing act of defensive strategies and covert tactics involving two new and unforeseen dimensions: under water and in the air.

Interior view of a British Navy submarine under construction, Clyde and Newcastle.

Britain was quick to capitalise on its enduring naval supremacy and geographical position by establishing a trade blockade of Germany and its allies as soon as war began. The Royal Navy’s Grand Fleet patrolled the North Sea, laid mines and cut off access to the Channel, curtailing the movements of the German High Seas Fleet and preventing merchant ships from supplying Germany with raw materials and food. The North Sea became ‘a marine no man’s land, with the British Fleet bottling up the exits’, as Richard Hough describes it in The Great War at Sea 1914-1918.

The effect of the blockade on Germany’s civilians after four years of war was noted by British Army MajorGeneral Sir Aylmer Gould Hunter-Weston in December 1918 during a visit to Germany: “the food situation is very serious indeed…The Germans are living entirely on their food capital now – they have eaten all their laying hens and are eating all their milch [sic] cows… [there is a] real scarcity”.

Evacuation of Suvla Bay, Dardanelles, Gallipoli Peninsula, on January 1916. The Gallipoli campaign was part of an Allied effort to capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul). After eight bloody months on the peninsula, Allied troops withdrew in defeat, under cover of fire from the sea.

The simultaneous torpedoing of HMS Aboukir, Hogue and Cressy by a single German submarine in September 1914 shocked the Royal Navy and forced the Admiralty to recognise the threat that the U-Boats, as they became known, posed to the surface fleet.

Although the Allies had their own submarines, which were active in the Adriatic, the Baltic and the Dardanelles over the course of the war, defences against submarines were slow to be developed. The British Navy appealed both to its own personnel and to the wider public for ideas. Minefields, net barrages, depth charges and patrols were introduced but more often than not these defences could be evaded. U-Boats could roam virtually undetected, since the sighting of a periscope was the most reliable method of location at a time when sonar technology was still in its infancy.

In the Dardanelles, the allied fleet blows up a disabled ship that interfered with navigation.

In January 1916, in reply to an enquiry from former Prime Minister and then First Lord of the Admiralty Arthur Balfour, Commander-in-Chief of The Grand Fleet John Rushworth Jellicoe stressed the importance of playing to the Navy’s main strength – its size – to retain control of the North Sea: “…as to a possible naval offensive… I have long arrived at the conclusion that it would be suicidal to divide our main fleet…”. For the first two years of the war the Allies accordingly concentrated their naval efforts on a defensive strategy of protecting trade routes, developing anti-submarine devices and maintaining the blockade rather than actively seeking direct confrontation.

Defence was a vital strategy but it was also gruelling, repetitive and unglamorous. Many in the navy longed for decisive action and a great naval victory to recall the Battle of Trafalgar and gratify the general public. The minor battles of the Heligoland Bight and Dogger Bank and the disastrous Dardanelles campaign did little to ease the tension. First Sea Lord Admiral H B Jackson commented to Jellicoe “I fancy you must look out for staleness [sic] with your important commanders, just as much as general health. I do wish you could get a change in your monotonous work”.

he British Aircraft Carrier HMS Argus. Converted from an ocean liner, the Argus could carry 15-18 aircraft. Commissioned at the very end of WWI, the Argus did not see any combat. The ship’s hull is painted in Dazzle camouflage. Dazzle camouflage was widely used during the war years, designed to make it difficult for an enemy to estimate the range, heading, or speed of a ship, and make it a harder target – especially as seen from a submarine’s periscope.

Jackson’s wish was granted on 31 May-1 June 1916 when The Grand Fleet finally met the High Seas Fleet in direct combat off the coast of Denmark. The Battle of Jutland was to be the only major naval battle of the First World War, and the most significant encounter between warships of the dreadnought era.

With fewer ships, Germany’s plan was to divide and conquer. A German advance force led by Vice-Admiral Franz Hipper engaged Vice-Admiral David Beatty’s battlecruisers, hoping to cut them off from the main fleet. A fire fight ensued as Beatty chased Hipper, Hipper leading Beatty towards the rest of the High Seas Fleet. The Allies suffered early casualties in the loss of HMS Indefatigable and Queen Mary before Beatty turned to re-join the Grand Fleet. The High Seas Fleet and the Grand Fleet clashed throughout the afternoon until darkness descended. During the night the High Seas Fleet made its escape and by the early hours of 1 June the battle was over.

United States Marines and Sailors posing on unidentified ship (likely either the USS Pennsylvania or USS Arizona), in 1918.

Both sides claimed the battle as a victory. Germany had inflicted greater losses on the Allies than it had suffered itself and yet the High Seas Fleet was incapacitated while the Grand Fleet remained the dominant naval factor. However, controversy over Jellicoe’s and Beatty’s actions quickly followed the battle and deprived both the Royal Navy and the British public of the outright triumph that years of frustration had called for. It is telling that Jellicoe’s parting words to his navy colleagues on leaving the Grand Fleet a few months later read ‘may your arduous work be crowned with a glorious victory’.

After the Battle of Jutland the High Seas Fleet never again attempted to engage the entire Grand Fleet, and German naval strategy refocused on covert underwater operations.

A mine is dragged ashore on Heligoland, in the North Sea, on October 29, 1918.

Submarine historian Richard Compton-Hall suggests that the starvation of the German population due to the Allied blockade had a decisive influence on U-Boat crews’ increasingly ruthless attacks, culminating in the declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare on 1 February 1917. U-Boats attacked merchant vessels, hoping to disrupt Allied trade and similarly weaken Britain, an island nation dependent on its imports.

The result was huge loss of life in the Merchant Navy and a shortage of British shipping with which shipbuilders could not keep pace. Neutral ships were not immune and neither were passenger liners. RMS Lusitania had been sunk by a U-Boat in 1915, killing American passengers and prompting some to call for US entry into the war. The renewed threat to civilians caused the USA to declare war in April 1917, a month in which 869,000 tons of Allied shipping was sunk.

A Curtiss Model AB-2 airplane catapulted off the deck of the USS North Carolina on July 12, 1916. The first time an aircraft was ever launched by catapult from a warship while underway was from the North Carolina on November 5, 1915.

