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Sierre Leone Population - History

Sierre Leone Population - History


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SIERRA LEONE

Population:

6,440,053 (July 2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104

Age structure:

0-14 years: 44.5% (male 1,407,226/female 1,460,366)
15-64 years: 52.2% (male 1,613,554/female 1,750,250)
65 years and over: 3.2% (male 95,533/female 113,124) (2009 est.)

Median age:

total: 17.5 years
male: 17.2 years
female: 17.8 years (2009 est.)

Population growth rate:

2.282% (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Birth rate:

44.73 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 5

Death rate:

21.91 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 4

Net migration rate:

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population

country comparison to the world: 81
note: refugees currently in surrounding countries are slowly returning (2009 est.)

Urbanization:

urban population: 38% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 2.9% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 154.43 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 2
male: 171.57 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 136.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 41.24 years
country comparison to the world: 219
male: 38.92 years
female: 43.64 years (2009 est.)

Total fertility rate:

5.88 children born/woman (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 12

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

1.7% (2007 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

55,000 (2007 est.)

country comparison to the world: 62

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

3,300 (2007 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever (2009)

Nationality:

noun: Sierra Leonean(s)
adjective: Sierra Leonean

Ethnic groups:

20 African ethnic groups 90% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 30%), Creole (Krio) 10% (descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area in the late-18th century), refugees from Liberia's recent civil war, small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese, Pakistanis, and Indians

Religions:

Muslim 60%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs 30%

Languages:

English (official, regular use limited to literate minority), Mende (principal vernacular in the south), Temne (principal vernacular in the north), Krio (English-based Creole, spoken by the descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area, a lingua franca and a first language for 10% of the population but understood by 95%)

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write English, Mende, Temne, or Arabic
total population: 35.1%
male: 46.9%
female: 24.4% (2004 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 7 years
male: 8 years
female: 6 years (2001)

Education expenditures:

Eighteen ethnic groups make up the indigenous population of Sierra Leone. The Temne in the north and the Mende in the South are the largest. About 60,000 are Creoles, descendants of freed slaves who returned to Sierra Leone from Great Britain and North America. In addition, about 11,000 Lebanese, 500 Indians, and 2,000 Europeans reside in the country.
POPULATION GRAPH


History of Sierra Leone

In 1808 Sierra Leone became a British crown colony, ruled under a colonial governor. The British administration favored a policy of “indirect rule” whereby they relied on slightly reorganized indigenous institutions to implement colonial policies and maintain order. Rulers who had been “kings” and “queens” became instead “paramount chiefs,” some of them appointed by the administration, and then forced into a subordinate relationship. This allowed the crown to organize labor forces for timber cutting or mining, to grow cash crops for export, or to send work expeditions to plantations as far away as the Congo. Sierra Leoneans did not passively accept such manipulations. The 1898 “Hut Tax rebellion” occurred as a response to British attempts to impose an annual tax on all houses in the country. The Temne and Mende people especially refused to pay, attacking and looting trading stations, and killing policemen, missionaries, and all those suspected of assisting the colonial government.

Pressures to end colonialism had as much to do with Britain’s weakened position following World War II as it did with the pan-African demands for autonomy. Sierra Leone became an independent, sovereign state on 27 April 1961 with Milton Margai as its prime minister. Ten years later, on 19 April 1971, the country became a republic, with an elected president as the head of state.

There are a wide variety of ecological and agricultural zones to which people have adapted. Starting in the west, Sierra Leone has some 250 miles (400 kilometers) of coastline, giving it both bountiful marine resources and attractive tourist potential. This is followed by low-lying mangrove swamps, rain-forested plains and farmland, and finally a mountainous plateau in the east, where Mount Bintumani rises to 6,390 feet (1,948 meters). The climate is tropical, with two seasons determining the agricultural cycle: the rainy season from May to November, followed by the dry season from December to May, which includes harmattan, when cool, dry winds blow in off the Sahara Desert. The capital Freetown sits on a coastal peninsula, situated next to the world’s third largest natural harbor. This prime location historically made Sierra Leone the center of trade and colonial administration in the region.

