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Simulation Tour: Ziggurat of Ur

Simulation Tour: Ziggurat of Ur


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This is a simulation (virtual reality) video of a reconstruction of the Ziggurat of Ur in its entirety. Ur was a city in Sumer that became dominant during the Early Dynastic Period (c. 2900-2350 B.C.E) alongside other cities such as; Uruk, Nippur, Eridu, Lagash and Kish.

Creators: Hussain Yahya & ytnlrB


Archaeological reconstructions

Reconstructions of ancient sites or finds can help us to understand the distant past. For non-academics, reconstructions offer a glimpse into that past, a kind of visual accumulation of scientific research communicated by means of images, models or even virtual reality. We see reconstructions in films, museums and magazines to illustrate the stories behind the historical or archaeological facts. For archaeologists like me however, reconstructions are also an important tool to answer unsolved questions and even raise new ones. One field where this is particularly true is the reconstruction of ancient architecture.

Early reconstructions

Since at least medieval times, artists created visual reconstructions drawn from the accounts of travelers or the Bible. Examples of this include the site of Stonehenge or the Tower of Babylon. Since the beginning of archaeology as a science in the mid-19th century, scientific reconstructions based on actual data were made. Of course, the earlier visualizations were more conjectural than later ones, due to the lack of comparable data at that time (for example, the image below).

Reconstruction drawing of Nimrud, the site of an ancient Assyrian palace, by James Fergusson for Sir Henry Layard, published in 1853. The columns depicted here were never found. The reconstruction is clearly influenced by what was known at that time of Greco-Roman architecture and by John Martin’s Fall of Nineveh (1829)

The three building blocks of reconstructions

Since the end of the 19th century, reconstruction drawings evolved to be less conjectural and increasingly based on actual archaeological data as these became available due to increased excavations. Today we can not only look at reconstructions, we can experience them—whether as life-sized physical models or as immersive virtual simulations. But how do we create them? What are they made of? Every reconstruction is basically composed of three building blocks: Primary Sources, Secondary Sources, and Guesswork.

The first step toward a good visualization is to become aware of the archaeological data, the excavated remains—simply everything that has survived. This data is referred to as the Primary Sources—this is the part of the reconstruction we are most certain about. Sometimes we have a lot that survives and sometimes we only have the basic layout of a ground plan (below).

Remains of Building C in Uruk. Only a couple of mud-brick rows have survived to offer a basic ground plan. The building dates into the 4th millennium B.C.E. © German Archaeological Institute, Oriental Institute, W 10767, all rights reserved.

Even when the Primary Sources are utilized, we often have to fill the gaps with Secondary Sources. These sources are composed of architectural parallels, ancient depictions and descriptions, or ethno-archaeological data. So, for example in the case of the Building C in Uruk (above), we know through Primary Sources, that this building was made of mud-bricks (at least the first two rows). We then have to look at other buildings of that time to find out how they were built. In the example above, the layout of the ground-plan shows us that this building was tripartite—a layout well known from this and other sites. We also look at contemporary architecture to understand how mud-brick architecture functions and to find out what certain architectural details might mean. Unfortunately, we don’t have any depictions or textual evidence that can help us with this example. Parallels from later times however show us that the unusual niches in the rooms suggest an important function.

After utilising all the primary and secondary sources, we still need to fill in the gaps. The third part of every reconstruction is simple Guesswork. We obviously need to limit that part as much as we can, but there is always some guesswork involved—no matter how much we research our building. For example, it is rather difficult to decide how high Building C was over 5000 years ago. We therefore have to make an educated guess based, for example, on the estimated length and inclination of staircases within the building. If we are lucky, we can use some primary or secondary sources for that too, but even then, in the end we need to make a subjective decision.

Technical reconstruction of Building C in Uruk. The southwestern part of the building is artificially cut open so we can see the inside (for example, the staircase). © artefacts-berlin.de Material: German Archaeological Institute

Reconstructions as a scholarly tool

Besides creating these reconstructions to display them in exhibitions, architectural models can also aid archaeological investigations. If we construct ancient architecture using the computer, we not only need to decide every aspect of that particular building, but also the relation to adjoining architecture. Sometimes, the process of reconstructing several buildings and thinking about their interdependence can reveal interesting connections, for example the complicated matter of water disposal off a roof.

These are only random examples, but clearly, the process of architectural reconstruction is a complex one. We, as the creators, need to make sure that the observer understands the problems and uncertainties of a particular reconstruction. It is essential that the viewer understands that these images are not 100% factual. As the archaeologist Simon James has put it: “Every reconstruction is wrong. The only real question is, how wrong is it?”


Introduction

After the biblical Flood of Genesis 7–8, Noah and his family came out of the Ark in the mountains of Ararat to start new lives in a strange world. Genesis 11:2 says that they eventually settled in a plain in Shinar according to the Jewish historian, Josephus (1736a) (Antiquities 1:4:1), this was the first place where the multiplying group of people lived after leaving the mountains. In Shinar they rebelled against God and set out to build a city and tower to make a name for themselves and keep from scattering ( Genesis 11:4). Our search for the Tower of Babel will therefore begin by locating the land of Shinar.


Complete Travel Guide To Iraq.

This Iraq Travel Guide is for the Southern part of Iraq and NOT about the Kurdish autonomous region in Northern Iraq.

the lyre of ur one of the most important artefacts inside the National Museum in Baghdad.

All information in this guide is from early 2019 when I travelled around Iraq and visited: Baghdad &ndash Ctesiphon &ndash Samarra And The Great Mosque &ndash The Ziggurat of Dur Kurigalzu &ndash Karbala &ndash Babylon &ndash Kufa &ndash Najaf &ndash The Mesopotamian Marshes &ndash Basra.

How To Get a Tourist VISA For Iraq.

*Update from 15 March 2021, can now 30 countries get the Iraq Visa on Arrival, without pre-arraignment.

Countries that can get Visa on arrival for Iraq (VOA)

  • USA, UK, France, the Russian Federation and the People&rsquos Republic of China)
  • European Union countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands

As well as citizens of Japan, South Korea, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Switzerland.

But be aware that still if you get the visa, so will you need a have a guide to visit all the historical sites around the country.

All other countries still need to pre-arrange their visa for Iraq.

Obtaining a travel visa to Iraq is complicated and very time-consuming. You first have to apply at the Ministry of Foreign affairs in Baghdad your local contact will have to do this for you.

When this application is approved, will you receive a letter so that you personally can then apply at an Iraq Embassy. This will have to be in your country of residence.

Visa Restrictions:
Your visa will be refused to citizens of Israel and travellers with proof of travel to Israel.

The whole process will take around 4-6months!

There are five types of visa for Iraq:
Visiting relatives: Only possible if you have family in Iraq proof required.
Pilgrim visa: This is only possible when you are part of an organised religious pilgrim trip. Usually to places like Karbala, Najaf, Kufa and Samara.
Business visa: Going for work purposes.
Press / Media visa: Every journalist requires this visa.
Tourist visa: The most difficult visa to obtain and the one I used.
You can&rsquot just apply for this visa. You need to apply for a group tourist visa which requires you to be a minimum of five people applying together.
You also have to travel along with who you applied for the visa with!

Update November 2019: ALL 5 people travelling together will now have to apply for the visa at the same Embassy! Even if you are from 5 different countries. Making the visa even more difficult to obtain.

My Tourist Visa, one of the tourist visas in the world.

Even with the visa secured, are you required to have a Government licensed guide and driver at all times. You will also have to stay in Government licensed hotels for registration (This is very strict).

You can not legally do Couchsurfing or stay with local friends on a tourist visa.

You will also need a permit for each place you want to visit outside Baghdad. Every site, every city, a permit for each and every one. Gotta love the bureaucracy.

The only remaining ruins of the ancient city of Ctesiphon. The last Persian capital.

Also, be aware if you do get the visa and you arrive in Iraq, will you have to leave Iraq the same way you arrived.

If you arrive at Baghdad airport, you will have to leave the country from Baghdad airport.
If you arrive overland from Kuwait, you will have to leave Iraq overland back to Kuwait.

It´s currently not possible for foreigners to travel overland from the Kurdish Autonomous Region in the north to southern Iraq.

While it´s possible to arrange an Iraqi tourist visa yourself, is it A LOT easier to go on a tour since you are required to have a guide anyway.

There are currently three western companies offering a trip to southern Iraq and one local.

But if you have 4 friends join you and want to arrange it yourself, send me an email, and I will give you the contact in Iraq who can arrange the visa.

When you are booking the trip with either the local contact or the international travel companies will, transport, guide and accommodation be included, the price depends a bit on what and where you want to go, and what type of transport accommodation you require, but expect 150-250usd a day.

Panoramic view over Baghdad from top of the Ferries Wheel in Baghdad zoo.

How To Travel To Iraq.

Hello Baghdad Airport, formerly known as Saddam Airport.

If you already have an Iraq visa is getting here is easy.

More and more airlines have flights to and from Iraq, and the national airline of Iraq, The Iraqi Airways, have direct flights to all major and even some smaller cities in Europe.

There are currently 3 International Airports in Iraq + 2 in the Kurdish autonomous region in the Northern part of the country.

There is a new airport in Karbala currently being built. It is expected to be the countries largest airport upon completion.

Baghdad International Airport (BGW), previously Saddam International Airport.
Basra International Airport (BSR)
Najaf International Airport (NJF)

The easiest way from Europe and America to Iraq is either with Austrian Airlines, Emirates, Iraq Airways, Turkish Airlines & Qatar Airways.

Inside Baghdad International Airport.

Star Alliance Alliance:
Austrian Airlines flies four flights per week from Vienna to Baghdad.
Egypt Air: One flight a day between Cario and Baghdad.
Turkish Airlines flies twice daily from Istanbul to Baghdad and once a day to Najaf as well as Basra.

One World Alliance:
Qatar Airways flies twice daily from Doha to Baghdad and once a day to Najaf and Basra.
Royal Jordanian Airlines Flies twice daily between Amman and Baghdad and once a day to both Najaf and Basra.

SkyTeam Alliance:
Middle East Airlines flies twice daily between Baghdad and Beirut and once a day to both Najaf and Basra.
Saudia flies once a day between Baghdad and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia.

Budget Airline:
FlyDubai flies twice a day between Baghdad and Dubai.
Air Arabia flies once a day between Baghdad and Sharjah.
Pegasus Airlines flies once a day between Baghdad and Istanbul.

Iraqi Airways:
Baghdad to: Amman, Ankara, Antalya, Baku, Beijing, Beirut, Berlin-Tegel, Cairo, Copenhagen, Delhi, Dubai, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Gothenburg, Guangzhou, Istanbul, Kiev, Kuwait, London (Gatwick), Manchester, Moscow, Mumbai, Munich, Stockholm, Sofia.