A letter from the Board of Trade to the Cabinet in April 1916 had predicted that “…the shortage of shipping will place this country in more serious peril than can any calamity short of the defeat of the Navy…”. With The Grand Fleet undefeated it became clear that the war would be won or lost not in a traditional sea battle but by the Allies’ response to the so-called ‘submarine menace’.

The Allied response was a system of convoys. Warships escorted merchant and passenger vessels, protecting them from U-Boat attack by virtue of strength in numbers. The concentration of shipping into small clusters in vast seas made ships harder rather than easier to find evasive zigzag courses made it difficult for U-Boats to predict convoy routes and target torpedoes and the accompanying warships were able to counter-attack using depth charges. The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) and later the US Naval Air Service provided cover, spotting submerged U-Boats and thereby deterring them from surfacing and accurately targeting the convoy. Shipping losses dropped and by the time of the Armistice in 1918, the loss rate in the convoys was less than 0.5 per cent.

The USS Fulton (AS-1), an American submarine tender painted in Dazzle camouflage, in the Charleston South Carolina Navy Yard on November 1, 1918.

The war at sea was not characterised by monumental battles, glorious victories and haunting landscapes as was the war on land. The Battle of Jutland was the only full-scale direct action to occur between opposing navies and even this was indecisive. Yet the blockade of supplies to Germany weakened the country, directly contributing to the end of the war, as indeed the U-Boat campaign would have done in reverse had the convoy system not eventually succeeded in saving Britain from starvation. Control of the North Sea meant no less than the difference between independence and invasion.

The war at sea was a test of nerves and ingenuity. Both sides had to master technologies and ways of fighting unimaginable just a few years earlier. It was a marathon of endurance and persistence, often thankless but always critically important.

Men on deck of a ship removing ice. Original caption: “On a winters morning returning from France”.

The Rocks of Andromeda, Jaffa, and transports laden with war supplies headed out to sea in 1918. This image was taken using the Paget process, an early experiment in color photography.

Landing a 155 mm gun at Sedd-el Bahr. Warships near the Gallipoli Penninsula, Turkey during the Gallipoli Campaign.

Sailors aboard the French cruiser Amiral Aube pose for a photograph at an anvil attached to the deck.

The German battleship SMS Kaiser on parade for Kaiser Wilhelm II at Kiel, Germany, circa 1911-14.

British submarine HMS A5. The A5 was part of the first British A-class of submarines, used in World War I for harbor defense. The A5, however, suffered an explosion only days after its commissioning in 1905, and did not participate in the war.

U.S. Navy Yard, Washington, D.C., the Big Gun section of the shops, in 1917.

A cat, the mascot of the HMS Queen Elizabeth, walks along the barrel of a 15-inch gun on deck, in 1915.

The USS Pocahontas, a U.S. Navy transport ship, photographed in Dazzle camouflage, in 1918. The ship was originally a German passenger liner named the Prinzess Irene. She was docked in New York at the start of the war, and seized by the U.S. when it entered the conflict in April 1917, and re-christened Pocahontas.

Last minute escape from a vessel torpedoed by a German sub. The vessel has already sunk its bow into the waves, and her stern is slowly lifting out of the water. Men can be seen sliding down ropes as the last boat is pulling away. Ca. 1917.

The Burgess Seaplane, a variant of the Dunne D.8, a tailless swept-wing biplane, in New York, being used by the New York Naval Militia, ca 1918.

German submarines in a harbor, the caption, in German, says “Our U-Boats in a harbor”. Front row (left to right): U-22, U-20 (the sub that sank the Lusitania), U-19 and U-21. Back row (left to right): U-14, U-10 and U-12.

The USS New Jersey (BB-16), a Virginia-class battleship, in camouflage coat, ca 1918.

Launching a torpedo, British Royal Navy, 1917.

British cargo ship SS Maplewood under attack by German submarine SM U-35 on April 7, 1917, 47 nautical miles/87 km southwest of Sardinia. The U-35 participated in the entire war, becoming the most successful U-boat in WWI, sinking 224 ships, killing thousands.

Crowds on a wharf at Outer Harbour, South Australia, welcoming camouflaged troop ships bringing men home from service overseas, circa 1918.

The German cruiser SMS Emden, beached on Cocos Island in 1914. The Emden, a part of the German East Asia Squadron, attacked and sank a Russian cruiser and a French destroyer in Penang, Malaysia, in October of 1914. The Emden then set out to destroy a British radio station on Cocos Island in the Indian Ocean. During that raid, the Australian cruiser HMAS Sydney attacked and damaged the Emden, forcing it to run aground.

The German battle cruiser Seydlitz burns in the Battle of Jutland, May 31, 1916. Seydlitz was the flagship of German Vice Admiral von Hipper, who left the ship during the battle. The battle cruiser reached the port of Wilhelmshaven on own power.

A German U-boat stranded on the South Coast of England, after surrender.

Surrender of the German fleet at Harwich, on November 20, 1918.

German Submarine “U-10” at full speed.

Imperial German Navy’s battle ship SMS Schleswig-Holstein fires a salvo during the Battle of Jutland on May 31, 1916 in the North Sea.

“Life in the Navy”, Fencing aboard a Japanese battleship, ca 1910-15.

The “Leviathan”, formerly the German passenger liner “Vaterland”, leaving Hoboken, New Jersey, for France. The hull of the ship is covered in Dazzle camouflage. In the spring and summer of 1918, Leviathan averaged 27 days for the round trip across the Atlantic, carrying 12,000 soldiers at a time.

Portside view of the camouflaged USS K-2 (SS-33), a K-class submarine, off Pensacola, Florida on April 12, 1916.

The complex inner machinery of a U.S. Submarine, amidships, looking aft.

The Zeebrugge Raid took place on April 23, 1918. The Royal Navy attempted to block the Belgian port of Bruges-Zeebrugge by sinking older ships in the canal entrance, to prevent German vessels from leaving port. Two ships were successfully sunk in the canal, at the cost of 583 lives. Unfortunately, the ships were sunk in the wrong place, and the canal was re-opened in days. Photograph taken in May of 1918.

Allied warships at sea, a seaplane flyby, 1915.

Russian battleship Tsesarevich, a pre-dreadnought battleship of the Imperial Russian Navy, docked, ca. 1915.