Demography

The population of Sierra Leone is around 7 million people (National Statistics Report Census 2016), the majority being children and youth. The population had been increasing at just over 2 percent per year, though this has declined somewhat since civil conflict began in 1991 and the outbreak of the “Ebola” epidemic in 2014 and ends in 2015. Thirty-six (36) percent of the people live in urban areas the average woman bears three children during her lifetime. There are also numerous Sierra Leoneans living and working abroad, especially in England and the United States. They generate active discussion concerning events in their country and provide an important source of resources for their families at home

Linguistic Affiliation

Different reports list between sixteen to twenty different ethnic groups. This is a discrepancy not so much as to whether a certain group of people “exists” or not, but whether local dialects once spoken continue to be mutually distinct in the face of population expansion, intermarriages, and migration. For example, the two largest ethnic groups, the Temne and Mende, each comprise about 30 percent of the total population and have come to “absorb” many of their less populous neighbors. For instance, Loko people will admit to being heavily culturally influenced by the Temne people surrounding them, the Krim and the Gola people were also culturally influenced by the Mende people, and so on. In addition, there are also a good number of people of Lebanese descent, whose ancestors fled Turkish persecution in Lebanon in the late nineteenth century. While each ethnic group speaks its own language, the majority of people speak Mende, Temne, or Krio. The official language spoken in schools and government administration is English, a product of British colonial influence. It is not unusual for a child growing up to learn four different languages—that of their parent’s ethnic group, a neighboring group, Krio, and English.

Symbolism

To some extent symbolic imagery is regionally based—people from the western area often associate the tall cotton tree, white sandy beaches, or the large natural harbor with home people from the east often think of coffee and cocoa plantations. Yet the palm tree and the rice grain are the national symbols par excellence, immortalized in currency, song, and folklore, and valued for their central and staple contributions to everyday life. Different products of the palm tree contribute to cooking oil, thatch roofs, fermented wine, soap, fruits, and nuts. Perhaps the only product more important than that of the palm tree is rice, the staple food, usually eaten every day. It is often hard for outsiders to grasp the centrality of rice to daily existence in Sierra Leone. Mende people, for example, have over 20 different words to describe rice in its variant forms, such as separate words for “sweet rice,” “pounded rice,” and “the rice that sticks to the bottom of a pot upon cooking.”

History and Ethnic Relations

Before the expedition of Pedro da centra, archaeological evidence suggests that people have occupied Sierra Leone for at least twenty-five hundred years, and early migrations, expeditions, and wars gave the country its diverse cultural and ethnic mosaic. Traders and missionaries, especially from the north, were instrumental in spreading knowledge of tools, education, and Islam. The emergence of a modern national identity, however, did not begin until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when Bunce Island, off the coast of Freetown, became one of the centers of the West African slave trade. Over two thousand slaves per year were channeled through this port, thus increasing the incidence of warfare and violence among the local population. The slaves were especially valued off the coast of South Carolina on rice plantations, where it was discovered they had considerable agricultural expertise. There are between fifteen and twenty ethnic groups in Sierra Leone, depending on one’s linguistic tendency to “lump” or “split” groups of people speaking different dialects. Relations have been generally cordial among them, and Sierra Leone has largely avoided the racial tension characteristic of other parts of the world. In the recent electioneering period, for instance, one family may have children fighting for opposing sides, a fact which makes the violence difficult, as well as deeply and personally felt. When ethnic problems do arise, they often do so around the time of national elections, when politicians become accused of catering to the desires of one particular constituency or region (usually their own ethnic group) in order to gain votes.