An old abandoned local airplane just outside the Baghdad Airport.

From Neighboring Iran and Syria.
Syria:
FlyDamas: Damascus to Baghdad, Najaf and Basra twice a day.
Syrian air: Baghdad and Najaf once a day.
ChamWings: Damascus to Baghdad, Najaf and Basra twice a day.

Iran:
More than 5 Iranian airlines offer flights from all big Iranian cities to Baghdad, Basra and Najaf.

Overland travel to Iraq.

Iraq is surrounded by Iran to the east. Kuwait is to the south, and Saudi Arabia to the southwest. Jordan is to the west, Syria to the north-west and Turkey to the north.

But currently, only the land borders between Kuwait, Iran are open for foreign travellers.

The land border between Turkey and Iraq is open, but you can NOT travel from the Kurdish Autonomous Region in the north to southern Iraq overland, but you can fly between them.

The Tigris River in central Baghdad.

Iran:
The main border crossing is the Khosravi International Border post, around 90km northeast of Baghdad. NB. No Iranian visa on arrival when crossing land borders.

Jordan:
There&rsquos an important border crossing between Tarabil and Karamal, this is a very important border crossing for Iraq, so there is a lot of military presence in the area.

The border was controlled by ISIS only a year ago, and there is a lot of ISIS sleeper cells still in the area.

Syria:
Before the war was there two border crossings between Iraq and Syria.

Al Walid on the Iraqi side and Tanaf on the Syrian side. The Syrian side is currently illegally controlled by the USA, which refuses to give the area back to Syria.

Quasybah on the Iraqi side and Abu Kamal on the Syrian side.

This is only a few KM from ISIS last stronghold, the small Syrian town of Baghouz. Located on the banks of the Euphrates River, this is where ISIS officially got defeated on 23 March 2019.

But there&rsquos still more than a thousand ISIS terrorists hiding out in the vast desert in that part of Syria and Iraq. ISIS are still attacking civilians and military checkpoints in the area on a weekly basis.

The first local bus since 2014 crossed the border between Syria and Iraq at Quasybah and Abu Kamal on 22 April 2019. Don´t expect this border to be open for foreigners yet for many years.

Remember that you will have to leave the country by the same border as you enter the country.

Visiting the holy city of Karbala.

How to travel around Iraq.

As a tourist, are you required to have a government licenced driver and guide with you at all times. So long-distance bus travelling is out of the question.

But you can take the local overnight train from Basra to Baghdad, but your guide will have to accompany you.

You will have to obtain permits to every single place you want to visit around Iraq outside Baghdad. You have to tell your guide/contact to arrange these well in advance of travel.

There are hundreds if not thousands of military and private Shia militias checkpoints along all road around Iraq.

Military base along the way to Samarra.

Some only a few hundred meters between each other.
The checkpoints are less frequent in the southern part, but around Baghdad and the holy cities of Samarra, Karbala, Najaf, Kufa are there are hundreds.

You will NOT be able to pass through the checkpoints without the proper permits and paperwork.

Even when you pass one checkpoint, the next checkpoint has to check your papers again, even if it&rsquos less than one km between them.

Often your guide has to make a few phone calls to get you through the checkpoints, even if you already have the right paperwork. Road Traveling in Iraq takes A LOT of time due to this.

I just arrived in the early morning at Baghdad train station.

The local train between Basra and Baghdad train got completely full.

Top Places To Visit In Iraq

Money In Iraq.

The local currency in Iraq is the Iraqi dinar. However, you will also be able to spend Euros and US Dollars for payment in hotels and souvenir shops.

There´s a few ATM´S around Baghdad that accepts international bank cards. The bigger hotels also accept payment with bank cards, but everything else is the country is done with hard cash.

Don&rsquot rely on ATMs while in the country. Be sure to bring enough Euro/USD for your entire trip.

There are money exchangers at the arrivals of the airport and at the hotels. But for the best rate, head to the bazaar. The conversion rate fluctuates from day to day, with the rate in Baghdad often being better than in other cities around the country, so it&rsquos worth changing your money in Baghdad.

The replica of the famous Ishtar gate outside Babylon, the real one, is located in Berlin.

Internet and WIFI In Iraq.

Every hotel has free wifi, and surprisingly most of Baghdad is also covered with free wifi hotspots provided by Wiman.

Wiman has more than 37186 free wifi hot spots around Baghdad and 7829 free wifi hotspots around Basra.

The speed is not great, but it does work flawlessly for social media and emails. A local sim card with unlimited internet for 30days costs 20USD.

There are no internet restrictions in Iraq, and Social media is not blocked in Iraq, so there´s no VPN needed.

The Ziggurat of Dur-Kurigalzu

Is Iraq Safe now?

You will get used to military cars on every street corner pretty fast.

Safety is still a huge concern in Iraq, and every western country strongly against travelling to Southern Iraq. While the situation since April 2019 has been calm for more than a year, things can change very fast.

Your guide will know the daily security and situation of the part of the country you will visit.

I personally felt 100% safe the entire time during my visit to Iraq.

All of the local people, military, militias soldiers, religious scholars where all extremely friendly and welcoming.

But it&rsquos highly recommended that you register with your Embassy when you are going here, and you should have valid travel insurance, which should also include kidnapping insurance.

Big insurance companies like etc. World Nomads will NOT cover you here, but First Allied will.

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) advise against all travel to:

  • Anbar province
  • Ninewah province
  • Salah-Al-Din province
  • Diyala province
  • Tam&rsquomim (Kirkuk) province
  • in Erbil province, south of Road 80, and within 10km of the border with Ninewah province between Road 80 and Road 2

The FCO advise against all but essential travel to the rest of Iraq, including the remainder of the Kurdistan region.

The Iraqi Prime Minister announced the defeat of Daesh in Iraq on 9 December 2017. However, there is still a risk of terrorist attacks and kidnap across the country. You should remain vigilant and monitor media reports.

Security map from March 2019 from The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO).

Be aware that Iraq, like any other place that has recently been a war zone, has minefields everywhere.

Do not walk into fields, especially unmarked ones, unless you&rsquore absolutely sure that it&rsquos safe.

Drinks & Alcohol In Iraq.

A local Liquor store in Baghdad, with Farida locally made beer in Baghdad.

Despite what most people think, Alcohol is completely legal in Iraq. Iraq even produces their own Beer, Arak and Vodka, which is easily available from public alcohol stores in Baghdad.

There are also normally bars in every international hotel. Alcohol is not sold in the holy cites. Even though alcohol is legal in Iraq, drinking in public an absolutely no.

Only drink bottled water. It will usually be sold at vendors and large stores and will be easy to find.

Electricity In Iraq.

Power plugs in Iraq are both European standard two pins and British standard plugs, both standard voltage of 230V with a frequency of 50Hz.

Some hotels have both European and British style plugs in the rooms. Others had only European style plugs or British style plugs, so it&rsquos highly recommended to bring a power travel adapter.

Powercuts are not uncommon, so it&rsquos wise to bring a power bank and a headlamp.

Travelling around the Mesopotamian Marshes.

Can You Take Photos?

Iraq is pretty laid back and relaxed when it comes to taking photos. You should never take photos of soldiers, checkpoints, government buildings and inside the holy Shia shrines in Najaf, Karbala and Kufta.

But more or less, everything else allowed. Most locals were happy to have their photos taken, and most soldiers also asked for a selfie with me.
@
The military in Iraq was miles more relaxed than the military in neighbouring Syria and Iran when it comes to taking photos.

Everyone welcomed me with a smile around Iraq.

Local Shia Militias solider visiting the Great Mosque of Samarra.

Things You Should Pack.

No, you do not need to bring your bulletproof vest and helmet. But you can easily buy it in Baghdad if you want one.

Nothing special needed for Iraq, but I would recommend bringing a few good books for the long drives around the country and earplugs for when you are going to sleep there is a lot of noise in the streets.

Language in Iraq.

Both Arabic and Kurdish are the official language in the country, but surprisingly many people spoke a bit of English, even street vendors.

A lot of Iraqis that fleed the country as refugees during the last 16 years have now moved back home.

So don´t be surprised if the locals you meet speak German, French, Swedish etc.
The money exchanger I used in Baghdad had lived in the Netherlands for 12 years and had recently moved back to Iraq.
The waiter in one of the restaurants in Basra spoke Swedish.

Guide Book For Iraq.

How Much is Left of Saddam Hussein´s Influence in Iraq?

Saddam Hussein ruled Iraq with an iron fist for 24 years, and especially his oldest son Uday Hussein spread fear among with the violence.

When Saddam Hussein was removed from power in 2003 and later arrested on13 December 2003, it sparked huge celebrations all over the country.

Now 16 years later have almost everything from the area been removed, and it´s like he never existed, at least in public. The current leaders of Iraq are the ones Saddam tried to suppress.

Saddam Hussein&rsquos old palace overlooking the historical ruins of Babylon

As such, they are not very keen on Saddam Hussein preserving is legacy.
So everything with Saddam Hussein is banned, and all he&rsquos his humongous portraits have been plastered with a portrait of Imam Ali and all but one of his statues have been destroyed.

What might be the very last Portrait of Saddam Hussein in the country

But if you look, can you still find relics from his time. And if you talk to the older generation if Iraqis that lived under his hard regime, you might get surprised that most people in the country are not afraid of speaking of the old days, and you might be surprised about what they think, especially when compared with the current times!

And surprisingly did every local I talked to openly admit they missed the time he was in power, and the reasons were: &ldquoOur country was safe during his time&rdquo, we never had to be afraid of suicide bombers during his time&rdquo, &ldquothings were working during his time&rdquo. An even older woman I talked with admitted they had a lot more freedom during the time of Saddam than now in 2019.

A common saying in Iraq is, &ldquoSaddam was a horrible person, but what´s been happening the last 16years have been so much worse, that Saddam Hussein is an angel in compared to what´s the country is going through now.&rdquo

Complete travel guide from 2019 to Iraq, not the most obvious tourist destination. But with the security situation improving in the country, now is the time to visit one of the most historical countries in the world.


Simulation Tour: Ziggurat of Ur - History

HUMN 100 C902 : SPRING 2014

Please check the boxes in Section A, type in your Short Answers in Section B and your example for Section C, then SAVE AS a new document with your name (eg JDoe_Final.doc). Submit to your Assignments Folder no later than 11 th May, 2014 (12 midnight, CET).

Please note that documents should be saved as a .docx (MS Word), .doc (Word 97), .rtf (plain text) or .pdf file. I cannot access your exam if you save it in other formats.