The British Grand Fleet under admiral John Jellicoe on her way to meet the Imperial German Navy’s fleet for the Battle of Jutland in the North Sea on May 31, 1916.

HMS Audacious crew board lifeboats to be taken aboard RMS Olympic, October, 1914. The Audacious was a British battleship, sunk by a German naval mine off the northern coast of Donegal, Ireland.

Wreck of the SMS Konigsberg, after the Battle of Rufiji Delta. The German cruiser was scuttled in the Rufiji Delta Tanzania River, navigable for more than 100 km before emptying into the Indian Ocean about 200 km south of Dar es Salaam.

Troop transport Sardinia, in dazzle camouflage, at a wharf during World War I.

The Russian flagship Tsarevitch passing HMS Victory, ca. 1915.

German submarine surrendering to the US Navy.

Sinking of the German Cruiser SMS Bluecher, in the Battle of Dogger Bank, in the North Sea, between German and British dreadnoughts, on January 24, 1915. The Bluecher sank with the loss of nearly a thousand sailors. This photo was taken from the deck of the British Cruiser Arethusia.


World War I in Photos: War at Sea

The land war in Europe became a destructive machine, consuming supplies, equipment, and soldiers at massive rates. Resupply ships from the home front and allies streamed across the Atlantic, braving submarine attacks, underwater mines, and aerial bombardment. Battleships clashed with each other from the Indian Ocean to the North Sea, competing for control of colonial territory and home ports. New technologies were invented and refined, such as submarine warfare, camouflaged hulls, and massive water-borne aircraft carriers. And countless thousands of sailors, soldiers, passengers, and crew members were sent to the bottom of the sea. I've gathered photographs of the Great War from dozens of collections, some digitized for the first time, to try to tell the story of the conflict, those caught up in it, and how much it affected the world. This entry is part 7 of a 10-part series on World War I.

The former German submarine UB 148 at sea, after having been surrendered to the Allies. UB-148, a small coastal submarine, was laid down during the winter of 1917 and 1918 at Bremen, Germany, but never commissioned in the Imperial German Navy. She was completing preparations for commissioning when the armistice of November 11 ended hostilities. On November 26, UB-148 was surrendered to the British at Harwich, England. Later, when the United States Navy expressed an interest in acquiring several former U-boats to use in conjunction with a Victory Bond drive, UB-148 was one of the six boats allocated for that purpose. #

Interior view of a British Navy submarine under construction, Clyde and Newcastle. #

Evacuation of Suvla Bay, Dardanelles, Gallipoli Peninsula, on January 1916. The Gallipoli campaign was part of an Allied effort to capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul). After eight bloody months on the peninsula, Allied troops withdrew in defeat, under cover of fire from the sea. #

In the Dardanelles, the allied fleet blows up a disabled ship that interfered with navigation. #

The British Aircraft Carrier HMS Argus. Converted from an ocean liner, the Argus could carry 15-18 aircraft. Commissioned at the very end of WWI, the Argus did not see any combat. The ship's hull is painted in Dazzle camouflage. Dazzle camouflage was widely used during the war years, designed to make it difficult for an enemy to estimate the range, heading, or speed of a ship, and make it a harder target - especially as seen from a submarine's periscope. #

United States Marines and Sailors posing on unidentified ship (likely either the USS Pennsylvania or USS Arizona), in 1918. #

A mine is dragged ashore on Heligoland, in the North Sea, on October 29, 1918. #

A Curtiss Model AB-2 airplane catapulted off the deck of the USS North Carolina on July 12, 1916. The first time an aircraft was ever launched by catapult from a warship while underway was from the North Carolina on November 5, 1915. #

The USS Fulton (AS-1), an American submarine tender painted in Dazzle camouflage, in the Charleston South Carolina Navy Yard on November 1, 1918. #

Men on deck of a ship removing ice. Original caption: "On a winters morning returning from France". #

The Rocks of Andromeda, Jaffa, and transports laden with war supplies headed out to sea in 1918. This image was taken using the Paget process, an early experiment in color photography. #

Landing a 155 mm gun at Sedd-el Bahr. Warships near the Gallipoli Penninsula, Turkey during the Gallipoli Campaign. #

Sailors aboard the French cruiser Amiral Aube pose for a photograph at an anvil attached to the deck. #

The German battleship SMS Kaiser on parade for Kaiser Wilhelm II at Kiel, Germany, circa 1911-14. #

British submarine HMS A5. The A5 was part of the first British A-class of submarines, used in World War I for harbor defense. The A5, however, suffered an explosion only days after its commissioning in 1905, and did not participate in the war. #

U.S. Navy Yard, Washington, D.C., the Big Gun section of the shops, in 1917. #

A cat, the mascot of the HMS Queen Elizabeth, walks along the barrel of a 15-inch gun on deck, in 1915. #

The USS Pocahontas, a U.S. Navy transport ship, photographed in Dazzle camouflage, in 1918. The ship was originally a German passenger liner named the Prinzess Irene. She was docked in New York at the start of the war, and seized by the U.S. when it entered the conflict in April 1917, and re-christened Pocahontas. #

Last minute escape from a vessel torpedoed by a German sub. The vessel has already sunk its bow into the waves, and her stern is slowly lifting out of the water. Men can be seen sliding down ropes as the last boat is pulling away. Ca. 1917. #

The Burgess Seaplane, a variant of the Dunne D.8, a tailless swept-wing biplane, in New York, being used by the New York Naval Militia, ca 1918. #

German submarines in a harbor, the caption, in German, says "Our U-Boats in a harbor". Front row (left to right): U-22, U-20 (the sub that sank the Lusitania), U-19 and U-21. Back row (left to right): U-14, U-10 and U-12. #

The USS New Jersey (BB-16), a Virginia-class battleship, in camouflage coat, ca 1918. #

Launching a torpedo, British Royal Navy, 1917. #

British cargo ship SS Maplewood under attack by German submarine SM U-35 on April 7, 1917, 47 nautical miles/87 km southwest of Sardinia. The U-35 participated in the entire war, becoming the most successful U-boat in WWI, sinking 224 ships, killing thousands. #

Crowds on a wharf at Outer Harbour, South Australia, welcoming camouflaged troop ships bringing men home from service overseas, circa 1918. #