Emergence of the Nation

When the slave trade began to be outlawed near the close of the eighteenth century, Sierra Leone became a resettlement site for freed slaves from England and the Americas, thus led to the name of the capital, “Freetown.” English philanthropists, concerned about the welfare of unemployed blacks on the streets of London, pushed a “benevolent” movement to round them all up and take them back to Africa to settle, where they could begin life anew. Other migrants had been ex-slaves from America who had fought for the British during the Revolutionary War. The English loss had forced them to move to Canada, where they were not entirely welcome. Still others were ex-slaves who had revolted and were living freely in the mountains of Jamaica, until the British conquered the area and deported them to Nova Scotia, from where they immigrated to Sierra Leone. Finally, from the time when the English officially outlawed the slave trade in 1807 up until the 1860s, the British navy policed the West African coast for trading ships would intercept them and release their human cargoes in Freetown, in what became a rapidly expanding settlement.

National Identity

National identity has been influenced by several factors. Besides the common experiences shared under colonialism or since independence, one of the most important has been the development of the regional lingua franca Krio, a language that unites all the different ethnic groups, especially in their trade and interaction with each other. Another has been the near universal membership, across ethnic lines, in men’s and women’s social organizations, especially Poro among the men, and Bundu, or Sande, among the women.


Sierra Leone Population 1950-2021

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Census

The first population count in Sierra Leone was undertaken in 1802 in what is now the Western Area. However, the first modern population census to cover the whole country, was conducted in April 1963. Since then, four more censuses have been undertaken in December 1974, December 1985, December 2004 and December 2015 respectively. It is worth noting that because of the difference in the methodology used in the censuses prior to 1963, the population totals of the country prior to 1963 cannot be compared with those of recent censuses.

Due to the improvement of the census methodology in the 1963 population census, a reliable and trustworthy population figure of 2,180,355 was accepted for informed consent and further improvement on the other censuses continued.

The 2004 Census collected information on many demographic and socio-economic characteristics and recorded a total population of 4,976,871 persons, with a sex ratio of 94. Its preliminary report was published in February 2005 and the analytical report finalized in July 2006. Following the decennial census programme, the next census was expected in December 2014. However, following the spread of the Ebola epidemic from Guinea and Liberia to Sierra Leone, with the first case recorded in May 2014 in Kailahun District, a recommendation was made by Statistics Sierra Leone (SSL) to the Government of Sierra Leone that the main field enumeration should be shifted from December 2014 to April 2015. But as the epidemic intensified, it was further postponed to December 2015. The Government of Sierra Leone accepted and announced both postponements.

The population of Sierra Leone has grown from 2,180,355 in 1963 to 2,735,159 in 1974, 4,976,871 and 7,092,113 in 2004 and 2015 respectively.


6. The Ancient Cotton Tree Of Freetown Is World-famous

One of the most historic and well-known symbols of Freetown (Sierra Leone’s capital city) is the Cotton Tree. It’s believed that in 1792 a group of ex-slaves from America, who had fought with the British in the War of Independence, settled in Freetown and gathered around the giant cotton tree to pray for gaining their freedom. These former slaves were called “Nova Scotians” as before settling in West Africa they had traveled to the eastern Canadian province of Nova Scotia after leaving the southern United States. The Cotton Tree is not only the oldest such tree in Freetown but experts also believe that it may be the world's oldest one. Modern-day citizens of Sierra Leone still routinely make offerings and pray to their ancestors under the Cotton Tree.


The Geography of Sierra Leone

Total Size: 71,740 square km

Size Comparison: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Geographical Coordinates: 8 30 N, 11 30 W

World Region or Continent: Africa

General Terrain: coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland plateau, mountains in east

Geographical Low Point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

Geographical High Point: Loma Mansa (Bintimani) 1,948 m

Climate: tropical hot, humid summer rainy season (May to December) winter dry season (December to April)

Major cities: FREETOWN (capital) 875,000 (2009)


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Not many people are aware that there are living and thriving Yoruba cultures in the two West African countries of Sierra Leone and Gambia, that is apart from the well known Nigerian, Beninese and Togolese Yoruba communities.

This is a thread dedicated to The Yoruba and Creole (krio) peoples, majority of which are of Yoruba descent as well as their cultural practices in the West African countries of Sierra Leone and The Gambia.
Language, Music, Literature, E.tc.

There are an estimated 800,000 Krios in Sierra Leone, while in Gambia, the Akus make up another estimated 5% of the population and they are very very influential in both countries, and one thing that is quite known about Yorubas and Yoruba descended people is that the culture always follow them wherever they go regardless of location..