A. MULTIPLE CHOICE (64 POINTS)

1. b What best expresses the central thesis of Pico"s Oration on the Dignity of Man, an essential example of Italian Renaissance humanism?

a. power should be used with cunning and ruthlessness

b. humans are free to define their own nature as brutish or divine

c. humanity is saved by the grace of a loving God

d. human weakness is to be gently denounced with laughter

2. c Masaccio"s The Tribute Money, a scene of Jesus and his disciples painted in the 1420s, is notable for its pioneering use of what technique or subject?

a. a pagan subject drawn from an ancient Roman poem

b. the subtle colors of oil paint on wood

c. atmospheric or aerial perspective

d. careful rendering of the nude human anatomy

3. a How is the madrigal is best defined?

a. a popular song usually in four voices

b. the musical resting point that provides resolution

c. a form of improvisational theater originating in Italy

d. a part of the Christian mass as set to music

4. a Which of these works might be said to possess the quality of terribilità—a fearsome power often attributed to Pope Julius II?

a. Michelangelo"s Moses

b. the School of Athens

d. Bramante"s design for St. Peter"s

5. d Which might most reasonably be cited as a cause of the Reformation?

a. the discovery of territories in the New World

b. interest in reform of monasteries and convents

c. the poverty of Northern European peasants

d. Germans" resentment against the Church’s corruption

6. c Which of these values is associated with the "Protestant ethic?"

a. generous patronage of art in the Church

b. pursuit of individual freedom and choice

c. self-sacrifice and the virtues of work

d. preservation of traditional Church rituals

7. b What Northern Renaissance artist was most actively engaged in the religious debates of the Reformation and the most influenced by Italian humanism?

8. c Which artist was the author of the Four Books of Architecture, an important influence on later architectural classicism?

9. d Of the baroque qualities below, which is most clearly illustrated in Bernini"s Ecstasy of St. Teresa, centerpiece of the Cornaro Chapel?

a. neoclassical preference for order and balance

b. fascination with modern science and mathematics

c. interest in religious emotion and human psychology

d. dynamism created by conflicting lines

10. d Which of these statements best applies to Vivaldi’s Four Seasons?

a. composed for the court of Louis XIV of France

b. applies recent innovations in the form of the aria

c. marks the origin of baroque opera in Germany

d. a masterpiece of the baroque concerto grosso

11. b Jean-Baptiste Lully was a central figure in the development of what baroque art?

a. the self-portrait in oil

b. French opera and ballet

c. neoclassical architecture

d. the commedia dell"arte

12. a Which of these figures is associated with the heliocentric theory of the universe, an important advance in the Scientific Revolution?

13. a Whose most important work was a political treatise that helped justify the Glorious Revolution in England with his ideas of a balance between individual freedom and social order?

14. d Which two artists are most closely associated with the rococo style in art?

a. Jacques Louis David and Thomas Jefferson

b. Peter Paul Rubens and Nicolas Poussin

c. Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Mozart

d. J.-H. Fragonard and Antoine Watteau

15. b Which of these literary works is an example of the epistolary novel?

a. J.-J. Rousseau’s Social Contract

b. Richardson"s Pamela

d. Swift"s Gulliver"s Travels

16. c What musical form did Mozart make successful and more appealing to wider audiences?

17. d What philosophical or religious idea exercised the greatest influence on Thomas Jefferson"s Declaration of Independence?

a. Thomas Hobbes" notion of the divine right of kings

b. the doctrine that all humans are prone to sin and error

c. the biblical idea of a covenant between God and the people

d. John Locke"s concept of rights belonging to the people

18. b Which of these works was most influenced by Lord Byron"s vision of a rebellious and self-destructive hero?

a. Schubert’s The Erlking

b. Delacroix"s The Death of Sardanapalus

c. Beethoven"s Symphony #5

d. Mary Shelley"s Frankenstein

19. a Which of these was famed as a virtuoso pianist and composer of romantic nocturnes and preludes?

20. c What romantic fascination was demonstrated in the literary genre of the Gothic novel?

a. joy in nature and human innocence

b. complex emotional problems and self-discovery

c. horror, supernatural occurrences and medieval settings

d. abstract stream of consciousness

21. Which example best illustrates the Victorian spirit of progress and the use of new industrial materials?

a. L. C. Tiffany’s colored glass

b. Paxton"s Crystal Palace

c. Manet"s Luncheon on the Grass

d. Bonheur"s The Horse Fair

22. In which work is the principle of “natural selection” a central concept?

a. Dickens’ David Copperfield

b. Darwin’s Origin of Species

c. Baudelaire"s Flowers of Evil

d. J. S. Mill’s On Liberty

23. In whose work would one expect to find a Leitmotif ?

24. What characteristic of the impressionist style is best illustrated by Renoir"s Le Moulin de la Galette ?

a. use of recurring formal shapes such as the cube and sphere

b. careful observation of the human figure in awkward postures

c. graphically realistic treatment of scientific and sporting subjects

d. gaiety of life communicated through light and color

25. Which would provide the best illustration of Albert Einstein’s special theory of relativity, first published in 1905?

a. traveling in a spaceship from the earth at nearly the speed of light

b. rolling a pair of dice to simulate radioactive decay of an atom

c. the simultaneous points of view in a cubist painting

d. the arc of an apple dropped from a speeding plane

26. Who was closely associated with the Bauhaus school in Germany and was an important innovator in modern architecture?

27. Which statement best describes Picasso"s Guernica as a work of art?

a. exalts the values of industrial civilization

b. celebrates the stylized symbols and rituals of Nazism

c. uses cubist abstraction to protest technological war

d. eloquently defends film"s value as art

28. Who fashioned a system of teaching modern dance that made it as rigorous as classical ballet?

29. What post-war American group of poets and novelists explored themes of rootlessness and the endless quest for meaning?

30. The term “pop art” is best applied to which work?

a. García Márquez’ One Hundred Days of Solitude

b. Le Corbusier’s Notre-Dame-du-Haut

c. Maya Lin’s Vietnam War Memorial

d. Warhol’s 200 Campbell’s Soup Cans

31. What African-American musical form rose to prominence in the age of rock-and-roll and made its practitioners international pop stars?

32. Whose most important works were a series of ten plays depicting African-American experience in twentieth-century America?

B. RECEPTION AND INFLUENCE (18 POINTS)

By studying the Humanities we have seen that all aspects of the arts form part of a cultural tradition which is continually revised, as we each perceive something, analyze and process it, and then produce our own version of it to pass on. Thus we find the same themes coming up repeatedly, spanning both time and geographical space.

In this respect we have encountered many artistic works from modern life which have been directly inspired by those of the past, not only in architecture and painting, but also in literature, music and film. Below are three examples: assess each one in the light of what you have learned in the course and analyze the social and cultural messages being conveyed by this new treatment.

Your answers should be at least one paragraph in length, but not more than three. Attention will be paid to presentation (spelling, grammar, paragraph structure), so make sure you take some time with your writing.Please ensure that all textual references are correctly cited.

Describe this artwork, in as much detail as possible, and analyze its importance as a comment on our modern cultural values. Be as specific and explanatory as you possibly can. (6 points)

What relevance has this musical CD to other cultural works we have studied? What does the history of this work tell us about ourselves and our modern society? Be as specific and explanatory as you possibly can. (6 points)

Describe this object, in as much detail as possible, and analyze its importance as a symbol of our modern society, with particular reference to the artwork and its relevance in the history of cultural transmission. Be as specific and explanatory as you possibly can. (6 points)

C. NOW FIND YOUR OWN EXAMPLE! (18 points)

From the textbook or from independent research, give an example of a modern work (20 th /21 st century) which is clearly based upon an idea or theme which has come down to us from the past (more than 300 years ago), specifying the following:

its genre (movie, building, book, painting, etc.) [1 point]

the artist, author or designer [1 point]

the date of its composition or construction [1 point]

its location [1 point]

description of the work [1 point]

title of the original work(s) from which this modern version takes its inspiration [1 point]

the original genre [1 point]

the original artist, author or designer [1 point]

date of original work [1 point]

location of original work [1 point]

description of the original work [1 point]

Pictures (properly referenced) should be included wherever possible, or URL links to any other works which bear a close comparison to your example. [6 points]

EG: The Sacramento Ziggurat (1 point), is a high-rise modernist building (1 point) designed by EM Kado Associates (1 point) in accordance with the traditional rules of the Chinese philosophy of Feng Shui. C ompleted in 1998 (1 point) in Sacramento CA (1 point),the project was commissioned by The Money Store as its Western Office HQ (1 point).

The building takes its inspiration from the stepped pyramids (1 point) of ancient Mesopotamia (1 point), dating from the third millennium BCE (1 point) and commonly known as ziggurats (1 point). Original artists or designers of these buildings are unknown, but they would have had a religious purpose as some kind of temple (1 point). According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, “The ziggurat was always built with a core of mud brick and an exterior covered with baked brick. It had no internal chambers and was usually square or rectangular, averaging either 170 feet (50 metres) square or 125 × 170 feet (40 × 50 metres) at the base.” (1 point)

The Ziggurat in West Sacramento, CA

By Griffin5 at en.wikipedia [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons

(2 points: 1 for photo, 1 for citation)

The Ziggurat of Ur (in modern Iraq), dating from 21 st century BCE

By The U.S. Army (Soldiers tour Ziggurat of Ur)

[Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

(2 points: 1 for photo, 1 for citation)

Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. Britannica.com. Web. 14 Nov. 2013 (1 point)
Wikimedia Commons. commons.wikimedia.org. Web. 14 Nov. 2013 (1 point)

My example of a modern work which is based on a past artwork is as follows:


Main keywords of the article below: egypt, mesopotamia, pyramids, great, ancient, ziggurats, ziggurat, emblematic.