The German cruiser SMS Emden, beached on Cocos Island in 1914. The Emden, a part of the German East Asia Squadron, attacked and sank a Russian cruiser and a French destroyer in Penang, Malaysia, in October of 1914. The Emden then set out to destroy a British radio station on Cocos Island in the Indian Ocean. During that raid, the Australian cruiser HMAS Sydney attacked and damaged the Emden, forcing it to run aground. #

The German battle cruiser Seydlitz burns in the Battle of Jutland, May 31, 1916. Seydlitz was the flagship of German Vice Admiral von Hipper, who left the ship during the battle. The battle cruiser reached the port of Wilhelmshaven on own power. #

A German U-boat stranded on the South Coast of England, after surrender. #

Surrender of the German fleet at Harwich, on November 20, 1918. #

German Submarine "U-10" at full speed #

Imperial German Navy's battle ship SMS Schleswig-Holstein fires a salvo during the Battle of Jutland on May 31, 1916 in the North Sea. #

"Life in the Navy", Fencing aboard a Japanese battleship, ca 1910-15. #

The "Leviathan", formerly the German passenger liner "Vaterland", leaving Hoboken, New Jersey, for France. The hull of the ship is covered in Dazzle camouflage. In the spring and summer of 1918, Leviathan averaged 27 days for the round trip across the Atlantic, carrying 12,000 soldiers at a time. #

Portside view of the camouflaged USS K-2 (SS-33), a K-class submarine, off Pensacola, Florida on April 12, 1916. #

The complex inner machinery of a U.S. Submarine, amidships, looking aft. #

The Zeebrugge Raid took place on April 23, 1918. The Royal Navy attempted to block the Belgian port of Bruges-Zeebrugge by sinking older ships in the canal entrance, to prevent German vessels from leaving port. Two ships were successfully sunk in the canal, at the cost of 583 lives. Unfortunately, the ships were sunk in the wrong place, and the canal was re-opened in days. Photograph taken in May of 1918. #

Allied warships at sea, a seaplane flyby, 1915. #

Russian battleship Tsesarevich, a pre-dreadnought battleship of the Imperial Russian Navy, docked, ca. 1915. #

The British Grand Fleet under admiral John Jellicoe on her way to meet the Imperial German Navy's fleet for the Battle of Jutland in the North Sea on May 31, 1916. #

HMS Audacious crew board lifeboats to be taken aboard RMS Olympic, October, 1914. The Audacious was a British battleship, sunk by a German naval mine off the northern coast of Donegal, Ireland. #

Wreck of the SMS Konigsberg, after the Battle of Rufiji Delta. The German cruiser was scuttled in the Rufiji Delta Tanzania River, navigable for more than 100 km before emptying into the Indian Ocean about 200 km south of Dar es Salaam. #

Troop transport Sardinia, in dazzle camouflage, at a wharf during World War I. #

The Russian flagship Tsarevitch passing HMS Victory, ca. 1915. #

German submarine surrendering to the US Navy. #

Sinking of the German Cruiser SMS Bluecher, in the Battle of Dogger Bank, in the North Sea, between German and British dreadnoughts, on January 24, 1915. The Bluecher sank with the loss of nearly a thousand sailors. This photo was taken from the deck of the British Cruiser Arethusia. #

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K-2 SS-33 - History

Cachalot (SS-33) was renamed K-2 (q. v.) on 17 November 1911 prior to her commissioning.

(SS-170: dp. 1,110 1. 271'10" b. 24'9" dr. 12'10" s.
17 k. cpl 43 a. 13", 6 21" tt. cl. Cachalot)

Cachalot (SS-170) was launched 19 October 1933 as VR (SC-4) by Portsmouth Navy Yard sponsored by Miss K. D. Kempff, and commissioned 1 December 1933 Lieutenant Commander M. Comstock in command.

After shakedown, further construction' tests, and overhaul' Cachalot sailed for San Diego, Calif., where on 17 October 1934 she joined the Submarine Force, U.S. Fleet. Operating until 1937 principally on the west coast, she engaged in fleet problems, torpedo practice, antisubmarine, tactical, and sound training exercises. She cruised twice to Hawaiian waters and once to the Canal Zone to participate in large-scale fleet exercises.

Cachalot cleared San Diego 15 June 1937, bound for New London, Conn., and duty in experimental torpedo firing for the Newport Torpedo Station, and sound training for the New London Submarine School until 26 October 1937 when she began a lengthy overhaul at New York Navy Yard. A year later she sailed for participation in a fleet problem, torpedo practice and sound training in the Caribbean and off the Canal Zone, and on 16 June 1939, reported at Pearl Harbor for duty with the Submarine Force and the Scouting Force.

War came to Cachalot as she lay in Pearl Harbor Navy Yard in overhaul. In the Japanese attack of 7 December 1941, one of her men was wounded, but the submarine suffered no damage. Yard work on her was completed at a furious pace, and on 12 January 1942 she sailed on her first war patrol. After fueling at Midway, she conducted a reconnaissance of Wake, Eniwetok Ponape, Truk, Namonuito, and Hall Islands, returning to Pearl Harbor 18 March with vitally needed intelligence of Japanese bases. Her second war patrol, for which she cleared from Midway on 9 June, was conducted off the Japanese home islands, where she damaged an enemy tanker. Returning to Pearl Harbor 26 July, she cleared on her final war patrol 23 September, penetrating the frigid waters of the Bering Sea in support of the Aleutians operations.

Overage for strenuous war patrols, Cachalot still had a key role to play during the remainder of the war, which she spent as training ship for the Submarine School at New Landon. She served here until 30 June 1945, when she sailed to Philadelphia where she was decommissioned 17 October 1945 She was sold 26 January 1947.


The War to Control the Seas During World War I

Controlling the sea was key to winning the battles of the First Great War. Moving troops and supplies by sea was vital. The battle for control of the seas led to new deadly tactics and terrifying war at sea where thousands of sailors, soldiers, passengers, and crews were sent to the bottom of the sea.

Here’s a rare collection of amazing photos of the World War I at sea.

A German U-boat stranded on the South Coast of England, after surrender.

The former German submarine UB 148 at sea, after having been surrendered to the Allies. UB-148, a small coastal submarine, was laid down during the winter of 1917 and 1918 at Bremen, Germany.

Interior view of a British Navy submarine under construction, Clyde and Newcastle.