Some notable Sierra Leonean Creoles/Yorubas include:

Oloh Israel Olufemi Cole
Adetokumboh McCormack,
Abel Nathaniel Bankole Stronge
Abioseh Nicol
Ade Renner Thomas
Akiwande Josiah Lasite
Ogunlade Davidson
Rev. Victoria Gladys Abeoseh Wilson-Cole
Walter Balogun Nicol
Winstanley Bankole Johnson
Dr. John Augustus Abayomi-Cole - Medical doctor, politician
Herbert Bankole-Bright - Medical doctor and politician
Abel Nathaniel Bankole Stronge - Current speaker of parliament
David Omoshola Carew - Current Minister of Trade and Industry
Ogunlade Davidson - Current Minister of Energy and Power
Winstanley Bankole Johnson - Mayor of Freetown from 2004 to 2008
Abioseh Davidson Nicol - Author and diplomat
Ade Renner Thomas - Former Chief Justice of Sierra Leone

And countless others.
Ps: I am Creole of Yoruba descent who is a national of Sierra Leone.

One of the most distinctive features of the Yoruba/Creole comunity in SL and Gambia is the division into Guilds and clubs of Hunting (Odeh), Masquerades and Masks (Ojeh and Egun) as well as community helping groups and monetary co-operatives (Esusu).

The Hunting groups (Odehs) for example host elaborate events in both countries and have very large communities.
Here are some pictures.

These are hunting guilds, and most of their masquerades are based on animal motifs. They are one of the more popular, because they are very lively and is mostly made up of young and vibrant folks.

We host yearly events both at home and among the Sierra Leonean and Gambian communities abroad.
Everyone is welcome to attend, as they are usually fun and pomp.

Apart from Free town the national capital, the groups are also very prominent in Port Loko, Aberdeen, Fulatown, Waterloo among other places in the country.

listen to this track with an assemblage of random pictures of general life in Salone.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HqnEyUcKSZA&t=373s
'
Oh and by the way, Nigerian pidgin English originated in Sierra Leone. That is why it sounds like a watered down version of Krio. . Contrary to popular belief, pidgin was not very popular in Nigeria in the colonial period at all, but became popular when krios started settling in coastal Nigerian cities including Port Harcourt, Warri and Calabar.

Some of the most prominent Nigerian families also have sierra leonean origins like the Kutis, Many of Nigeria's first achievers in various fields, Herbert Macaulay, father of Nigerian nationalism Et cetera.

Osugbo,
God bless you for sharing.

I love it! We would like to see more of you and fellow Yorubas join us here and share knowledge and history of our Common Legacy.

I love it! We would like to see more of you and fellow Yorubas join us here and share knowledge and history of our Common Legacy.

I will invite friends and family. Thanks.
My family origins goes back to the Egba and the Effon, I don't know which group is the latter.

There is a project going on as we speak to return our people to Yoruba as a first language. It started many years ago but before age of internet and new technology so it met some roadblocks politically. In the new age, media and internet is fluid and can get around political barriers, so the project has been renewed.

Our leaders and Kings all across West Africa have pushed for Yoruba as first language among Yorubas in Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Senegal. This is first stage of a long process to break the limitations imposed by Anglo-Franco barriers between a homogeneous race occupying the Sudan zone.

It is really amazing to see how Yoruba influences the West African sub-blocks over and across to South America, N. America and the UK. You need to come and see how Yoruba culture and language is pride of African culture in the UK. Its amazing. Their confidence even in corporate world, surprises even the indigent people.

I was really surprise to see that Yoruba Culture still hold sway in Ghana (Ewe) and far away Sierra leone (Krio). One common thing is their love for education, just like the Nigerian Yorubas' and they are very influential in their various countries. The Ghana lady was very happy when she got to know I am Yoruba and she started telling me of Ewe people, and how we are related and the period they moved westward as a result of the fall of the Oyo empire. Its quiet intriguing and interesting. That shows how influential the Yoruba nation is.