Ancient structures known as ziggurats were basically enormous temples and were common in the ancient part of the world known as Mesopotamia, which spans the area now known as Iraq as well as parts of Turkey and Iran. [2] Since no such natural heights were available in the flat flood plains of Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), ancient priests and kings determined to build ziggurats (Akkadian ziqqurratu ), square or rectangular artificial stepped temple platforms. [3] Priests and artisans of Mesopotamia provided their temple and ziggurat complexes with fantastic ornamentation. [3] Although the building of ziggurats declined following Alexander's conquest of Mesopotamia, the significance of these temple complexes lived on in the religious imagination for the next two thousand years. [3] The tradition of building a ziggurat was started by the Sumerians, but other civilizations of Mesopotamia such as the Akkadians, the Babylonians, and the Assyrians also built ziggurats. [4] Ziggurats were built in many regions of Mesopotamia beginning in the later part of the 4000s BCE. Mesopotamia spans the area now known as Iraq as well as parts of Turkey and Iran. [2] Ancient ziggurats were massive temple structures built in Ancient Mesopotamia to honor a deity. [2] At the center of each major city in Mesopotamia was a large structure called a ziggurat. [4] Ziggurat, pyramidal stepped temple tower that is an architectural and religious structure characteristic of the major cities of Mesopotamia (now mainly in Iraq) from approximately 2200 until 500 bce. [5] Since there were not really many rock quarries or stone building materials in Mesopotamia,, unlike Egypt which had abundant limestone deposits with which to build, ancient Mesopotamians used another building material to make ziggurats, mud brick and the tamped earth method. [6] Cite this article: "Ziggurat Architecture in Mesopotamia," in ArchEyes, April 18, 2016, http://archeyes.com/ziggurat-temples-architecture-mesopotamia/. [7] Please visit periodically for new images of ziggurats of Ancient Mesopotamia. [8] The city of Ur was one of the most important Sumerian city states in ancient Mesopotamia during the 3 rd millennium BC. One of best preserved and most spectacular remains of this ancient city is the Great Ziggurat of Ur. [9] Notable examples of this structure include the Great Ziggurat of Ur and Khorsabad in Mesopotamia. [10]

Temples in Mesopotamia were popularly known as ziggurat which was built on a raised area and the structures were also predominant in Iran as well. [11] As with most ancient cultures, the people of Mesopotamia built their ziggurats to serve as temples. [12] A ziggurat is an ancient temple that was common in Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq and western Iran) during the civilizations of Sumer, Babylon, and Assyria. [12] Just as is the case with the pyramids and Mayan temples, there is still much to be learned about the ziggurats of Mesopotamia. [12] According to available records, there were nearly 32 ziggurats in and around the region which were regarded as the temples of Mesopotamia. [11] There are fascinating parallels between the ziggurats of Mesopotamia and the temples of Mayan culture in Central America. [12] The tradition of building a ziggurat was started by the Sumerians, but other civilizations of Mesopotamia such as the Akkadians, Babylonians and the Assyrians also built the ziggurat. [13] It should also be noted that some monumental buildings in Iran that may have been ziggurats are believed to have had only ramps while other ziggurats in Mesopotamia used stairs. [12] There was a lot of ziggurats in Mesopotamia but the Ziggurat of Ur was one of the most important. [13] It is believed that every major city in Mesopotamia once had a ziggurat. [12]

Ziggurats were the common form of temples for many rulers in Mesopotamia region & the kings from many dynasties such as the "Sumerians’, "Babylonians’, "Elamites’, "Akkadians’ & "Assyrians’ built various Ziggurats in their respective era to venerate the gods. [14] Predecessors to structures like the Great Pyramids, the ziggurats of Mesopotamia were massive step pyramids built as religious sites. [15] The structure’s purpose has been widely debated and some scholars have suggested it is a ziggurat, a massive stone structure built in ancient Mesopotamia. [16] The ziggurat (derived from the Akkadian TT word zaqāru "to build high") was without a doubt the most spectacular sacred structure known from ancient Mesopotamia, where the earliest ziggurats date from the 3rd millennium BC. Their function is not precisely known, although it was presumably closely linked to the cultic functions of the associated temples. [17]

The " Mudruk’ Ziggurat, which is also called as " Etemenanki’ (meaning- "Tempe of the foundation of heaven & the earth’) of ancient Babylon was one of the biggest Ziggurat in Mesopotamia. [14]

The structure resembles the famous stepped ziggurats used as temples more than 1000 kilometers away in Mesopotamia. [18] Construction of the ziggurat was completed in the 21st century BC by King Shulgi, during whose 48-year reign the city of Ur grew to be the capital of an empire controlling much of Mesopotamia. [19] BERLIN-- The third millennium B.C.E. is known for the rise of complex cultures that produced the pyramids in Egypt, the ziggurats of Mesopotamia, and the large cities of the Indus River valley. [18] Ziggurats were built in Ancient Mesopotamia while pyramids were built in Ancient Egypt and Southern America. [20]

Ziggurats of Mesopotamia Archeologists- people who study of past cultures based off of objects and buildings. [21]

An example of an extensive and massive ziggurat is the Marduk ziggurat, of Etemenanki, of ancient Babylon. [22] Herodotus describes the furnishing of the shrine on top of the ziggurat at Babylon and says it contained a great golden couch on which a woman spent the night alone. [22] Since the shrine was accessible only by way of three stairways, a small number of guards could prevent non-priests from spying on the rituals at the shrine on top of the ziggurat, such as initiation rituals such as the Eleusinian mysteries, cooking of sacrificial food and burning of carcasses of sacrificial animals. [22] " Access to the shrine would have been by a series of ramps on one side of the ziggurat or by a spiral ramp from base to summit. [22] During the Neo-Babylonian era, the ziggurat had deteriorated to just the base level. [1]

Kings built ziggurats to prove their religious dedication and fervor. [1] The ziggurat at Babylon was known as Etemenankia or "House of the Platform between Heaven and Earth". [22] The Sialk ziggurat, in Kashan, Iran, is the oldest known ziggurat, dating to the early 3rd millennium BCE. [22] One of the best-preserved ziggurats is Chogha Zanbil in western Iran. [22]

The ziggurat, however, was dedicated to the city’s patron god or goddess it was sacred ground, off limits to any but the hierarchy of priests. [1] According to archaeologist Harriet Crawford, "It is usually assumed that the ziggurats supported a shrine, though the only evidence for this comes from Herodotus, and physical evidence is nonexistent. [22] Erosion has usually reduced the surviving ziggurats to a fraction of their original height, but textual evidence may yet provide more facts about the purpose of these shrines. [22]

The precursors of the ziggurat were raised platforms that date from the Ubaid period during the sixth millennium. [22] Since ziggurats were made with sun-dried mud bricks, they would deteriorate with age. [1] Another practical function of the ziggurat was for security. [22]

Each ziggurat was part of a temple complex that included a courtyard, storage rooms, bathrooms, and living quarters, around which a city was built. [22] Each ziggurat contained an altar to the god and a statue of the deity as well. [1] According to Herodotus, at the top of each ziggurat was a shrine, although none of these shrines have survived. [22]

Notable ziggurats include the Great Ziggurat of Ur near Nasiriyah, the Ziggurat of Aqar Quf near Baghdad, the now destroyed Etemenanki in Babylon, Chogha Zanbil in Khūzestān and Sialk. [22] Although some damage did occur during the war, Ur’s great ziggurat remains to this day in Nasiriyah, Iraq. [1]

It is known that there were three staircases leading to the temple, two of which (side flanked) were thought to have only ascended half the ziggurat's height. [22]

In Mesopotamia, a fine balance of power existed between the secular kings and the high priests of the patron god or goddess. [1]


Many scholars believe that the story of the Tower of Babel may describe the building of a ziggurat, a tower which does not literally ascend into the physical sky, but which ritually allows the priests to ascend the heavens to the presence of the gods in the temple at its top. [3] The top of the ziggurat was crowned by a temple containing the statue of the god, and representing his or her home. [3]

The ziggurat was part of a temple complex that served as an administrative center for the city, and it was also thought to be the place on earth where the moon god Nanna, the patron deity of Ur, had chosen to dwell. [7] One of the two most common ziggurats is in the ancient large Mesopotamian city of Ur and the well-preserved ziggurat Elam, which was built for the patron god of the Susiana province, Inshushinak. [2] It probably was similar to the many ziggurats built by Nebuchadnezzar, the ruler who ordered the destruction of the ancient Jewish temple in Jerusalem, they add. [10] Ziggurats were a form of temple common to the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians of ancient Mesopotamia.The earliest examples of the ziggurat date from the end of the third millennium BCE and the latest date from the 6th century BCE. [10] …in the building of the ziggurats (temple towers resembling pyramids), with their huge bulk, and in irrigation, both in practical execution and in theoretical calculations. [5] One of the first things that usually comes to mind when we think of ancient Egypt is the Great Pyramid at Giza, but did you know the ancient Mesopotamians also built massive structures that were just as impressive? These buildings were called ziggurats. [2] Ziggurats were ancient towering, stepped structures built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley and western Iranian plateau, having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels. [7] Built in receding tiers upon a rectangular, oval, or square platform, the ziggurat was a pyramidal structure. [10] He claimed the Hanging Gardens were a type of pleasure palace and garden built by king Nebuchadnezzar for his wife Amuita the gardens were probably part of a ziggurat complex, intended to represent the celestial garden of the gods which surrounds the mountain on which the gods dwell. [3] After 20 years of digging, Austrian archaeologists say they have determined the design of a Mesopotamian ziggurat - a temple tower - built by King Nebuchadnezzar some 2,500 years ago. [10] Joseph Campbell in his Masks of God books says that there is archaelogical evidence supporting a direct link between Mesopotamian ziggurats and the pyramids of Egypt. [10] As the Mesopotamian gods were commonly linked to the eastern mountains, the ziggurat may have functioned as a representation of their homes. [9]

In class, we talked briefly about the Anu Ziggurat in the Anu district of Uruk III. It was a temple dedicated to the Sky God and is also called the White Temple because of the white-washed walls in the temple. [6] Ziggurats may have been conceived of as homes for the ancient gods. [7] Ziggurats were built for hundreds of years in various regions of the ancient Middle East. [2] Below are recreations of activity at the Ur ziggurat in ancient times. [8] The Ziggurat at Ur, a massive stepped pyramid about 210 by 150 feet in size, is the most well-preserved monument from the remote age of the Sumerians. [7] As you mentioned, the similarities between the structure of the Mesopotamian's ziggurats and the Egyptian's pyramids is clearly evident, though ultimately the usage of the buildings (as a social center/market/religious site and as a final resting place, respectively) differed quite a bit. [6] A ziggurat "to build on a raised area" is a temple tower of the ancient Mesopotamian valley and Iran, having the form of a terraced pyramid of successively receding stories. [10] Functionally and architecturally, however, the closest parallels to the Mesopotamian ziggurat come from the stepped temple mounds of pre-Columbian America. [3] The priest's ascent up the stairway to the temple at the top of the ziggurat represents the ascent to heaven. [3] The legendary Tower of Babel has been popularly associated with the ziggurat of the great temple of Marduk in Babylon. [5] The god’s mortal servants had to be provided for as well, and the outer enclosure of the ziggurat contained a temple storehouse, the houses of the priests and a royal ceremonial palace. [9] A team worked to reconstruct the upper levels of the ziggurat to represent what the temple may have looked like. [2] To build a ziggurat, builders stacked squares of diminishing size, like a step pyramid, but unlike a step pyramid there were stairs to climb to the next higher level. [7] Ziggurats, like all pyramidal structures, have a square base which could be encompassed within a circular area. [10] In Babylon, the largest ziggurat was the Etemenanki ("the house that is the foundation of heaven and earth"), with a square base almost 100 yards on each side. [3] Access to the shrine was provided by a series of ramps on one side of the ziggurat or by a spiral ramp from base to summit. [10] With a base of about 50 feet to a side, ziggurats may have been as high as 150 feet. [7]

