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Consolidated PBY-3 Catalina Flying Boat

Consolidated PBY-3 Catalina Flying Boat


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Consolidated PBY-3 Catalina Flying Boat

The Consolidated PBY-3 differed from the previous version of the Catalina in having more powerful 900hp R-1830-66 Twin Wasp engines in place of the 850hp engines used on the PBY-2. An order for 66 PBY-3s was placed in November 1936, only four months after the order had been placed for the PBY-2.

The new engine was responsible for the main change to the appearance of the PBY-3. The engines used on the earlier models had their air intake underneath the engine, but the R-1830-66 had a down-draft carburettor, so the air intakes had to be on top of the nacelles.

By the time all 66 aircraft had been delivered the PBY-3 was used to equip VP-7 and VP-9 at San Diego, VP-4 and VP-18 at Pearl Harbor, VP-5 at Coco Solo, VP-16 at Seattle as well as VP-9 and VP-32. Most of these squadrons were part of larger Patrol Wings, and on 1 July 1939 the squadrons were given new numbers based on the wings.

PatWing 2 was based on Hawaii, and so the Japanese attack fell on squadrons VP-21 and VP-22. Between them these squadrons lost nine PBY-3s during the attack on Pearl Harbor. The PBY-3 remained a front line aircraft until March 1943, at which point the last operational examples were moved to training establishments, where they remained in use until 31 May 1945.

Engine: R-1830-66
Power: 900hp
Top Speed: 185 mph
Ceiling: 23,100ft
Gross weight: 22,078lb


Flying Boat Consolidated PBY Catalina WWII 3D model

Flying Boat Consolidated PBY Catalina WWII is a high quality, photo real model that will enhance detail and realism to any of your rendering projects. With semi-detailed cockpit. The model has a fully textured, detailed design that allows for close-up renders, and was originally modeled in 3ds Max 2012 and rendered with V-Ray. Fidelity is optimal up to a 2k render. Renders have no postprocessing.
Hope you like it!

Flying Boat Consolidated PBY Catalina WWII is ready to be animated. You can easily position it the way you need or animate.
*********************************
Features:
- High quality polygonal model, correctly scaled for an accurate representation of the original object.
- Models resolutions are optimized for polygon efficiency. (In 3ds Max, the Meshsmooth function can be used to increase mesh resolution if necessary.)
- All colors can be easily modified.
- Model is fully textured with all materials applied.
- All textures and materials are included and mapped in every format.
- 3ds Max models are grouped for easy selection, and objects are logically named for ease of scene management.
- No part-name confusion when importing several models into a scene.
- No cleaning up necessaryjust drop your models into the scene and start rendering.
- No special plugin needed to open scene.
- Model does not include any backgrounds or scenes used in preview images.
- Units: cm
- Photoshop (original texture files with all layers)
*********************************
File Formats:
- 3ds Max 2012 V-Ray and standard materials scenes
- OBJ (Multi Format)
- 3DS (Multi Format)
- Maya 2011
- Cinema 4D R14
- FBX (Multi Format)
- Photoshop (original texture files with all layers)
*********************************
Textures Formats:
- (66 .png) 2048 x 2048

Also there are original texture files with all layers .PSD format in particular archive
*********************************
3d Molier International is a team of 3D artists with over a decade of experience in the field. The company participated in various projects allowing us to learn our clients needs. Every model we build goes through thorough Quality assessment both visual and technical to make sure the assets look realistic and the models are of the best quality, which you can tell by looking at the renders none of the has any postprocessing. On the top of that all the models come with complete UVs and optimized topology, which allows you in no time alter geo or the textures if needed.

Also check out our other models, just click on our user name to see complete gallery.
3d_molier International 2017


Consolidated PBY Catalina
Consolidated PBY Catalina Technical Drawings & Scale Model Plans
Consolidated PBY Catalina Scale Model Plans
Consolidated PBY-5 Catalina scale model plans
Sources:
Flying Boats and Seaplanes since 1910
Scale Aircraft Drawings, Volume 2 – World War II
Consolidated PBY Catalina | Sky Corner
Consolidated PBY Catalina | Wikipedia

The Consolidated PBY Catalina was one of the oddities of the war. A 1933 design, it was widely used by the US Navy, but was nearly obsolete by 1940. With no immediate replacement in sight, it was kept in production by the U.S. Naval Aircraft Factory (NAF) at two Consolidated factories and in two Canadian plants. Eventually, it distinguished itself by becoming the most prevalent flying boat of all time: 3,276 were built in the U.S. and Canada, plus an estimated 150 Consolidated PBY Catalina aircraft under licence in Russia.