Parts of the Yorubas are probably and truly the children of Lamurudu (Nimrod), the Black and first ruler of the world, who started slavery and the slavery later ended up and completed over his people (so sad), bringing to end, the curse of the tower of babel. No wonder the Yorubas has, one of the most varied dialects in the world. The oracle, has truly come full circle - what goes around definitely comes around. Hardly, has any African Language/culture has the influence, like that of the Yorubas across countries and continents- its unfathomable.

Something strange is happening to me now. I think I am beginning to have he urge to learn IFA, - Sometimes, I watch Yoruba movies because of those IFA incantation (Scenes) and knowledge. Anybody with knowledge of IFA to share? I hope its not Diabolical, sha. I just like it, or say i'm curious? I do understand the interpretation, especially when I listened carefully to the incantations, despite my lack of knowledge of it

Really? are you a Nigerian national?
What is the history behind your jamaican and Portuguese origin? Also can an African be of Jamaican origin, knowing fully well than Jamaicans themselves are Africans.

I will invite friends and family. Thanks.
My family origins goes back to the Egba and the Effon, I don't know which group is the latter.

Osugbo:
Apart from Free town the national capital, the groups are also very prominent in Port Loko, Aberdeen, Fulatown, Waterloo among other places in the country.

listen to this track with an assemblage of random pictures of general life in Salone.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HqnEyUcKSZA&t=373s
'
Oh and by the way, Nigerian pidgin English originated in Sierra Leone. That is why it sounds like a watered down version of Krio. . Contrary to popular belief, pidgin was not very popular in Nigeria in the colonial period at all, but became popular when krios started settling in coastal Nigerian cities including Port Harcourt, Warri and Calabar.

Some of the most prominent Nigerian families also have sierra leonean origins like the Kutis, Many of Nigeria's first achievers in various fields, Herbert Macaulay, father of Nigerian nationalism Et cetera.

On the Igbo side, there were quite a few ex slave returnees of Igbo ancestry who returned to Igboland but very little is known of them. Just like their Yoruba counterparts, most of them have English surnames, which was very rare among the general Igbo population during the colonial period. They settled mostly in Onitsha. For example, the Koldsweat family of Onitsha (the popular actor Larry Koldsweat), the Brown family of Onitsha (https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2016/05/29/the-browns-bonded-by-love-and-business/), etc. My classmate's maternal grandfather was also a returnee who settled in Onitsha. Those who grew up in Onitsha, especially between the 1940s and 1980s will know what I am talking about. Onitsha was to them what Lagos was to the Yoruba returnees. However, majority of Igbo returnees either settled in Sierra Leone or Equatorial Guinea out of fear of being socially stigmatized due to the prevalent oru/osu caste system at that time.

My original place is Arochuckwu before my ancestor was sent to the Carribean at the time the younger ancestor returned, originally was headed to Equitorial Guinea. But the kid got to survive and ended up in Onitsha and then Awka. Nice facts you got there actually I was perplexed to find out a massive Igbo population in the Español Guinea. I think our ancestry is even farther then we know

Thanks for sharing this. I didn't know Awka had returnee settlers also! Where in Igboland are you currently from, Awka or Onitsha?

Thanks for sharing this. I didn't know Awka had returnee settlers also! Where in Igboland are you currently from, Awka or Onitsha?

I will invite friends and family. Thanks.
My family origins goes back to the Egba and the Effon, I don't know which group is the latter.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CRwVCux2eSg

geosegun:
It is really amazing to see how Yoruba influences the West African sub-blocks over and across to South America, N. America and the UK. You need to come and see how Yoruba culture and language is pride of African culture in the UK. Its amazing. Their confidence even in corporate world, surprises even the indigent people.

I was really surprise to see that Yoruba Culture still hold sway in Ghana (Ewe) and far away Sierra leone (Krio). One common thing is their love for education, just like the Nigerian Yorubas' and they are very influential in their various countries. The Ghana lady was very happy when she got to know I am Yoruba and she started telling me of Ewe people, and how we are related and the period they moved westward as a result of the fall of the Oyo empire. Its quiet intriguing and interesting. That shows how influential the Yoruba nation is.