The ziggurat showed that the city was dedicated to that god. [4] Because each city generally had its own patron deity, the local ziggurat was built for that deity. [2] Built on seven levels the ziggurat represented seven heavens and planes of existence, the seven planets and the seven metals associated with them and their corresponding colors. [10] The ziggurat may have been built as a bridge between heaven and earth. [10] Ziggurats thus provided the link between heaven and earth, allowing humans to ascend, ritually, into the presence of God. (In this regard, Jacob's vision of the "ladder" or, better, "stairway" into heaven matches the symbolism of the ziggurat.) [3] Therefore, a single small shrine was placed on the summit of the ziggurat for the god. [9] Only priests were permitted inside the ziggurat and it was their responsibility to care for the gods and attend to their needs. As a result the priests were very powerful members of Sumerian society. [10] Symbolically, however, the ziggurat represents the cosmic mountain on which the gods dwell. [3]

An example of an extensive and massive ziggurat is the Marduk ziggurat, or Etemenanki, of ancient Babylon. [10] One of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, the Hanging Gardens consisted of roof gardens laid out on a series of ziggurat terraces. [5] There are examples of the philosophies surrounding the ziggurat in all major ancient civilizations of the world, which Campbell has affirmed is no accident. [10]

The people of Bal and Ra Balgarians were higly spiritual godly people and their temples are the ziggurats. [9] The people of Ur believed that their ziggurat was the place on earth where Nanna chose to dwell. [9] The ziggurat at the city Ur is one that has been somewhat rebuilt. [4] The best-preserved ziggurat is at Ur (modern Tall al-Muqayyar, Iraq). [5] Below is an overview of the ruins of the ziggurat at Ur dedicated to Nammu. [8]

The main reason ancient Mesopotamians built ziggurats has its roots in religious beliefs. [6] The ziggurat was always built with a core of mud brick and an exterior covered with baked brick. [5] Wilfrid Allinger-Csollich of the University of Innsbruck said that of all the temple towers built during the Nebuchadnezzar's 40-year reign, the Borsippa ziggurat has best survived the ravages of time. [10] Most likely being built by Hammurabi, the ziggurat's core was found to have contained the remains of earlier ziggurats and structures. [10] A Ziggurat is a manmade multi-tiered structure that is part of a temple complex and took quite a few man hours and good organization of labor to construct. [6] The ziggurat was found and excavated in 1922 CE. The remains were mostly the lower levels of the structure. [2] Although the specific architectural details of ziggurats differ, they all exhibit a similar overall structure. [3]

The Biblical account of the Tower of Babel may be based on Mesopotamian ziggurats. [10] The following three images are reconstructions of the Marduk precint ziggurat which is claimed to be the Tower of Babel. [8]

The famous huge ziggurat of Babylon was said to have been in ruins by the time Alexander the Great conquered the city in 330 BC. The ziggurat at Chogha Zanbil is one of the last surviving ziggurats. [4] Around 2100 BCE, a massive ziggurat was constructed in this city. [2] Through the ziggurat the gods could be close to mankind and each city had its own patron god. [10]

A bedchamber was provided for Nanna in the shrine on top of his ziggurat. [9] A relatively long ramp or staircases usually led to the top of the Ziggurat. [6] There were generally only a few ramps leading up to the top of the ziggurat. [4]

Ziggurat complexes often included storehouses, residences for priests and kings, and altars for sacrifice. [3] This is an overview of the remains of King Untash Napirisha's ziggurat at Chogha Zan bil, 25 miles S.E. of Susa (circa 1250 B.C.) [8]

From India it reached China and from there it crossed the ocean to the pre-columbian societies of Central and South America, which could explain the similarities between ziggurats and Mayan pyramids. [10] One of the best-preserved ziggurats is located in modern day Iran, then known as Elam. [2] One of the best preserved ziggurats is Choqa Zanbil in western Iran, which has survived despite the devastating eight year Iran-Iraq war of the 1980's in which many archeological sites were destroyed. [10] A ziggurat, apparently of great antiquity, is located at Tepe Sialk in modern Kāshān, Iran. [5]

Many ziggurats today look like piles of sand or dirt with only parts of the original outer wall still standing. [6] Typically the ziggurat would be square in shape at the base. [4] The ziggurat style of architecture continues to be used and copied today in many places of the world. [10] Another would be the ziggurat by the river, near downtown Sacramento, California, used as corporate office space. [10]

As ziggurats have been found and excavated, none of these shrines have survived. [2] Ascent was by an exterior triple stairway or by a spiral ramp, but for almost half of the known ziggurats, no means of ascent has been discovered. [5] Approximately 25 ziggurats are known, being equally divided among Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria. [5]

Ziggurats kind of resembled the Step Pyramids of Egypt, which were the precursors to Pyramids as we know them now, although their design did not really change. [6] The early Egyptian pyramids were step pyramids similar to the ziggurat. [4] The earliest inhabitants of this region, the Ubaids, created raised platforms that resemble early ziggurats. [2] Although we are unsure of the exact purpose of each level and ziggurat, it is likely that each level was designated for a different type of activity. [2] Sun-baked bricks made up the core of the ziggurat with facings of fired bricks on the outside. [10]

The Great Ziggurat of Ur was dedicated to the moon god Nanna, who was the patron deity of the city. [9] The Great Ziggurat of Ur was located in the temple complex of the city state, which was the administrative heart of Ur. [9] Notable ziggurats include the Great Ziggurat of Ur near Nasiriyah, Iraq the Ziggurat of Aqar Quf near Baghdad, Iraq the now destroyed Etemenanki in Babylon Chogha Zanbil in Khūzestān, Iran and Sialk near Kashan, Iran. [7] The Great Ziggurat of Ur consisted of successively smaller platforms that had a solid core of mud-brick which was covered by burnt brick. [9] The construction of the Great Ziggurat of Ur began under King Ur-Nammu of the Third Dynasty of Ur (about the 21 st century B.C.), and was completed by his son, King Shulgi. [9] Excavations were carried out, and the remains of the Great Ziggurat of Ur were rediscovered. [9] Featured image: An artist’s representation of the Great Ziggurat of Ur. [9]

Some ancient religious texts indicate that a massive structure in Babylon (the capitol city of the ancient city-state Babylonia in Mesopotamia) was built to be over 300 feet high. [2] They were made of mud brick that appear to have served as temples to the ancient gods of Mesopotamia. [7] The temple of Borsippa, 75 miles south of Baghdad, was constructed atop the ruins of a smaller tower from the second millennium B.C. Nebuchadnezzar's temple was dedicated to Nabu, the god of science and learning in Mesopotamia and the king's protector. [10] Since Mesopotamia was relatively flat, ancient Mesopotamians has to make their own mountains where the Gods could come down to the mortal world. [6]

The city of Ur became the capital of an empire that controlled a large part of Mesopotamia. [9] Ur, important city of ancient southern Mesopotamia (Sumer), situated about 140 miles (225 km) southeast of the site of Babylon and about 10 miles (16 km) west of the present bed of the Euphrates River. [5] One of the biggest cities in Southern Mesopotamia was called Ur. [2]

The people of ancient Mesopotamia believed that their gods had needs just like their mortal subjects. [9] Both ancient Egypt and ancient Mesopotamia, while likely having little contact with one another, each created a pantheon of gods with dominion over natural worldly and otherworldly forces that are not too dissimilar from each other. [6]

As Professor Wattral said in class, life in the cities of Ancient Mesopotamia were largely based on and around temples. [6]

A kitchen, likely used to prepare food for the god, was located at the base of one of the ziggurat's side stairways. [7] Nanna was depicted as a wise and unfathomable old man with a flowing beard and four horns, and a single small shrine to the god was placed upon the ziggurat's summit. [7]

The Austrians removed thousands of tons of debris from the mound that gradually built up around the tower over the ages and uncovered most of the ziggurat's remains, which still rise to 172 feet. [10] Herodotus, one of the earliest historians, said that at the top of each ziggurat was a shrine to a patron god. [2] The Great Ziggurat, which is today located in the Dhi Qar Province, in the south of Iraq, is a massive step pyramid measuring 64 m in length, 46 m in width, and 30 m in height. [9] The great ziggurat at Khorsabad, for example, had seven different stages each was painted a different color and represented the five known planets, the moon, and the sun. [3]

Unlike the Pyramids, which are tombs for dead Pharaohs, the Sumerian and Iranian ziggurats (ZIG-oo-rats) are temples for their gods. [23] You know of the pyramids of Egypt and the Mayan temples of Central America, yet the Middle East has its own ancient temples call ziggurats. [12] From Egypt, it crossed the ocean to the pre-Colombian societies of Central and South America, which explains similarities between Mesopotamian ziggurats, Mesoamerican pyramids, and pyramids under or on islands of the Atlantic. [24] There is archeological evidence supporting a direct link between Mesopotamian ziggurats and the pyramids of Egypt. [24]

The Jews thought it was a very bad idea to try to reach all the way up to God like that, and their hatred of the Mesopotamian ziggurats is reflected in the story of the Tower of Babel. [23] ABRAM/ABRAHAM: The Ziggurat at Ur, Iraq - this ziggurat was erected to the moon god Nanna and was built by Ur-Nammu around B. [25] The Ziggurat of Ur was very important to the civilization, it showed that the city was dedicated to the god. [13] The Sumerians and their descendants continued to build ziggurats well into the Middle Bronze Age (the Third Dynasty of Ur ), around 2000 BC, long after the Egyptians had stopped building pyramids. [23] The Ziggurat of Ur was built by the Sumerians, Babylonians, Elamites, Akkadians and Assyrians for local religions. [13] Ziggurats were built by the Sumerians, Babylonians, Elamites, Akkadians, and Assyrians, each part of a temple complex which included other buildings. [24]

Like the pyramids, ziggurats had mystical purposes as shrines, with the top of the ziggurat the most sacred spot. [12] God didn’t like that, and he destroyed the ziggurat and scattered the people so they couldn’t try it again. [23] Mesopotamian Gods and Ziggurats Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. [26] Only priests were permitted on the ziggurat or in the rooms at its base, and it was their responsibility to care for the gods and attend to their needs. The priests were very powerful members of Sumerian society. [24] House of gods: The ziggurats were regarded as the house of gods and only priests were permitted entry for their safekeeping. [11]

It is believed to have been the ziggurat of the Babylonian god Marduk. [12]

Ziggurat temples were located in the center of the city, the center of religious ceremonies. [25] The 'Great Ziggurat of Ur' near Nasiriyah in Iraq has been thoroughly studied and led to many clues regarding these temples. [12] There are 32 known Mesopotamian ziggurats Four in Iran, and the rest mostly in Iraq. [24] This video acts as a virtual tour of the Ziggurat of Ur (located near modern day Nasiriyah, Iraq which was in the city-state. [27] This is a simulation (virtual reality) video of a reconstruction of the Ziggurat of Ur in its entirety. [27]