In competition against Douglas XP3D-1 patrol plane, Consolidated’s XP3Y was the winner and went into production as the dual-purpose PBY-1 patrol bomber – the first monoplane ordered by Navy for service with the fleet. The PBY-1 aircraft could carry up to 2,000 lb (907 kg) of bombs, and were armed with four 0.30 in machine-guns.

The prototype’s powerplant was the 825 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-58 twin-row engine but this grew to the 1,200 hp R-1830-92 in the final PBY-5A and PBY-6A models. The most notable outward changes were the large transparent blisters over the side gun ports (first shown on the PBY-4) and the retractable tricycle landing gear introduced on the PBY-5A (“A” for amphibian) which greatly increased usefulness and production. A taller tail appeared on the NAF PBN-1 and the later PBY-6A.

The PBY Catalina saw service in all theatres of the war. An RAF. Consolidated PBY Catalina spotted the elusive German battleship Bismark, and this lead to its destruction. U.S. Navy PBY-5s and 5As were used for the additional duty of air-sea rescue, particularly in the Pacific, where some carried lifeboats. Other PBYs, painted dull, matte black, were used for night intruder operations against the Japanese. Rescue PBY Catalinas were nicknamed “Dumbo,” while the intruders were referred to as “Black Cats.”

The Consolidated PBY Catalina possessed a performance that enabled it to maintain its viability with the military and naval air arms of many countries, as well as in a commercial transport role, for many years after the war, particularly in South America. Among those still operating Catalinas for maritime reconnaissance up to the mid-1960s were Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador and Mexico, at which time Nationalist China, Dominica, Indonesia and Peru still used the type for search and rescue, and France and Israel retained a few for miscellaneous duties.


Flugboot konsolidierte PBY Catalina WWII 3D-Modell

Flying Boat Consolidated PBY Catalina WWII is a high quality, photo real model that will enhance detail and realism to any of your rendering projects. With semi-detailed cockpit. The model has a fully textured, detailed design that allows for close-up renders, and was originally modeled in 3ds Max 2012 and rendered with V-Ray. Fidelity is optimal up to a 2k render. Renders have no postprocessing.
Hope you like it!

Flying Boat Consolidated PBY Catalina WWII is ready to be animated. You can easily position it the way you need or animate.
*********************************
Features:
- High quality polygonal model, correctly scaled for an accurate representation of the original object.
- Models resolutions are optimized for polygon efficiency. (In 3ds Max, the Meshsmooth function can be used to increase mesh resolution if necessary.)
- All colors can be easily modified.
- Model is fully textured with all materials applied.
- All textures and materials are included and mapped in every format.
- 3ds Max models are grouped for easy selection, and objects are logically named for ease of scene management.
- No part-name confusion when importing several models into a scene.
- No cleaning up necessaryjust drop your models into the scene and start rendering.
- No special plugin needed to open scene.
- Model does not include any backgrounds or scenes used in preview images.
- Units: cm
- Photoshop (original texture files with all layers)
*********************************
File Formats:
- 3ds Max 2012 V-Ray and standard materials scenes
- OBJ (Multi Format)
- 3DS (Multi Format)
- Maya 2011
- Cinema 4D R14
- FBX (Multi Format)
- Photoshop (original texture files with all layers)
*********************************
Textures Formats:
- (66 .png) 2048 x 2048

Also there are original texture files with all layers .PSD format in particular archive
*********************************
3d Molier International is a team of 3D artists with over a decade of experience in the field. The company participated in various projects allowing us to learn our clients needs. Every model we build goes through thorough Quality assessment both visual and technical to make sure the assets look realistic and the models are of the best quality, which you can tell by looking at the renders none of the has any postprocessing. On the top of that all the models come with complete UVs and optimized topology, which allows you in no time alter geo or the textures if needed.