Parts of the Yorubas are probably and truly the children of Lamurudu (Nimrod), the Black and first ruler of the world, who started slavery and the slavery later ended up and completed over his people (so sad), bringing to end, the curse of the tower of babel. No wonder the Yorubas has, one of the most varied dialects in the world. The oracle, has truly come full circle - what goes around definitely comes around. Hardly, has any African Language/culture has the influence, like that of the Yorubas across countries and continents- its unfathomable.

Something strange is happening to me now. I think I am beginning to have he urge to learn IFA, - Sometimes, I watch Yoruba movies because of those IFA incantation (Scenes) and knowledge. Anybody with knowledge of IFA to share? I hope its not Diabolical, sha. I just like it, or say i'm curious? I do understand the interpretation, especially when I listened carefully to the incantations, despite my lack of knowledge of it

@bold. I beg to differ. Pidgin English was introduced to Nigeria by the Portuguese (slave traders) around the 16th or 17th century. It was originally introduced along the coast and it spread inwards with time.

Pidgin English was not introduced to Nigeria by the portuguese, otherwise Nigerians would be speaking a Portuguese creole like Guinea Bissau. Pidgin as spoken in Nigeria is an English based creole. Pidgin came in full force via the krios and later took on some Nigerian character by imbibing local words since such is the character of a creole.

During the European quest for new markets and raw materials in the 17th Century, many Portuguese missionaries and traders arrived on the shores of Jamaica and West and Central African countries like: Sierra Leone, Cameroon and Nigeria were largely visited by the missionaries. For trade and religious purposes with no language in common they created a form of communication with bases from the European language, giving birth to most African languages: such as Creole, Pidgin, and Patois. These languages came to serve the linguistic need there, by giving birth to the Cameroon Camfranglais (mixture of French and English) spoken by the youth today.

Nigerian Pidgin English (NPE), originated as a lingua franca for trade purposes amongst the Nigerians and the Portuguese merchants during the 17th century. It is broken English like Patois and Creole, spoken along the coast of West Africa and it has extended to the diaspora, due to Nigerian migrants. After the departure of the missionaries, this lingua franca did not go with them but remained and is the most widely spoken language in Nigeria today compared to English. There are still Portuguese words present in the NPE such as : “ Sabi (to know) and Pikin (child)” .

NPE is regarded as a bastardization of the English language used by the non-literates, though it is highly spoken in Nigeria by every individual starting from an early age. In the country, both the literates, such as the president, campaigning politicians, lawyers, doctors, and non-literates speak and understand pidgin, though it is mostly used in informal situations and English is used for official purposes and the medium of education. NPE is the most widely spoken language as it is not a native language of any tribe in Nigeria but the only language everyone understands and regards as the easiest form of interaction amongst the population.The Federal Republic of Nigeria has three major languages namely: Igbo in the (East), Yoruba in the (South) and Hausa in the (North ) having English as the official language alongside other 500 different spoken dialects. Indeed, NPE is considered as a bastardized language as it is yet to have a standard written form. University in Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) Zaria both undergraduate and postgraduate levels , department of English and Drama are now offering it as a course and many struggles are being put up for NPE to be considered Nigeria’s official language as it is highly used by the masses, high school students, postgraduates and undergraduates, politicians and business people.

NPE is not only spoken in Nigeria, it is widely used by the diasporic communities in America, England, and Canada. In addition, a large group of the Nigerian community in Luxembourg use Pidgin as a means of communication, these diasporic communities use pidgin among themselves as a means to feel at home.

Pidgin English was not introduced to Nigeria by the portuguese, otherwise Nigerians would be speaking a Portuguese creole like Guinea Bissau. Pidgin as spoken in Nigeria is an English based creole. Pidgin came in full force via the krios and later took on some Nigerian character by imbibing local words since such is the character of a creole.

Quite an infornation you've shared. May Olorun continuously bless you with such renewed strength to share more of Yorubas history in the country you live as an indigene.