Ziggurats ("to build on a raised area") were massive structures erected in the ancient Mesopotamian valley and western Iranian plateau, having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels. [24] In that story, people tried to build a ziggurat that would reach all the way up to Heaven. [23] Ziggurats were holy "mountains" where people climbed up and tried to get closer to the heavens. [13]

They built their ziggurats (and also their houses and city walls) out of mud-brick, or adobe. [23] Rather than the enormous masonry that made the Egyptian pyramids, ziggurats were built of much smaller sun-baked mud bricks. [12] While it's relatively easy for scholars to study the Egyptian pyramids and Mayan temples to unlock their secrets, conflicts in this region have significantly curbed study of the ziggurats. [12] Ziggurats are pyramidal in shape, but not nearly as symmetrical, precise, or architecturally pleasing as Egyptian pyramids. [12] Ziggurats  One practical function of the Ziggurats was a high place on which the priests could escape rising water that annually flooded the lowlands.  Another practical function of the ziggurat was for security. [26] One practical function of the ziggurats was a high place on which the priests could escape rising water that annually inundated lowlands and occasionally flooded for hundreds of miles. [24]

As Herodotus mentioned, there may have been up to eight levels and some estimates place the height of some finished ziggurats at around 150 feet. [12] The bases of ziggurats were either square or rectangular shaped and averaged around 50 to 100 feet per side. [12] Access to the shrine would have been by a series of ramps on one side of the ziggurat or by a spiral ramp from base to summit. [24]

Cite this page: Carr, K.E. What is a ziggurat? Mesopotamian architecture. [23] The ziggurats were built of sun baked bricks with facings of fired bricks on the outside. [13] Some of the buildings an architect studied were the ziggurat, the royal tombs, and the Tower of Babel. [13] Today, our "ziggurats" are represented by shopping centers and other collections of buildings. [25]

Breughel’s medieval painting of the Tower of Babel (He didn’t realize that ziggurats were mostly solid.) [23]

These once towering structures dotted the lands of Mesopotamia and served as temples to the gods. [12] Mesopotamian Religion  Take into consideration that there was a god for many different aspects of life.  Imagine that you are an inhabitant of Mesopotamia. [26]

The temples were built during the time of the Sumerians, Babylonians and the Assyrians in ancient Mesopotamia. [11] All of these buildings were very important to the civilizations of Ancient Mesopotamia. [13] Naturally, the priests wielded a lot of power in ancient Mesopotamia and they were extremely powerful members of society. [11] Sumer was the southernmost region of ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq and Kuwait) which is generally considered. [27]


The "Ziggurat’ consisted of an enormous rectangular, oval or square platform with a series of retreating platforms built one above the other in pyramidal formation with a flat place on top. The flat top used to host a temple or a shrine & access to the temple was possible through the series of ramps on any one side of Ziggurat supported by the steps leading to the summit or by a spiral ramp till the summit from the base. [14] The " White Temple ’ of Uruk, located in ancient " Sumer’, is considered as the simplest form of the Ziggurat due to its pretty straightforward appearance- An elevated base housing the "White Temple’ on top of it, accessible via steps. [14]

Ziggurats were Mesopotamian temples made of mud brick that were built by the Sumerians, Akkadians, Elamites, Babylonins, and Assyrians. [28] Ziggurats were massive, multi-storied pyramid temples built in ancient Mesopotamian towns in western Iranian plateau. [14] Ziggurats dating from the 6 th century BC are now considered as the most recent realizations of the concept of Mesopotamian rising pyramid temples. [14] The Ziggurats, thus, had provided the shelter to the Mesopotamian gods on higher grounds than the houses of the common people of the city. [14] The king of the city had the responsibility of building & maintaining the Ziggurats & they used to inscribe their names on the bricks of the structure. [14] Although, today, hardly anything can be found in its place, the historical accounts suggests that the structure was soaring some 92 meters high & featured seven colorful tiers, topped with a temple befitting the massive appearance of the Ziggurat. [14] In time, a ziggurat was built but instead of dedicating it to the Sun (the word ziqqurat means temple of the sun) he decided to dedicate it to the Moon. [16] Ninurta also had a large temple built for him by Assurnasirpal II, next to the site of the future ziggurat ( Images 3 and 4 ). [17] The worst affected site was the ziggurat of Nimrud - a towering, terraced temple that was built nearly 2,900 years ago. [29] The ziggurat at Ur (in modern Iraq) was built in around 2100 BC. Originally, it had three tall terraces (raised levels), one on top of the other, which were planted with trees and flowers. [30] The best preserved is the ziggurat of Nanna in Ur (today Iraq ), while the largest is found at Chogha Zanbil in Elam (today Iran ). [31]

Now, even as Iraqi forces work to drive the insurgent group from its strongholds, satellite images show it has left behind a trail of destroyed heritage sites, including a 2,900-year-old ziggurat in the ancient Assyrian city of Nimrud in northern Iraq. [15] While experts are still waiting for permission to examine the damage inflicted on the ancient city, recent satellite images indicate that the ziggurat is no more. [15] A fourth theory is linked with Egypt, where the predating step pyramids have many similarities to the ziggurat, and people and ideas moved between distant regions even in ancient times. [31] Building and Inauguration While the pyramids of Egypt have presented us with a mystery to how they were built, we do not have the same problem with the ziggurats. [31] Where the the largest and finest pyramids were built from enormous stones often transported for long distance, the ziggurats were built from small mud bricks that was locally produced. [31] Mesopotamian builders built ziggurats and houses from bricks made of mud mixed with chopped straw (left to dry and harden in the sun). [30] According to bricks found at the site, the ziggurat was dedicated to Ninurta, a warlike god whose name may be the origin of the modern site-name Nimrud. [17] Herodotus PGP suggests in his Histories ( Book I:181 ) that the ziggurat in Babylon was the scene of a " sacred marriage TT " between the god (in the guise of the king) and a priestess, a ritual TT which was designed to ensure continuing prosperity for the land. [17] In one of the local myths we hear about how King Gudea of Lagash was given the assignment to erect a ziggurat by the god Ningirsu who appeared to him in a dream. [31] The process of building the ziggurat was in itself a religious act, everyone participating had to be good, honest human beings, and during the building period, frequent offerings had to brought forth to the gods. [31] The cults in the ziggurats were performed and witnessed only by the priests, and their assignments were to provide for all the needs of the gods. [31] Symbolism The ziggurat was probably not the place of public worship or ceremonies, but rather the house of God. [31] It is generally thought that ziggurats were constructed to get closer to the heavens in order to better commune with the gods. [28] Ziggurats were holy "mountains," where people could get closer to the gods. [30] Tombs of important people were often dug into the bases of ziggurats. [28] In the ninth century BC, Nimrud became the capital of the Neo-Assyrian empire under the reign of Ashurnasipal II. It was under his command that the ziggurat was built, originally measuring 61 metres (200 feet) by 61 metres at its base, and 61 metres tall. [29] According to the legend, the ziggurat was built by a King of Uruk who left his country for unknown reasons and decided to live in Sardinia with all his tribe. [16] A third theory tells us that the ziggurat was built as a bridge between heaven and earth. [31] Ziggurats were built and used from around 2200 BCE until 500 BCE. Today, about 25 remain, found in an area from southern Babylonia all the way north to Assyria. [31] The ziggurats were built of mud brick, with facades made from glazed brick. [31] This suggests that the ziggurat was built, or at least completed, during his reign. [17]

Ziggurats experienced their golden era till the dawn of the Persian dynasty after which the older method of temple construction was replaced by the newer designs. [14] Work on the temple precinct, including the ziggurat, was continued by Assurnasirpal's son, Shalmaneser III, and Shalmaneser's successors in the 9th to 7th centuries BC. [17]

The priests held the ultimate place in the Sumerian society & only they were allowed to access the Ziggurat. [14] The Mesopotamian Ziggurats never served as the places of public worships or ceremonial places. [14] The elegant Ziggurats, then gradually lost their places from the historical accounts following the abandonment of several Mesopotamian cities. [14]

The Ziggurats were the part of the huge temple complex that included several other buildings as well. [14] In the lowest part of the ziggurat, this was covered with stonework and decorative patterns of niches and half-columns, a feature commonly used in religious buildings. [17] Since no complete ziggurat has ever been found in Assyria, we can only speculate about what the upper parts of the Kalhu ziggurat may have looked like, or how the top was reached. [17] Latter rulers preferred to build the Ziggurats on top of these platforms. [14] Who would build a ziggurat in Europe? If the mysterious stone structure is in fact a ziggurat, then there must have been a reason for its construction. [16] The militants might have been looking for valuable artefacts in the mound - but ziggurats are known to be solid masonry structures that don't contain burials. [29]

In the 6th century BC, the Neo Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II improved the city, and his follower (though not immediate) Nabonidus worked on the Ziggurat. [28] The kings and officials also lived close to the ziggurats, usually in two story houses made of the same material. [32] Unlike the Great Pyramids, which contained internal chambers and passageways, ziggurats were solid mounds made from mud brick, with nothing on the inside but more brick, Richard Spencer reports for The Times. [15] These people lived a little further away from the ziggurat in one story mud brick houses. [32] They were the only people even allowed inside of a ziggurat! The ziggurat was right in the middle of each city-state. [32] The most famous site in Ur was its Ziggurat, a prototypical model. [28] Four of the Ziggurats are in Iran while rests are mostly in Iraq. [14] Image 1 : Photograph of the side of the ziggurat at Nimrud taken in the 1970s or 80s, showing how it abutted onto monumental building works. [17] Bricks which appear to have been left over from the construction of the ziggurat were later also used for the pavements of the Governor's Palace. [17] From the base, new steps were added, until the ziggurat was topped by a small sanctuary. [31] Large mud-brick platforms constructed during the 4 th millennium BC served as the basis for the construction of the massive Ziggurats. [14] The construction of enormous raised platforms that date from the fourth millennium BC laid the basic idea of the Ziggurats & in the third millennium BC, the earliest form of the Ziggurats was manifested. [14]

The archeological discovery has found out nearly 32 Ziggurats from the ancient Mesopotamian terrain which is now the part of the Western Iranian plateau. [14] It was around this time that the Ziggurat was begun it was dedicated to Nanna, the city's patron god and the moon god of the Sumerians. [28] Initial Ziggurats were constructed in many cities of Sumerian reign & the custom was, later on, followed by the Babylonians & Assyrians. [14] This doesn't explain why a ziggurat that we associate with Sumerians would be erected on the island. [16] The Sumerian king's ziggurat was later destroyed by natural forces. [16]