Evacuation of Suvla Bay, Dardanelles, Gallipoli Peninsula, on January 1916.

(Bibliotheque nationale de France)

In the Dardanelles, the allied fleet blows up a disabled ship that interfered with navigation.

(Bibliotheque nationale de France)

The British Aircraft Carrier HMS Argus. Converted from an ocean liner, the Argus could carry 15-18 aircraft. Commissioned at the very end of WWI, the Argus did not see any combat.

(National World War I Museum, Kansas City, Missouri, USA)

United States Marines and Sailors posing on unidentified ship (likely either the USS Pennsylvania or USS Arizona), in 1918.

(National World War I Museum, Kansas City, Missouri, USA)

A mine is dragged ashore on Heligoland, in the North Sea, on October 29, 1918.

A Curtiss Model AB-2 airplane catapulted off the deck of the USS North Carolina on July 12, 1916. The first time an aircraft was ever launched by catapult from a warship while underway was from the North Carolina on November 5, 1915.

The USS Fulton (AS-1), an American submarine tender painted in Dazzle camouflage, in the Charleston South Carolina Navy Yard on November 1, 1918.

Men on deck of a ship removing ice. Original caption: “On a winters morning returning from France”.

(National World War I Museum, Kansas City, Missouri, USA)

The Rocks of Andromeda, Jaffa, and transports laden with war supplies headed out to sea in 1918. This image was taken using the Paget process, an early experiment in color photography.

(Frank Hurley/State Library of New South Wales)

Landing a 155 mm gun at Sedd-el Bahr. Warships near the Gallipoli Penninsula, Turkey during the Gallipoli Campaign.

Sailors aboard the French cruiser Amiral Aube pose for a photograph at an anvil attached to the deck.

The German battleship SMS Kaiser on parade for Kaiser Wilhelm II at Kiel, Germany, circa 1911-14.

British submarine HMS A5. The A5 was part of the first British A-class of submarines, used in World War I for harbor defense. The A5, however, suffered an explosion only days after its commissioning in 1905, and did not participate in the war.

U.S. Navy Yard, Washington, D.C., the Big Gun section of the shops, in 1917.

A cat, the mascot of the HMS Queen Elizabeth, walks along the barrel of a 15-inch gun on deck, in 1915.

(Bibliotheque nationale de France)

The USS Pocahontas, a U.S. Navy transport ship, photographed in Dazzle camouflage, in 1918.

(San Diego Air and Space Museum)

Last minute escape from a vessel torpedoed by a German sub. The vessel has already sunk its bow into the waves, and her stern is slowly lifting out of the water. Men can be seen sliding down ropes as the last boat is pulling away. Ca. 1917.

(NARA/Underwood & Underwood/U.S. Army)

The Burgess Seaplane, a variant of the Dunne D.8, a tailless swept-wing biplane, in New York, being used by the New York Naval Militia, ca 1918.

German submarines in a harbor, the caption, in German, says “Our U-Boats in a harbor”. Front row (left to right): U-22, U-20 (the sub that sank the Lusitania), U-19 and U-21. Back row (left to right): U-14, U-10 and U-12.

The USS New Jersey (BB-16), a Virginia-class battleship, in camouflage coat, ca 1918.

Launching a torpedo, British Royal Navy, 1917.

(Bibliotheque nationale de France)

British cargo ship SS Maplewood under attack by German submarine SM U-35 on April 7, 1917, 47 nautical miles/87 km southwest of Sardinia.

Crowds on a wharf at Outer Harbour, South Australia, welcoming camouflaged troop ships bringing men home from service overseas, circa 1918.

(State Library of South Australia)

The German cruiser SMS Emden, beached on Cocos Island in 1914.

(State Library of New South Wales)

The German battle cruiser Seydlitz burns in the Battle of Jutland, May 31, 1916.

Surrender of the German fleet at Harwich, on November 20, 1918.

(Bibliotheque nationale de France)

German Submarine “U-10” at full speed

Imperial German Navy’s battle ship SMS Schleswig-Holstein fires a salvo during the Battle of Jutland on May 31, 1916 in the North Sea.

“Life in the Navy”, Fencing aboard a Japanese battleship, ca 1910-15.

The “Leviathan”, formerly the German passenger liner “Vaterland”, leaving Hoboken, New Jersey, for France. The hull of the ship is covered in Dazzle camouflage. In the spring and summer of 1918, Leviathan averaged 27 days for the round trip across the Atlantic, carrying 12,000 soldiers at a time.

Portside view of the camouflaged USS K-2 (SS-33), a K-class submarine, off Pensacola, Florida on April 12, 1916.

The complex inner machinery of a U.S. Submarine, amidships, looking aft.

The Zeebrugge Raid took place on April 23, 1918.

(National Archive/Official German Photograph of WWI)

Allied warships at sea, a seaplane flyby, 1915.

(Bibliotheque nationale de France)

Russian battleship Tsesarevich, a pre-dreadnought battleship of the Imperial Russian Navy, docked, ca. 1915.

The British Grand Fleet under admiral John Jellicoe on her way to meet the Imperial German Navy’s fleet for the Battle of Jutland in the North Sea on May 31, 1916.

HMS Audacious crew board lifeboats to be taken aboard RMS Olympic, October, 1914. The Audacious was a British battleship, sunk by a German naval mine off the northern coast of Donegal, Ireland.

Wreck of the SMS Konigsberg, after the Battle of Rufiji Delta. The German cruiser was scuttled in the Rufiji Delta Tanzania River, navigable for more than 100 km before emptying into the Indian Ocean about 200 km south of Dar es Salaam.

Troop transport Sardinia, in dazzle camouflage, at a wharf during World War I.

(Australian National Maritime Museum/Samuel J. Hood Studio Collection)

The Russian flagship TSAREVITCH passing HMS VICTORY, ca. 1915.

German submarine surrendering to the US Navy.

Sinking of the German Cruiser SMS Bluecher, in the Battle of Dogger Bank, in the North Sea, between German and British dreadnoughts, on January 24, 1915.


Celebrate Women’s History Month with Chicas poderosas K-2 Library

March is Women’s History Month and to celebrate you can add the Chicas poderosas collection to your class or school library. Designed for readers in grades K-2, the books in this uplifting series celebrate gender equality with their powerful narratives.