Facts and Statistics

In the 1980s, several Sierra Leoneans joined the Church while living in other countries. After returning to Sierra Leone and finding that the Church had not yet been established there, these faithful converts—including Michael Samura, Bai Sama Sankoh, Elizabeth Judith Bangura, Monica Orleans, and Christian George—worked independently to build the Church in the country. In 1988 the first missionaries arrived in Sierra Leone, and a branch in Freetown was soon established.

When war spilled from Liberia into Sierra Leone in 1991, missionaries were evacuated. Just over 1,000 members were living in the country at the time. For nearly 11 years, as they endured violence and hunger, members put their trust in God and were “supported in their trials, and their troubles, and their afflictions” ( Alma 36:3 ). They continued to meet often, support and uplift one another, and preach the gospel to their neighbors. By the end of the war in 2002, Church membership had grown more than fourfold to nearly 5,000.


In the decade after the war—despite ongoing regional conflict and the Ebola epidemic—growth continued and a stake was created in Freetown. Just five years later, nearly 20,000 members of the Church were living in five stakes and four districts in Sierra Leone.


Republic of Sierra Leone

Background:
The 1991 to 2002 civil war between the government and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) resulted in tens of thousands of deaths and the displacement of more than 2 million people (about one-third of the population), many of whom are now refugees in neighboring countries.

With the support of the UN peacekeeping force and contributions from the World Bank and international community, demobilization and disarmament of the RUF and Civil Defense Forces (CDF) combatants has been completed.

National elections were held in May 2002 and the government continues to slowly reestablish its authority. However, the gradual withdrawal of most UN Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) peacekeepers in 2004 and early 2005, deteriorating political and economic conditions in Guinea, and the tenuous security situation in neighboring Liberia challenged the continuation of Sierra Leone's stability.

In March 2014, the closure of the UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Sierra Leone marked the end of more than 15 years of peacekeeping in the country.

Time:
Local Time = UTC
Actual Time: Tue-June-22 09:50

Capital City: Freetown (1 million)

Other Cities: Bo, Kenema, Lungi, Makeni, Yengema


Government:
Type: Republic with a democratically elected President and Parliament.
Independence: 27 April 1961 (from Britain).
Constitution: 1 October 1991.

Geography:
Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Liberia.
Area: 71,740 km² (27,698 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Three areas are coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hills along the immediate interior, and a mountainous plateau in the interior.
Highest point: Loma Mansa (Bintimani) 1 948 m

Climate: tropical hot, humid summer rainy season (May to December)

People:
Nationality: Sierra Leonean(s).
Population: 7 million (2015)
Ethnic groups: Temne 30%, Mende 30%, Krio 1%, small Lebanese community.
Religions: Muslim 60%, Christian 30%, animist 10%.
Languages: English (official, regular use limited to literate minority), Krio, Temne, Mende, and 15 other indigenous languages.
Literacy: 15-30%.

Natural resources: Diamonds, gold, titanium, bauxite, iron ore, chromite.

Agriculture products: Rice, coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, palm oil, peanuts poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs fish.

Industries: Diamonds mining small-scale manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear) petroleum refining.

Exports - commodities: Iron ore, diamonds, rutile, cocoa, coffee, fish.

Exports partners: China 31.3%, Belgium 27.8%, Romania 11.3%, USA 7.3%, India 4% (2015)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels and lubricants, chemicals.

Imports - partners: China 23%, India 7.9%, USA 6.4%, Netherlands 5.1% (2015)

Official Sites of Sierra Leone

Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

The Republic of Sierra Leone State House
The Government of Sierra Leone online, the site provides also related news.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Sierra Leone
Official website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (MFAIC) of the Republic of Sierra Leone.

Diplomatic Missions:
Permanent Mission of the Republic of Sierra Leone to the UN
Official website of the Mission of Sierra Leone to the United Nations in New York (under construction).
Sierra Leone High Commission
London, UK

Map of Sierra Leone
Political map of Sierra Leone.
Administrative Map of Sierra Leone
Map showing Sierra Leone's administrative regions.