The Kalhu ziggurat was constructed around a more or less square core measuring approximately 60 x 60 metres and made of unbaked mudbrick ( Image 1 ). [17] The Nimrud ziggurat wasn't in quite such good shape even before the recent attack, but after 2,900 years, it still stood 43 metres (140 feet) high. [29] Ningirsu even presented to Gudea how the ziggurat should look like. [31] These groups lived the furthest from the ziggurat in one story mud brick houses. [32]

The priests were at the very top of the social pyramid because they were the closest to the gods that the people of Mesopotamia believed in. [32] A priest in Mesopotamia was responsible for making sure everyone behaved in a way that would make the gods happy. [32]

They were reconstructions of the mountain temples that the new inhabitants to Mesopotamia used to erect while they lived in either the Taurus (now Turkey ) or the Zagros Mountains (now Iran). [31] Ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Phoenicians and people from Mesopotamia visited Sardinia. [16] They were considered as the abode of the gods & every city in Mesopotamia had its own patron god. [14]

An ancient temple described as "the most spectacular sacred structure known from ancient Mesopotamia" has been bulldozed to the ground. [29] When archaeologist Austen Henry Layard excavated the site in the 1800s, he described it as "the most spectacular sacred structure known from ancient Mesopotamia". [29]

Around 3500 BC, the Sumerians in southern Mesopotamia built the world’s first cities, including Ur, Uruk, and Eridu. [30]


The Ziggurat de Ur is an ancient ziggurat located next to the ruins of the ancient Sumerian city of Ur, in present-day Iraq. [33] Besides the ancient Ziggurat of Dur Untash, the Ziggurat of Ur is one of the best preserved ancient structures of the period. [33]

Rising some forty feet above ground level, the ziggurat would have lifted the temple above the city's fortification wall, supposedly constructed on the orders of Gilgamesh, the eponymous protagonist of the epic tale and legendary king of ancient Uruk (reigned ca. 2700 BCE). [34] Story of Ziggurats By 4000 B.C.E. Large temples were being built in Mesopotamian town on top of mud brick plat forms. [21] Ziggurats were said to have temple tops while pyramids don't have any but just a converging point for its sides. [20]

In terms of building location, ziggurats were mostly built somewhere within the Ancient Mesopotamian region (Sumer, Babylon & Assyria) corresponding to modern-day Iraq and part of Syria whereas pyramids were the infrastructures built in Ancient Egypt and South American regions. [20] BC The ziggurat was a pyramidal structure, built in receding tiers upon a rectangular, oval, or square platform, with a shrine at the summit. [35] The ziggurat of Nimrud, a towering sacred structure built nearly 2,900 years ago, was leveled between the end of August and the beginning of October, most likely by the Islamic State. [36]

Why they build them & Are there any left? The ziggurat was a temple to the main god of the city. [21] According to scholars, the Ziggurat of UR was completed in the 21st century BCE, by King Shugi, who proclaimed himself a God in order to win the allegiance of cities. [33] Ziggurats on the other hand were said to have been built to house the gods. [20]

The precinct included a large temple and an enormous mudbrick ziggurat, or stepped tower, that measured nearly 200 feet by 200 feet at its base and likely measured 200 feet in height. [36] Pyramids are simply tombs or burial grounds while ziggurats are more of temples. [20] Other Ziggurat facts Over hundreds of years the temples were made ontop of previous building remains. [21] The Ziggurat of Ur is one of three well-preserved structures of the Neo-Sumerian city of Ur. [33]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(37 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


The epic of gligamesh

The fall of Nineveh: introduction. Next year, we find the Babylonians in the Assyrian heartland, beginning a siege of Aššur.

The Assyrians were able to push their enemy away, and the Chronicle does not hide that the Babylonians were in a tight spot for some time. At the end of 615, the Medes, a tribal federation living in modern Iran, intervened in the conflict. The temptation to fish in troubled waters must have been irresistible. The fall of Nineveh Chronicle (ABC 3) The fifteenth year [611-610]: In the month Du'zu the king of Akkad mustered his army and marched to Assyria victoriously.

He marched about of [lacuna] and Šu[lacuna], plundered it and carried of its vast booty. In the month Arahsamna the king of Akkad took the lead of his army personally and marched against Ruggulitu. He did battle against the city and on the twenty-eighth day of the month Arahsamnu he captured it. He did not leave a single man alive. [lacuna] He went home. IBSS - Biblical Archaeology - Cuneiform. Cuneiform means "wedged shaped" in Latin.

This refers to ancient writings that had a wedged shaped appearance. The writing is usually made with a wedge stylus on soft clay tablets. Baking the tablets preserves them. The Development of Agriculture. The Farming Revolution Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the “Neolithic Revolution.”

Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements and a reliable food supply. Out of agriculture, cities and civilizations grew, and because crops and animals could now be farmed to meet demand, the global population rocketed—from some five million people 10,000 years ago, to more than seven billion today. There was no single factor, or combination of factors, that led people to take up farming in different parts of the world. In the Near East, for example, it’s thought that climatic changes at the end of the last ice age brought seasonal conditions that favored annual plants like wild cereals. Plant Domestication. Timeline of human prehistory - Wikipedia. This timeline of human prehistory comprises the time from the first appearance of Homo sapiens in Africa 200,000 years ago to the invention of writing and the beginning of history approximately 5,500 years ago.

It covers the time from the Middle Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) to the very beginnings of the Bronze Age. The divisions used are those delineating the European Stone Age however, many regions around the world underwent various stages of Stone Age development at different times. All dates are approximate and based on research in the fields of anthropology, archaeology, genetics, geology, and linguistics.

They are all subject to revision based on new discoveries or analyses. Middle Paleolithic[edit] Upper Paleolithic[edit] 50,000 years ago: earliest needle found. Ancient Mesopotamia: This History, Our History. Multi Media. Mesopotamia Timeline. Ancient Mesopotamia Theme Unit. Make a Daily Ancient Mesopotamia Activity Lesson Plan Book Reading Comprehensions History and Empires Mesopotamia 101 (Grades 3-5) Mesopotamia 101 (Grades 9-11) The Sumerian Civilization (Grades 9-11) Assyria (Grades 9-11) The First Dynasty of Babylon (Grades 9-11) The Neo-Babylonian Empire (Grades 9-11) Science and Technology Medicine in Mesopotamia (Grades 5-7) Mathematics in Mesopotamia (Grades 6-8) Sky-Watching in Mesopotamia (Grades 7-9) More on Mesopotamia The Epic of Gilgamesh (Grades 4-6) The Tower of Babel and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon (Grades 6-8) Mesopotamia and the Bible (Grades 7-9) Ancient Mesopotamia Analogies Have a suggestion or would like to leave feedback?

Leave your suggestions or comments about edHelper! Ancient Mesopotamia: This History, Our History. Multi Media. Examine artifacts in-depth and learn more about ancient Mesopotamia and archaeology with these interactives and video clips from Oriental Institute scholars and archaeologists.

Recreated from 22 interactives that are offered on Oriental Institute Museum computer kiosks, you will need Shockwave, Flash, and Quicktime plug-ins to view these on your computer. Download Quicktime Download Shockwave & Flash Feature Interactive Go on a virtual archaeological dig in Iraq where you will collect and catalog Mesopotamian artifacts, then curate a museum exhibition with the artifacts you find. Chapter 3 Early Civilizations: Sumer and Mesopotamia. Indus Valley Join this adventure to a faraway place.

Development of Writing Bowling for Barley Story of Ziggurats Read the story, explore or take the Ziggurat Challenge Royal Tombs of UR Read the story, explore a tomb, or play the Royal Game of UR. God, Goddesses, Demons, and Monsters Read about the gods. Treasures From the Tombs of UR Tour the museum! Trade and Transport Join a merchant, transport goods, and learn to trade. Mesopotamia. Lesson Plans & Activities. Mesopotamia – Best of History Web Sites. Mesopotamia Web Sites The British Museum: Mesopotamia The British Museum site includes interesting images, simulations, and other resources to make the study of Ancient Mesopotamia enticing for students.

Topics include Georgraphy Gods, Goddesses, Demons and Monsters Time and Writing. The Geography section includes a zoomable map and an illustrated story of Gilgamesh. The Gods and Godesses section includes a comparison of gods, goddesses, demons and monsters of Mesopotamia, an illustrated story about gods and godesses, and a challenge game to “get the gods” using a cuneiform tablet. Internet History Sourcebooks. Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Mesopotamia See Main Page for a guide to all contents of all sections. Internet History Sourcebooks. Internet History Sourcebooks. Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Mesopotamia See Main Page for a guide to all contents of all sections.

Contents Ancient Near East Sumeria (c. 3100-c. 2000 BCE) The Epic of Gilgamesh Sumerian Language Art Connections with India Akkadia (c.2350-2200 BCE) Babylonia (c.2000-1600 BCE) Code of Hammarabi Cities Creation Myths Religion Kassites and Hittites (c.1600-717 BCE) Kassites Hittites Hittite Texts Material Culture Assyria (c.1350- 612 BCE) Chaldea/Neo-Babylonia (612-539 BCE) Syrian Cities: Ebla, Ugarit, Emar Phoenicia 950 BCE on Carthage: The Punic Empire ANE Arts and Architecture ANE Mathematics and Astronomy Gender and Sexuality Modern Perspectives on Mesopotamia Common Issues: Mesopotamian/Egyptian/Hebrew/Greek History Centuries of Darkness?

Back to Index Sumeria (c. 3100-c. 2000 BCE) Teaching History with 100 Objects. Mesopotamia – Best of History Web Sites. Chapter 3 Early Civilizations: Sumer and Mesopotamia. Mesoptamia Map. World History Timeline Ancient Mesopotamian civilization timeline and overview. United States History Early Years: Chapter Objectives. Describe the development of the first human civilizations and the factors that helped give rise to them.

Lesson 1: Geography of Mesopotamia Describe the geographic features of Mesopotamia and the ways in which they contributed to the spread of agriculture.Explain how early farmers managed to control water supplies in the region.Summarize ways in which ancient people in Mesopotamia managed in a land with scarce resources.Language Objective: Examine how text organization makes new information easier to understand.

The Early Middle East. Symbols of the three religions that originated in the Middle East: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. "The cradle of civilization. " Throughout the centuries, historians have used these powerful words to describe the Middle East. In the ancient Middle East, many great civilizations rose and fell.


Deathwatch Veterans

Even among the mighty Space Marine Chapters, those warriors who live long enough to earn the title of Veteran are uncommon, many falling on the battlefield after only years or decades of service against overwhelming odds. Unlike the Astra Militarum or the Imperial Navy, where a man might be considered a veteran if he survives his first taste of combat or earns a campaign ribbon, a Space Marine's Veteran status only comes after genuine achievement, and then only at the end of long years of bloodshed and hard-won victory.