One such story is that of Katherine Johnson whose career at NASA is detailed in the book Una computadora llamada Catherine. Young girls will be inspired to pursue their dreams in a STEM career when they read how Katherine’s work helped put America on the moon.

Read a sample HERE.

You’ll also get the newest book from the acclaimed creators of Iggy Peck, Architect called Sofía Valdez, presidenta tal vez. Sofía is an ambitious young problem solver who makes an impact on her local community by finding a solution and sticking to it.

Another book in the collection about a grade-school girl with presidential dreams is Grace para presidenta. This entertaining story teaches kids about the American electoral college and why every vote matters.

Last but not least, the titles Cuando las niñas vuelan alto and Las niñas serán lo que quieran ser, written and illustrated by Raquel Díaz Reguera, bring to life the girl-power mentality by demonstrating that girls can be anything they want, and empowering all kids to make their dreams come true even when they encounter obstacles along the way.


K-2 SS-33 - History

K2: Some background and History

K2 has variously been described as the "awesome", "killer" and "savage" mountain. This is because of it's massiveness in size and the numerous unsuccessful attempts made on it by various expeditions, including many American expeditions, who have made quite a few unsuccessful attempts.

K2 is a rocky mountain up to 6000 meters, beyond which it becomes an ocean of snow. The K2 peak is situated on the Pak-China border in the mighty Karakoram range. The traditional route to its base camp goes from Skardu, which is linked with Islamabad by a good road. From Skardu the route goes via Shigar-Dassu-Askole up to Concordia over the Baltoro glacier. The exact height of the peak is 8,611 meters/28,251 ft.

It was in 1856, when the British were enforcing their control over India, provoking the 1857-War-of-lndependence, that a young Lieutenant of the Royal Engineers, T.G. Montgomerie, was quietly busy in surveying the mountains of Kashmir. During this survey he saw, in the far distance, a tall and conspicuous mountain in the direction of the Karakorams and immediately named it K1 ('K' stands for Karakorams). Later on, it turned out to be the beautiful mountain of Hushe valley in Khaplu area of Baltistan, called Masherbrum by locals. He also saw another tall and dominating summit behind K1 and named it K2, which turned out to be "Chogori". The name K2, however, still stands.

Lieutenant Montgomerie was a good surveyor. He was the person who planned and organized the survey of Kashmir. He was also an unofficial political adviser to Gulab Singh, the then Maharaja of Kashmir. After Gulab Singh's death in 1857, Montgomerie continued his survey work as he carried the same influence with Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the successor of Gulab Singh. Montgomerie trained many locals in surveying. His students did good reconnaissance work in remote areas forbidden to foreigners because of local suspicions. A famous but unfortunate student of his was Muhammad Hameed.

In 1860, Captain Henry Haversham Godwin-Austen, of the Survey of India, went to the Baltistan area and surveyed the famous Shigar and Saltoro valleys. This greatly contributed to the knowledge of the area. He was an officer in the 24th Foot Battalion, later the South Wales Borderers, and had also served in the Second Anglo- Burmese War in 1852. Earlier, he had joined Montgomerie at a survey station in Kashmir in 1857. He also surveyed the Kajnag range in southern Kashmir and was the first to put Gulmarg on the map. In 1858-59, he surveyed eastern Kashmir including Jammu. In 1861, he started from Skardu and entered Braldu valley from Skoro-La (5,043m). He then climbed and surveyed the Chogo-lungma, Kero Lungma, Biafo and Panmah glaciers. It was from Kero Lungma that Godwin-Austen climbed the Nushik pass (4,990m/1 6,371 ft) and is stated to have entered the 53-km-long Hispar glacier. He was perhaps the first European to reach it. He, however, did not survey it. He was considered as one of the greatest mountaineers of the day, had great power of endurance and was immensely brave. It is a myth that the K2 peak, which was erroneously called Godwin-Austen peak, was discovered by him. It is, however, a fact that he explored the gateway to K2 (the Baltoro glacier), along with famous glaciers including Godwin-Austen glacier. This was indeed his outstanding contribution to the geography of the area.

Another famous explorer of the area was Francis Younghusband (later knighted), a noted soldier and thrill-seeker. Showing his courage and tenacity in 1887, he crossed the Gobi desert from Peking and entered India by crossing Mustagh pass. It was during this journey that he saw K2. In this way he was the first European to cross Mustagh pass. He was also the first European to set eyes on K2 from the northern side. His guide on this inward journey was a former resident of Askole village, situated at the start of Baltoro glacier, who had been living on the other side of the mountain for a very long time. When he entered the village of Askole with his guide, Younghusband was extended due courtesies. His guide was, however, looked down upon because he had shown a foreigner the possible route of invasion. Subsequently in 1903-4, Sir Francis Younghusband became the head of the famous mission to Tibet.

It was probably for the first time in 1902 that an organized expedition of Oscar J.L. Eckenstein traveled to K-2 from Baltoro glacier. The expedition was without any guide. Its aim was to explore approaches to the mountain and possibly have a try on the peak. It was, however, harsh weather which prevented it from attempting the peak. The party, however collected useful information about the upper Godwin-Austen glacier which was used as a stepping stone by expeditions in later years. Two members of the expedition - one a Swiss by the name of Dr. Jules Jacot Guillarmot and the other an Austrian by the name of Dr. V. Wesseley - succeeded in reaching 6523 meters (21,400ft) on the north-eastern ridge of K-2. The party also ascended Skyang La (6150 meters) to ascertain climbing possibilities of Skyang Kangri peak (7544 meters). Eckenstein was the first mountaineer who applied the principles of engineering to mountaineering and its equipment in Pakistan.

In 1909, a big Italian expedition under the leadership of resolute Luigi Amadeo Giuseppe (Duke of Abruzzi) the grandson of King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, reconnoitred K2. Its members produced a very good account of the expedition with photographs and accurate maps of Baltoro area. The Duke, however, rejected the southern and western ridges of the mountain for a climb. His party attempted the peak from the south-east ridge-which later came to be known as Abruzzi ridge - but could not proceed beyond 5560 meters because of problems with porters. The party, however, carried out a thorough reconnaissance of K2 from south to north-east. Vittono Sella, a photographer and a climber, accompanied the Duke on this expedition. Sella pass, near Godwin-Austen glacier, is named after him.