Google Earth Sierra Leone
Searchable map/satellite view of Sierra Leone.
Google Earth Freetown
Searchable map/satellite view of Sierra Leone' capital city.

Peace Process

The Special Court for Sierra Leone
Set up jointly by the Government of Sierra Leone and the United Nations. It is mandated to try those who bear the greatest responsibility for serious violations of international humanitarian law and Sierra Leonean law committed in the territory of Sierra Leone since 30 November 1996.

Conflicts in Africa: Sierra Leone
More information about a decade of armed conflict and grotesque human rights violations in Sierra Leone.

The Heart of the Matter: Sierra Leone, Diamonds and Human Security
Diamonds were central to the conflict in Sierra Leone, and that a highly criminalized war economy had developed a momentum of its own.

International News Sources
allAfrica Sierra Leone
Recent news from Sierra Leone.
Cocorioko
Sierra Leone news produced in the US.
The Guardian
Articles related to Sierra Leone.
IRIN News
UN press agency with the latest news from Sierra Leone.

Arts & Culture

Business & Economy


Transportation
There are seven regional airports in Sierra Leone (unpaved), and one international airport in Freetown. Transport within the country depends on a 11,300 km road network, just 8% are paved, most of them in poor repair in the rainy season cross-country roads are often impassable. Sierra Leone's railway system (nearly 600 km in length) from Freetown through Bo to Kenema and Daru, with a branch to Makeni in the Northern Province, closed in 1974.

Lungi International Airport (FNA)
Sierra Leone's international airport is served by KLM, Air France, Brussels Airlines, and Mauritania Airlines from Dakar via Conakry.


Airlines (none)

Sierra National Airlines
Sierra National Airlines was the national airline of Sierra Leone from 1990 until 2006 when it ceased operations.

First Line Air
FLA was a UK based carrier with direct flights between Freetown and London Gatwick.

Travel and Tour Consumer Information

Destination Sierra Leone - Travel and Tour Guides

Discover SL:
Banana Islands (beaches and a prime tourist destination south west of the Freetown Peninsula) Tiwai Island (an inland river island in the Moa River in the Upper Guinea Rainforest area of the Southern Province, a community conservation wildlife sanctuary, it is on the tentative list of UNESCO) Bunce Island (castle of a British slave-trading company on the island in the Sierra Leone River near Freetown) National Railway Museum (the country has no railway anymore but a railway museum in Freetown) Lake Sonfon (holy fresh water mountain lake) Outamba-Kilimi National Park (Sierra Leone's first National Park near the border with Guinea) Mamunta Mayosso Wildlife Sanctuary (game reserve in Tonkolili District, Northern Province).

National Tourist Board of Sierra Leone
Provides visitors information and Sierra Leone tourism industry facts and addresses.

Sierra Leone Web
Sierra Leone portal, a very comprehensive website with a lot of information on Sierra Leone.

Sierra Leone Connection
US based Sierra Leone community website.

Visit Sierra Leone
Travel and tourism information as well as news from Sierra Leone.

Salone Scrapbook
Pre-war images of Sierra Leone taken between 1987 and 1990 by Glenn Elert.

Education

Njala University College
The public institution operates on two campuses, in Bo and Njala.

Environment & Nature

Natural hazards in the country are the dry, sand-laden harmattan winds from the Sahara (December to February).
A rapid population growth pressuring the environment overharvesting of timber, expansion of cattle grazing, and slash-and-burn agriculture have resulted in deforestation and soil exhaustion the civil war has depleted much of the natural resources.

History

Sierra Leone History
From Sierra Leone's early history until modern and post-modern history.

Sierra Leone History
Overview of Sierra Leone's History by Wikipedia.

Sierra Leonean Heroes
Online history book of "Fifty Great Men and Women Who Helped to Build Our Nation".

Cry Freetown
Website about Sorious Samura's film "Cry Freetown", a brutal portrayal of what happened in Freetown, capital of Sierra Leone in January 1999.


Watch the video: Ραγδαία αύξηση του πληθυσμού της γης Παπούλας Νίκος (July 2022).


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