Also check out our other models, just click on our user name to see complete gallery.
3d_molier International 2017


Main article: List of surviving Consolidated PBY Catalinas Consolidated PBY Catalina_sentence_141

Data from Encyclopedia of World Air Power, Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II, Handbook of Erection and Maintenance Instructions for Navy Model PBY-5 and PBY-5A Airplanes, and Quest for Performance. Consolidated PBY Catalina_sentence_142

General characteristics Consolidated PBY Catalina_sentence_143

Consolidated PBY Catalina_unordered_list_7

  • Crew: 10 (pilot, co-pilot, bow turret gunner, flight engineer, radio operator, navigator, radar operator, two waist gunners and ventral gunner) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_7_32
  • Length: 63 ft 10.875 in (19.47863 m) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_7_33
  • Wingspan: 104 ft (32 m) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_7_34
  • Height: 21 ft 1 in (6.43 m) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_7_35
  • Wing area: 1,400 sq ft (130 m) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_7_36
  • Aspect ratio: 7.73 Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_7_37
  • Empty weight: 20,910 lb (9,485 kg) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_7_38
  • Max takeoff weight: 35,420 lb (16,066 kg) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_7_39 : 0.0309 Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_7_40 43.26 ft (4.02 m) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_7_41
  • Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-1830-92 Twin Wasp 14-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, 1,200 hp (890 kW) each Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_7_42
  • Propellers: 3-bladed constant-speed propellers Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_7_43

Performance Consolidated PBY Catalina_sentence_144

Consolidated PBY Catalina_unordered_list_8

  • Maximum speed: 196 mph (315 km/h, 170 kn) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_8_44
  • Cruise speed: 125 mph (201 km/h, 109 kn) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_8_45
  • Range: 2,520 mi (4,060 km, 2,190 nmi) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_8_46
  • Service ceiling: 15,800 ft (4,800 m) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_8_47
  • Rate of climb: 1,000 ft/min (5.1 m/s) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_8_48
  • Lift-to-drag: 11.9 Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_8_49
  • Wing loading: 25.3 lb/sq ft (124 kg/m) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_8_50 : 0.067 hp/lb (0.110 kW/kg) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_8_51

Armament Consolidated PBY Catalina_sentence_145

Consolidated PBY Catalina_unordered_list_9

  • Guns: 3 x .30 cal (7.62 mm) machine guns (two in nose turret, one in ventral hatch at tail) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_9_52
  • 2 x .50 cal (12.7 mm) machine guns (one in each waist blister) Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_9_53
  • Bombs: 4,000 lb (1,814 kg) of bombs or depth charges torpedo racks were also available Consolidated PBY Catalina_item_9_54

New Photos of PBY Flying Boat sunk before Pearl Harbor Attack

Before Pearl Harbor was attacked, other military installations on Oahu were hit. The bombers were specifically targeting aircraft in order to prevent American forces from getting airborne and fighting back.

Nine U.S. Navy Consolidated PBY-5 Catalina patrol bombers fly in formation in the Hawaii area, circa November 1941. These planes, from Patrol Squadron 14 (VP-14), arrived on Oahu on 23 November 1941. The plane closest to the camera is 󈫾-P-1”, which on 7 December 1941 was flown by Ens. William P. Tanner during the attack with USS Ward (DD-139) on a Japanese midget submarine. Most of the other planes were destroyed at Naval Air Station Kaneohe Bay.

U.S. Navy sailors attempt to save a burning Consolidated PBY Catalina flying boat at Naval Air Station Kaneohe Bay on 7 December 1941. This plane was set afire by strafing in the the initial phase of the attack and was sunk in a later strike. Note the dog observing the work.

Aircraft wreckage and a badly damaged hangar at Naval Air Station Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, shortly after the Japanese air attack. The plane in the foreground is a consolidated PBY Catalina of Patrol Squadron 12, marked 󈫼-P-3”.

A burning U.S. Navy Consolidated PBY Catalina flying boat at Naval Air Station Kaneohe Bay on 7 December 1941.

Video of PBY flying boat underwater wreckage courtesy of NOAA and University of Hawaii archaeologists.

The starboard engine nacelle (housing) extending into the silt. Credit: UH Marine Option Program


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Consolidated PBY Catalina

The Consolidated PBY Catalina was an American flying boat of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft. It was one of the most widely used multi-role aircraft of World War II. Catalinas served with every branch of the United States Armed Forces and in the air forces and navies of many other nations.