Two famous British mountaineers, Harold William Tilman and Eric Earle Shipton, explored and surveyed the north face of K2 and its subsidiary glaciers in 1937. Actually they were on a survey mission to Shaksgam valley when they also visited the Trango and Sarpo Laggo glaciers. They also explored and surveyed the famous Skamri glacier. Tilman was a famous explorer, mountaineer, sailor and writer. He also distinguished himself as a planter in Kenya.

Shipton, on the other hand, was one of the significant explorers of the present century. He was Tilman's companion on most of the expeditions. Shipton was also Consul-General of India in Kashgar in 1940-42 and then in 1946-48.

In 1938, the American Alpine Club sponsored a reconnaissance party for a visit to K2 area. The party reached a height of 7925 meters after setting up eight camps. When compared with the heights climbed by previous expeditions, this seems to be a considerable advancement. Famous American mountaineers like Dr. Charles Houston and Robert Bates were in this party. Six Sherpas from Nepal were also on this expedition as porters etc. After a proper reconnaissance of the routes leading to K-2, the party rejected the north-west and north-east routes. Instead, it selected the south-east ridge (Abruzzi ridge). It was the shortage of food supplies that forced Houston and Petzoldt to return to lower altitudes. In the opinion of the party it was through this ridge that K2 peak could be climbed, which eventually proved correct.

The next year saw another American expedition on K2. It was led by Fritz Hermann Ernst Wiessner, a German-American chemist and mountaineer. The expedition, along with nine Sherpas, made very good progress on the already-identified south-east ridge. Two members and five Sherpas set up Camp VIII at about 7711 meters and left one member by the name of Dudley Wolfe in this camp as he had fallen sick. Wiessner, along with one Sherpa, went up to approximately 8382 meters. On their way back they found that Wolfe was short of food. They, therefore, hurriedly brought him down to camp VII and made him stay there. They then descended in search of food and aid but found all camps abandoned until they reached camp II. Immediately three Sherpas were sent to rescue Wolfe. They, however, did not return. In this way, Wolfe and the Sherpas died on the K2. What a tragic but heroic death.

Another American attempt on K2 was made in 1953. The expedition leader was Dr. Charles Houston, who had also led the 1938 American expedition on this peak. Dr. Houston, a doctor and professor, is noted for his contribution to research on the effects of high altitude on human body and diseases originating from such effects. One Pakistani, late Colonel M. Ataullah, Vice President, Karakoram Club of Pakistan, accompanied the party. This time the party took porters from Hunza instead of Sherpas from Nepal. As against the previous expeditions, which entered Baltistan from Srinagar (in the Indian occupied Kashmir) through a very long route, the party flew into Skardu and then adopted the traditional route to K2 over Baltoro glacier.
K2 Base Camp

It was at Camp VIII, at about 7772 meters that the party was hit by a blizzard which lasted many days. On the 7th of August one member, Arthur Gilkey, developed thrombophlebitis. In view of his serious condition it was decided to start descent in spite of bad weather. At the end of the day, the party was involved in a "fall on a steep slope as a result of a slip and tangling of ropes". Luckily nobody was seriously injured. Subsequently all members assembled at the nearby camp VII. Gilkey was secured on the snow slope with two ice axes until a party could be mustered to bring him across the slope to the camp. However, when three members of the party returned to Gilkey, they found that he had been swept away by an avalanche. It took rest of the party five hard days to reach the base camp. On reaching there, the party immediately started for Skardu because one of the members, George Bell, had very bad frost-bitten feet. In spite of their very best efforts, the Americans could not climb K2 from the south-east ridge.

In 1954, an Italian expedition came to Pakistan to try its luck on K2. It consisted of twelve climbers and four scientists and was led by veteran mountaineer, Professor Ardito Desio, who had come to these mountains with Italian expeditions before the World War II. Colonel M. Ataullah and Arshad Munir accompanied the expedition from Karakoram Club of Pakistan. Captain (later Lt. General) G.S. Butt was the liaison officer.

Poor weather hindered the progress of the party for a pretty long time. As soon as the weather cleared, the party made very good progress and set up camp II. It was at this camp that one of its members, Mario Puchoz, a 36-year old guide, died of pneumonia on the 21st June. It Is believed that he had contracted high altitude pulmonary oedema (water on the lungs) which was not well known at the time and does not respond to antibiotics.

The party established six more camps on the south-east ridge. Camp IX was a bivouac. On the 31st of July, Lino Lacedelli and Achille Compagnoni started from the bivouac. They continued their assault and reached the summit at six in the evening. After staying for a while they started descending and reached Camp VIII round about eleven at night. In this way the saga of K2 ended.


K-2 SS-33 - History

Walt never stopped examining the world around him and wherever he traveled, he enjoyed noting details, both small and large. Even if a project was nearing completion, Walt believed in 'plussing it', his term for making something grander. Walt also looked for opportunities and if none were found, he possessed the incredible ability to create them.

The 1964 World's Fair proved to be such an opportunity and Walt had a brilliant idea as to how he and his crew from WED (Walter Elias Disney) Imagineering, could make their mark and also benefit his own theme park.

Walt began approaching major corporations with attraction concepts, presenting ideas far beyond their expectations and abilities to create in-house. The success of Disneyland had placed Walt on a playing field on which he alone was the master and few could hope to challenge. He had become a global icon for futuristic thinking, creating the impossible, never cutting corners and refusing to acknowledge the word 'compromise' as part of his vocabulary.

Walt and his team were selected by Ford, General Electric, Pepsi-Cola and the State of Illinois to create what would prove to be the most popular attractions at the World's Fair.

Ford: Ford's Magic Skyway - An automated ride-through attraction, showing the chronological history of the world. Guests rode in Ford vehicles.
General Electric: Progressland - A circular ride through the history of electrical appliances and their impact on humanity.
Pepsi-Cola: It's A Small World - A salute to UNICEF and all the world's children.
State of Illinois: Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln.



While at the World's Fair, Walt visited the private VIP lounges of the large corporate sponsors and he loved the idea of having a special place to entertain guests, VIP's and investors. The concept stayed with Walt as New Orleans Square was in the developmental stages.