The Deathwatch is no different, and those battle-brothers who spend their years of secondment fighting the xenos foes of the Emperor are only considered to be doing their duty. Mere survival is not enough for a Space Marine as the Emperor's favoured sons and chosen warriors, they are expected to acquit themselves well in combat, their foes are expected to die upon their bolt shells and Chainblades, and the honour they earn is the honour of their Chapter.

To be considered a Veteran of the Deathwatch, a battle-brother must accomplish great and glorious things, and mark himself out as a true instrument of war, above and beyond even the transhuman capability of the Adeptus Astartes.

Web of Loyalties

It is the duty of all Astartes to serve the Emperor and fight for the Imperium against its many foes, but where battle-brother stands in the great chain of command can become unclear once he has spent years serving the Deathwatch. Ostensibly, while serving in the Deathwatch in the Jericho Reach, a battle-brother serves the Watch Commander and the Chamber Vigilant, which can include the influence of the Inquisitors of the Ordo Xenos.

However, at the same time, he retains his loyalties to his own Chapter and Chapter Master, while retaining any rank he might have had previously, even though he is no longer under the command of his company or squad commanders.

As time passes and the battle-brother spends more time in the service of the Deathwatch, many of these ties change, either weakening or strengthening, and his loyalty can shift to encompass the members of his Kill-team while his duty to the Emperor and the Imperium becomes broader and less restricted by the specific teachings of his Chapter.

This is especially true once he is exposed to the ideas and doctrines of his Kill-team members and they have survived many harrowing battles together.

It is even possible, though rare, that, after long standard years of service, a Veteran battle-brother can find that this loyalty narrows until he sees himself as a member of the Deathwatch first, and part of his Chapter second. While the battle-brother will always retain a deep connection to his Chapter, long periods of service to the Deathwatch and the secret knowledge he gains about the enemies of the Imperium can make him see his true place as part of a Kill-team.

His Chapter Master and his Chapter battle-brothers might understand and respect why he would choose to fight for the Deathwatch rather than his own Chapter if they know anything of the nature of the Deathwatch's mission, though it is more likely it will be seen only as divided loyalty.

In either case, the chain of command can become blurred for such a Deathwatch Veteran, as the influence of his Chapter recedes and he focuses his efforts against the enemies of the Deathwatch.

A Taste for War

Members of the Deathwatch are often exposed to threats and foes they would not have encountered had they remained within the ranks of their Chapter. While a battle-brother fighting as part of his home Chapter will doubtless see years of bloody and terrible combat, he usually does so shoulder to shoulder with his company, supported by Predator AFVs and Rhino APCs, heavy weapon platforms and orbital overwatch.

By contrast, while a Deathwatch Kill-team has access to some of the most remarkable technology in the Imperium of Man, they can never rely on having such luxuries in combat, often standing alone against whatever dangers they might face. Added to the fact that a Kill-team is only a handful of Space Marines, the foes they face can be more dangerous and exotic, such as powerful alien commanders and unspeakable xenos horrors.

In a few short years serving in the Deathwatch, a battle-brother will have faced down and defeated countless alien and Heretic foes, often in close personal combat with only the strength of his Kill-team to back him up.

It is little wonder, then, that many battle-brothers who are seconded to the Deathwatch rise to the ranks of Veterans as the experiences they accrue and missions they complete give them a wider sense of the terrible struggle the Imperium faces every day and the multitude of hidden foes arrayed against it.

In time, this evolution of their skills and knowledge will set them apart from their original Chapters and forge them into something uniquely adapted to fighting and killing xenos.

Thus a Deathwatch Veteran is a battle-brother who has not simply spent years serving in the Deathwatch, or one who has formed a bond with brothers from other Chapters. Rather he is one who has adapted to the service of the Deathwatch and the special missions and foes with which it must deal.

Indoctrinated by the unbreakable bonds to his Chapter and his sense of duty to his Chapter Master, no battle-brother ever leaves these loyalties behind, but instead adds to them, becomes more dedicated to the cause of the Imperium, whether it is through the orders of his watch commander or his own personal focus.

Not all battle-brothers are suited to long periods of secondment to the Deathwatch, many simply doing their duty before returning to their own Chapter. However, those that adapt to the way the Deathwatch functions, and those able to balance the teachings of their Chapter with the autonomy and independence required of a Kill-team become valued additions to the Deathwatch.

The Deathwatch values these kinds of battle-brothers and is active in developing their skills and abilities, creating Kill-teams that can undertake the most hazardous of missions with a chance of success. Equally, Chapter Masters honour those battle-brothers who have acquitted themselves well in the Deathwatch and respect the skills they have mastered.

Over years of hazardous missions and combat, the members of a Kill-team will learn to rely heavily on each other, something which is evident after even a few missions among those newly seconded to the Deathwatch, but which becomes far more pronounced in Deathwatch veterans.

Combined with missions that will see the Kill-team operate against some of the worst foes the Jericho Reach has to offer, and often without support from any kind of Imperial aid for solar weeks, months, or even longer, this creates a powerful autonomous fighting unit.

Even in such circumstances, the Deathwatch can still rely on these Veteran battle-brothers to live up to their duty to the Chapter and their duty to the Emperor, where Astra Militarum specialists given such operational freedom often become increasingly difficult to command or direct.

Such skill and resolve is the mark of a true Deathwatch veteran and Kill-team, battle-brothers of such focus and temper that no task remains beyond them regardless of the odds they might face or the enemies which rise up to meet them.

A New Brotherhood

Deathwatch Veterans are also unique among the Adeptus Astartes as one of the few groups in which true alliances can form between battle-brothers of different Chapters. Space Marines who might have little love for one another and only work together grudgingly can, as part of a Kill-team, over time, form bonds stronger than even those they share with their Chapter.

Living lives of stark seclusion broken only by fierce combat, most battle-brothers come to the Deathwatch only knowing their own kind, having only encountered those different from themselves on the field of battle or from dim, half-remembered memories of their lives before their initiation into the Chapter. Suddenly, they are presented with a variety of different opinions, cultures, and appearances, most of which run counter to what they have learned from their Chapter's battle-brothers.

While all the members of their Kill-team might share a transhuman physiology, a similar duty to the Emperor and a faith in the Imperium of Man, even minor differences can be troubling. This is even truer of combat doctrine and tactical creed, a subject close to the core of every Space Marine.

Many battle-brothers will never completely accept the other members of their Kill-team for these reasons and will return to their Chapter with stories of the strange practises of the other Space Marines. Those that become Deathwatch Veterans, however, inevitably adapt to these differences, the better to function as part of their Kill-team.

A Brotherhood Apart

It is a double-edged blade that Deathwatch Veterans, while valued and skilled members of the Deathwatch, might grow apart from their own Chapter. Battle-brothers accept the honour of secondment without question or complaint even though it means leaving their place within their own Chapter and giving up their place beside battle-brothers who have become close companions from many battles.

Such is the honour of a secondment that both Chapter Master and Chapter usually only afford it to proven Space Marines, even though it can mean losing such a valued asset to the Deathwatch for standard years. For the chosen battle-brother, leaving his own Chapter behind can be a burden, even though he understands why he has been chosen and is honoured by the chance to prove his worth alongside others of the Adeptus Astartes within the Deathwatch.

Even so, the gulf between Deathwatch and the Chapters of the Adeptus Astartes can create a wide variety of battle-brothers, changed in small ways by their crossing. Some might come to the Deathwatch eager to prove the superiority of their Chapter, or the strength of their traditions, while others remain resistant to their Kill-team, remaining reserved and restrained, doing their duty as dictated by honour and ancient covenant but little more.

In one way or another, all battle-brothers conform to this new brotherhood, finding their place within the Deathwatch and seeking out their duty to both Emperor and Imperium. A Kill-team is only as strong as its weakest member, and its real strength lies in the bonds of brotherhood it can foster between its battle-brothers.

So when a battle-brother comes to the Deathwatch harbouring distrust of other Chapters, or tries to impose his own ideals on other battle-brothers, the Kill-team will suffer. However, Space Marines are superhuman warriors and even these weakest of Kill-teams are stronger than the most veteran of Astra Militarum squads or elite Tempestus Scions unit could hope to be.

This means that for many battle-brothers their time in the Deathwatch will pass with honour as they complete their duty, though they never truly overcome the divisions within their Kill-team.

Deathwatch Veterans are made up mostly of those battle-brothers who have overcome these differences, or embraced them and turned them to their advantage. They are the battle-brothers which have changed to meet the challenges of the Deathwatch, and created something more within their Kill-team than the sum of its parts.


Priests were very powerful and important. They told people how to behave to keep the gods happy. Priests in Sumer (and in Babylon) were also the local doctors. If you got sick, you sent for a priest. The priests shaved their heads so that everyone knew they were priests.

Both men and women wore jewelry. Men wore long hair and long beards and wore a skirt type garment. Women wore long dresses with one shoulder bare. In the colder months they all wore cloaks made from wool to keep warm.


Ziggurat

I'm also having trouble with this part. I've got the drawing in it's slot. then I put in the arm - press the yellow button and then the purple. all that happens is that the purple light comes on for a second and goes off and then the rest of them come on. same happens with the leg only I'm pressing the green then the purple. still leg and arm are not fixed.

I saw with the last post that it was said you just needed all BUT the purple light on. so I tried just pushing all but the purple light and still nothing fixed. I must be missing something if everyone has done it but I can't figure out what I missed or what I'm not understanding. I've tried the arm and the leg at least 10 times each. I'm kinda ready to give the game back to BF.

So just to be sure the steps are. 3 pieces of diagram put back together in inventory and then placed in the slot for it towards the right of the machine.
Then you put the arm in the slot and then go to the buttons and press yellow and then press purple. Take the arm out and then put in the leg and press green and purple. And both of them should now be fixed. Is this right?

Is there supposed to be something happening while the arm/leg is being repaired like a light or a sound so you know it's working?
Any help would be appreciated.

Re:Ziggurat

Re:Ziggurat

Hi Keidon,
Thank you very the fast response. I did get it to work. When I went back to the game after posting the message. all the lights were on except the purple one. So I put the arm in and then hit the yellow and the purple light and it said the arm was fixed.

Then I put in the leg and noticed that all the lights (except purple) were on again. so I hit green and purple and it said the leg was fixed.

I think the idea is that before putting anything in to be fixed hit the purple light to turn them all on except of course the purple which will go off. then put the leg/arm in and hit the yellow/ purple , green/purple. My problem was that I would turn them all off before hitting the yellow or green.

It was very nice of you to reply to my question so fast. thank you again

Re:Ziggurat

Sorry Keidon, I re-read your post after responding and realized that I just said the exact thing you did about the lights being on before you put in the item to be fixed. I didnt' realize from your first post that you had meant that.


Watch the video: The Ancient Sumerians: The Great Ziggurat of Ur. Ancient Architects (July 2022).


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