During World War II, PBYs were used in anti-submarine warfare, patrol bombing, convoy escorts, search and rescue missions (especially air-sea rescue), and cargo transport. The PBY was the most numerous aircraft of its kind and the last active military PBYs were not retired from service until the 1980s. Even today, over 70 years after its first flight, the aircraft continues to fly as a waterbomber (or airtanker) in aerial firefighting operations all over the world.

The designation "PBY" was determined in accordance with the U.S. Navy aircraft designation system of 1922 PB representing "Patrol Bomber" and Y being the code assigned to Consolidated Aircraft as its manufacturer. Catalinas built by other manufacturers for the US Navy were designated according to different manufacturer codes, thus Canadian Vickers-built examples were designated PBV, Boeing-Canada examples PB2B (there already being a Boeing PBB) and Naval Aircraft Factory examples were designated PBN. Canadian Catalinas were named Canso by the Royal Canadian Air Force in accordance with contemporary British naming practice of naming seaplanes after coastal port towns, in this case for the town of Canso in Nova Scotia. The RAF in contrast used the Catalina name. The United States Army Air Forces and later the United States Air Force used the designation OA-10.

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&ldquo Prestige is the shadow of money and power. Where these are, there it is. Like the national market for soap or automobiles and the enlarged arena of federal power, the national cash-in area for prestige has grown, slowly being consolidated into a truly national system. &rdquo
&mdashC. Wright Mills (1916�)


Consolidated PBY-3 Catalina Flying Boat - History

Our treatment of aircraft began as an account of my trials and tribulations in building a 1948 airplane model kit. Since then, we have developed a wealth of patent diagrams for historic aircraft, so many in fact that the page was very slow in loading. On November 25, 2009 we split the material into six segments, corresponding to the six boxes or "buttons" below. If you came in from a search engine looking for something very specific, click here for the Analytical Index that will enable you to find a specific topic.

This is the Flying Boats Page , if you are interested in something else, Click on a Button to Go There.

For those of you who don't like buttons, go to the analytical index to find just what you're looking for.

Hello! Welcome to our page about those fabulous Flying Boats. If you came here with a specific purpose, here are some helpful shortcuts

  • Mythology and Reality of Flying Boats
    • Part One: Trans-Atlantic Aviation
    • Part Two: Trans-Pacific Aviation
    • Curtiss NC-4 Round the World Flying Boat
    • Consolidated P2Y Flying Boat
    • Consolidated PBY Catalina Flying Boat
    • De Seversky Proposed Transoceanic Clipper
    • Martin Model 130 China Clipper Flying Boat
    • Short-Mayo Composite Flying Boat
    • Boeing B-314 Clipper Flying Boat
    • Consolidated PB2Y Coronado Flying Boat
    • Martin P5M Marlin Flying Boat
    • Curtiss SOC Seagull Observation Floatplane
    • Curtiss SO2C Seamew Observation Floatplane

    This is part of a general Retro Lifestyle/Swing Dancing website. We have a Guide to 1940s Treasures and a Swing Dance Calendar for Washington DC.. Please feel free to Contact Us if you'd like to comment on the golden age of balsa wood models.

    Mythology and Reality of Flying Boats

    We were fortunate to obtain a large number of issues of Popular Mechanics during the period 1932-1939, the key points in the evolution of Trans-Atlantic and Trans-Pacific aviation.

    Part One: Trans-Atlantic Aviation

    This graphic show transatlantic aviation at the beginning of the 1930s:

    Three Modes of Travel to Europe
    Clipper to Brazil, Zeppelin to Europe, Steamship Home
    From Popular Mechanics September, 1934
    Click to Enlarge

    As the 1930s began, aircraft simply did not have the endurance to brave the tricky weather and distances across the Atlantic. Lindbergh had shown that it was "possible" -- but a lone airman's highly risky flight did not add up to scheduled air service. Most heavier-than-air aircraft were flying boats. By 1934, commercial air transportation had begun between the US and the islands of the Caribbean. It was possible to fly from Miami to Rio De Janero in the Sikorsky flying boats made famous in the film Flying Down to Rio. At the same time, German zeppelins were plying a profitable trade transporting passengers from Rio to Dakar (the closest point between the Eastern and Western hemispheres) and thence to Europe. The stormy Atlantic was as yet impassible, so travelers returned on luxury steamships.