As the World's Fair preparation was progressing, Walt, being the creative genius we all know and love, approached the companies for which he had built the attractions and asked if he could take them to Disneyland. The companies would sponsor the attractions and millions of guests would continue to enjoy them. The idea was brilliant and allowed Walt to add attractions to Disneyland which had been essentially paid for by their initial sponsors. Everyone benefited. Of course, this was the initial plan and Walt was careful about following through on every detail.

As the story goes, General Electric was on board with the idea of allowing Walt to install what would become the Carousel of Progress in Tomorrowland, but a few of their executives wanted Walt to install a VIP lounge. They wanted it placed within the attraction for them to enjoy whilst visiting the park. Walt explained that this would be difficult as the attraction would be in Disneyland and consuming alcohol in an attraction wasn't something he was keen to support. He told them however that he was developing a new land, New Orleans Square and there would be room to build a lounge. They loved the idea and the private lounge was added onto the construction plans and therein built.

As a result of the 1964 World's Fair, we have Great Moment's with Mr. Lincoln, It's a Small World, the dinosaurs within Primeval World for the steam trains to pass through and what used to be The Carousel of Progress.

Many of the technological breakthroughs developed by WED for the World's Fair are still in use today.

In May of 1967 the lounge which had been used to entertain investors, VIP's, Walt's family and friends was officially opened as Club 33.

The below material was taken from the Club 33 Official History Sheet
Scroll to the bottom of this page to view videos of Walt Disney and opening day dedication ceremonies of Disneyland's New Orleans Square.

Club 33, Royal Street, New Orleans Square, Disneyland


The colorful realism and the precise architectural detail of New Orleans Square in Disneyland captures the atmosphere of the nineteenth- century New Orleans French Quarter. Glancing upwards to the second story balconies and the ornate iron railings hung with flowers, one would hardly guess that they surround the little-known but quite elegant Club 33.

Years ago, Walt Disney felt that a special place was needed where he could entertain visiting dignitaries and others in a quiet, serene atmosphere where superb cuisine and distinctive decor would complement one another. He asked artist Dorothea Redmond to provide watercolor renderings of what such a place might look like. Accompanied by renowned decorator Emil Kuri, Walt and his wife traveled to New Orleans to select many of the beautiful antiques that are on display. After years of planning, Club 33 became a reality in May of 1967. Sadly enough, it was never seen by its creator because of his untimely death five months earlier.

Club 33, so named after its address, 33 Royal Street, is comprised of two dining rooms and several adjoining areas, all of which hold a wide array of magnificent antiques and original works of art. After ascending in the French lift to the second floor, guests enter into The Gallery. Here they find interesting items such as an oak telephone booth with beveled leaded glass panels adapted from the one used in the Disney motion picture "The Happiest Millionaire" and a rare console table which was found in the French Quarter of New Orleans. In The Gallery, as elsewhere in the Club, are many original works by Disney artists and sketches done as design studies for New Orleans Square and the Pirates of the Caribbean attraction.

The Main Dining Room is decorated in First Empire, recalling the era of Napoleon and the early nineteenth century. Three glimmering chandeliers and wall sconces illuminate the entire room. Much of the framed artwork on the walls is again, the work of Disney artists. Fresh flowers, parquet floors, and antique bronzes create an atmosphere of serenity and warmth.

The Trophy Room is the second dining room and offers a more informal atmosphere. The cypress-planked walls provide an excellent background for sketches done as design studies for the Jungle Cruise and Tiki Room attractions. The design of the room incorporates the use of microphones in the center of each chandelier and a vulture with the ability to speak. Walt Disney's intention for this concept was humorous in nature, as the vulture was to converse with guests during dinner. The Trophy Room also contains a number of antiques and it is usually sunlit from a long row of windows.

Today, Club 33 functions as an exclusive private club where members or their guests may enjoy a gourmet meal complemented by the finest wines. Tradition, accompanied by gracious hospitality, has been the hallmark of Club 33 since its opening day . . . and will continue to be for many years to come.

Below is one of the original Club 33 membership brochures

The young man with the orange sleeved carving coat standing behind the large silver chafing dish is Mr. Roger Craig. He later became the club's Asst. Manager and then rose to Manager. He explained that when this photo was taken, the black and gold coats for the club were not finished, so they used the carving coats from Plaza Inn, hence the orange color.


History of 33

A faded marker of &ldquo33&rdquo, etched into a post more than a century ago was discovered by artisans renovating a historic building on Bourbon Street.

Today, that building is Galatoire&rsquos &ldquo33&rdquo Bar & Steak, the premier destination in the Vieux Carré for enjoying the finest cocktails and traditional steakhouse fare. Whether you are creating memorable celebrations or intimate gatherings, Galatoire&rsquos &ldquo33&rdquo Bar & Steak brings to life New Orleans&rsquo next great tradition in a restored historic building that begins a new chapter in Galatoire&rsquos storied history.

Expressing timeless tenets in new and different ways, Galatoire&rsquos &ldquo33&rdquo Bar & Steak offers guests a chance to enjoy the galleries of one of the world&rsquos most famous streets through the large glass windows at the restaurant&rsquos entrance with a Sazerac, Old Fashioned or Brandy Milk Punch in hand. Whether stopping in for a short visit or a comfortable stay, the custom-built arched bar is an inviting lair for patrons to sip classic, hand-crafted cocktails, the finest wines and spirits. When the mood strikes, guests can order a USDA prime steak or veal chop from the &ldquo33&rdquo Bar & Steak menu or enjoy lighter fare from the bar menu featuring a Louisiana jumbo lump crab cake, "33" burger and more.

Adorned with finely appointed finishing and crystal chandeliers, the dining room offers a luxurious setting for enjoying good conversation and grand food prepared by Executive Chef Phillip Lopez. Guests can enjoy the finest cuts of USDA prime beef ranging from a 7 oz. filet to a 30 oz. t-bone, all while soaking in the restaurant&rsquos alluring atmosphere. Other house specialties include whole fish preparations, lobster thermidor and duck l&rsquoorange, among many more of Chef Lopez&rsquos creations. Guests can complement each dish with a selection of au gratins, including crab, cauliflower, broccoli or peas and mushrooms, and select from classic potato and vegetable preparations, including hash browns, bacon and onions, cherry peppers, brussel sprouts or brown butter mushrooms &ndash all served family style for the entire table to enjoy.