    Dirgibles and Steamships
    (left)Luxury Accommodations on the Hindenburg (June, 1935)
    (right) Steamship developments in the 1930s (July, 1938)
    Click to Enlarge

    Our review has turned up a number of informative articles that will give you an in-depth understanding of the evolution of transatlantic air travel

    A Look at Technical details of Transatlantic Travel
    (left to right)Wings Over the Atlantic (March, 1934)
    Wings Over the Spanish Main (November, 1935) Diesel in the Air (August, 1938)
    New York to Europe by Clipper
    Click to Enlarge

    Here are some articles that deal with luxury aboard some of the long-distance planes of the 1930s.

    Luxurious Accommodations on Long Distance Planes
    (left) Collection of Unusual Transatlantic Forecasts
    (middle) Asleep in the Clouds
    (right) Pullman of the Air
    Click to Enlarge

    Here are some wonderful color sections dealing with long distance travel

    Special Color Inserts in Popular Mechanics
    (left to right) Around the World by Air (Part 1)
    Around the World by Air (Part 2)
    Around the Corner in Aviation
    (right) Giant New Airliners
    Click to Enlarge

    For your reading pleasure, we have created ".pdf" files for these interesting articles. They contain a lot of photographs that are not often seen.

    • Click Here to download "Luxury Accommodations on the Hindenburg"
    • Click Here to download "Mid 1930s Developments in Steamships"
    • Click Here to download "US to Europe By Air "
    • Click Here to download "Wrong Way Corigan"
    • Click Here to download "Wings Over the Atlantic"
    • Click Here to download "Wings Over the Spanish Main"
    • Click Here to download "Diesel in the Air"
    • Click Here to download "New York to Europe by Clipper"
    • Click Here to download "Collection of Unusual Transatlantic Forecasts"
    • Click Here to download "Asleep in the Clouds"
    • Click Here to download "Around the World by Air (Part 1)"
    • Click Here to download "Around the World by Air (Part 2)"
    • Click Here to download "Around the Corner in Aviation"
    • Click Here to download "Giant New Airliners"

    Part Two: Trans-Pacific Aviation

    This graphic show Trans-Pacific aviation during the "Golden Age of Flying Boats":

    Island Hopping
    Note the island stops.
    . soon to become major WWII Battlegrounds
    From Popular Mechanics April, 1935
    Click to Enlarge

    Distances in the Pacific are vast. Given the limited range of flying boats of the 1930s, it is fortunate that there were a number of island stops where planes could refuel and take refuge from hostile weather. The US was not the only country to recognize the value of strategically placed islands. Honolulu, Midway, Wake, Guam, and Luzon were all envied by the Japanese and were part of their plan of conquest. It cost many, many thousands of American lives to reclaim these islands.

    Our review has turned up a number of informative articles that will give you an in-depth understanding of the evolution of Trans-Pacific air travel

    Here are two articles that lay out the general structure of Trans-Pacific aviation and the very important role of weather forecasting. To give you some additional background on covering long distances with aircraft, we have also included a look at building a Trans_Canada airline.

    Fundamentals of Trans-Pacific Aviation
    (left) Wings Over the Pacific (June, 1935)
    (Middle) Trans-Canada Airline (May, 1937)
    (right) How Flying Clippers Dodge Storms (May, 1938)
    Click to Enlarge

    The vast distances meant that planes had to be designed to carry a fairly large number of revenue passengers. The Pacific flying boats were called "Clippers" after the graceful old sailing ships of the tea trade. They were among the very largest airplanes and captured the attention of the public.

    Size Mattered
    (left)New Giants for the Airlines (February, 1938)
    (middle) Hotels on the Wing (March, 1939)
    (right) Future Titans of the Skies (December, 1936)
    Click to Enlarge

    Our review turned up two articles about how new pilots were trained to meet the demands of Trans-Pacific aviation.

    Flight Training
    (left) Learning to Fly the Clippers (December, 1936)
    (right) Flying the China Clippers (March, 1939)
    Click to Enlarge

    There was a fascination with Test Pilots -- brave young men who took unprecedented risks. These fellow were romanticized in films from Test Pilot (Clark Gable and Myrna Loy) to The Right Stuff. Eventually, the Test Pilot gave way to the Astronaut as a folk hero.

    Romanticizing the Test Pilot
    Click to Enlarge

    Here are several articles from the 1930s about test Pilots.

    Test Pilots
    (left) Thrills of the Navy Test Pilots (August 1937)
    (right) Test Flying the Sky Giants (May, 1939)
    Click to Enlarge

    For your reading pleasure, we have created ".pdf" files for these interesting articles. They contain a lot of photographs that are not often seen.

    • Click Here to download "Wings Over the Pacific"
    • Click Here to download "Building a Trans-Canada Airline"
    • Click Here to download "How Clippers Dodge Storms"
    • Click Here to download "New Giants for the Airlines"
    • Click Here to download "Hotels on the Wing"
    • Click Here to download "Future Titans of the Skies"
    • Click Here to download "Learning to Fly the Clippers"
    • Click Here to download "Flying the China Clippers"
    • Click Here to download "Thrills of the Navy Test Pilots"
    • Click Here to download "Test Flying the Sky Giants"

    Flying Boats and Patents

    A flying boat is a specialised form of aircraft that is designed to take off from and land on water, using its fuselage as a floating hull. Such aircraft are sometimes stabilised on water by underwing floats or by wing-like projections from the fuselage. Flying boats are distinguished from floatplanes because they use the fuselage to provide the main buoyancy of the aircraft.

    Flying boats were some of the largest aircraft of the first half of the 20th century. Their ability to "land" on water allowed them to break free of the size constraints imposed by general lack of large, land-based runways, and also made them important for maritime patrol and air-sea rescue, capabilities put to great use in World War II. Following World War II, their use gradually tailed off, with many of the roles taken over by land aircraft types.

    The flying boat was glamorized in the movies, especially in the Astaire-Rogers hit Flying Down to Rio. These planes provided luxury accommodations (including sleeping compartments) for the long journey to exotic places in the Orient.

    In the 21st century, flying boats maintain a few niche uses, such as for dropping water on forest fires and for air transport around archipelagos.


    Curtiss NC-4 "Atlantic Crossing" Flying Boat

    On the Cover of Model Airplane News

    Curtiss NC-4 "Atlantic Flying Boat"
    Model Airplane News Cover Art for May, 1969
    by Tom Wilbur, USN
    Click to Enlarge

    The NC-4 was a Curtiss NC flying boat, designed by Glenn Curtiss and manufactured by Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company. In May 1919 the NC-4 became the first aircraft to fly across the Atlantic Ocean, making the crossing as far as Lisbon in 19 days, with multiple stops along the way. The accomplishment was largely eclipsed in public memory by the first non-stop trans-Atlantic flight, lasting 15 h 57 min, made by British pilots Alcock and Whitten-Brown two weeks later.

    Curtiss NC-4 Flying Boat
    Warships posted every 50 miles.
    Click to Enlarge

    The US Navy Transatlantic flying expedition began on May 8. The NC-4 was originally in the company of two other NC Flying Boats, the NC-1 and the NC-3 (NC-2 having been 'cannibalised' for spares to repair NC-1 before leaving New York). They left Naval Air Station Rockaway, New York, with intermediate stops in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Chatham, Massachusetts and Halifax, Nova Scotia before reaching Trepassey, Newfoundland on May 15, 1919. Eight US Navy ships were stationed along the eastern seaboard to help the flying boats to navigate and to assist them if required.

    On May 16 they left for the longest leg of their journey, to the Azores, with a further twenty-two US Navy warships stationed at 50 mile (80 km) intervals along the route. These 'station' ships were brightly illuminated, had their searchlights on and fired flares to help the crews to keep to the intended route. The NC-4 reached Horta in the Azores on the following afternoon, 1,200 miles and 15 hours 18 minutes later, having encountered thick fogbanks along the route the NC-1 and the NC-3 were both forced to land at sea due to rough weather the crew of the NC-1 was rescued by the Greek freighter Ionia, the NC-1 sinking three days later. the crew ( including future Admiral Marc "Pete" MIscher ) of the NC-3 managed to taxi their flying-boat to the Azores, where it was taken in tow by a US Navy warship.

    Curtiss NC-4 Technical Details
    Patent No. 1,351,742
    Click to Enlarge

    Click Here for more information about the Curtiss NC-4 Flying Boat.


    Consolidated P2Y Flying Boat

    Captain Dick Richardson and Isaac M. 'Mac' Laddon, who were to occupy a significant place in the history of Flying Boats) designed a large parasol-wing flying boat for a Navy contract competition in 1928. Initially, the plane was powered by three engines. It was designated the "P1Y" and had the popular name "Admiral".

    ON THE COVER OF MODEL AIRPLANE NEWS

    Consolidated P1Y1 "Admiral" Flying Boat
    Model Airplane News Cover Art for February, 1934
    by Jo Kotula
    Click to Enlarge

    The first version had a single tail. With the availabilty of more powerful engines, the "Admiral" evolved into a two-engine airplane. A twin-tail was necessary to maintain appropriate controls. This aircraft, designated the P1Y2 was also called the "Admiral". The essential characteristics of this model are the open cockpit and un-cowled engines.

    Real Plane

    Click to Enlarge

    The prototype made its first flight in 1929. Although Consolidated won the design contest, the production contract was opened to other bidders. This was a byproduct of standard naval procurement methods of the 1920s, whereby rights to a particular aircraft design became the property of the Navy and could ultimately be produced by any of its airframe contractors. based on cost considerations, the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics ( BuAer ) directed Martin to slightly reconfigure the design and ordered it into limited production in 1931-32 as the P3M, with three delivered as the P3M-1 and six as the P3M-2. The Glenn L. Martin Company submitted the low bid and was awarded the contract to construct the plane as the Martin P3M-1 and P3M-2.

    Martin P3M
    The low bidder.
    Click to Enlarge

    In 1931, the Navy conracted with Consolidated for an improved version, designated the Model 22 P2Y Ranger. It incorporated features such as an enclosed flight deck and cowlings on the motors. The Navy ordered 23 of these aircraft. The P3Ms operated alongside Consolidated's analogous P2Y production series, marking the beginning of a heated rivalry between Martin and Consolidated over various flying boat contracts during the 1930s.

    Patent Diagrams for the Consolidated P2Y Flying Boat
    Design Patent D-93,230
    Click to Enlarge
    Click Here to learn how to get free patent diagrams

    Click Here for more information about the Consolidated P1Y1 and P2Y Flying Boats.


    Consolidated PBY "Catalina" Flying Boat

    The Catalina was the most successful (and numerosu) flying boat in aviation history. It served extensively throughout World War II as a search and rescue plane, even (at times) delivering bombs. It began life as the Consolidated Model 28, designed by Isaac Laddon in late 1933.

    ON THE COVER OF MODEL AIRPLANE NEWS

    Consolidated PBY "Catalina"
    Model Airplane News Cover Art for April, 1944
    by Jo Kotula
    Click to Enlarge

    The prototype first flew in 1935 and had distinctive features, most notably, the parasol wing with no supporting structures. This absence of struts and bracing wires offered an immediate improvement in performance. Another new feature was the introduction of stabilising floats which retracted in flight to form the wingtips. Initial trials of the prototype left little doubt that the Navy was about to acquire a significant aircraft. PBY-1 began to enter squadron service in 1937 and by mid-1938 14 squadrons were operational.

    Consolidated PBY "Catalina" Flying Boat
    Click to Enlarge

    Initial export aircraft went to Russia, where the type was built subsequently in large numbers under the designation GST. The RAF acquired a single example for evaluation in 1939 and almost immediately ordered a batch of 50, the first of many to serve with Coastal Command. The name Catalina (adopted first by the RAF) was used later by the USN for the various versions which entered service. The type was also to serve with the RAAF, RCAF, RNZAF and the air arm of the Dutch East Indies. Many Catalinas remained in service for air-sea rescue for some years after the end of the war

    Patent Diagrams for the Consolidated PBY Catalina
    Design Patent D-92,912
    Click to Enlarge
    Click Here to learn how to get free patent diagrams

    The PBY was a very popular subject in the mass media from its unique retractable wing floats to its use in search and rescue. Here are three articles from the mid-1930s as found in our review of Popular Mechanics .

    Consolidated PBY Catalina in the Media
    (Left) June, 1939 (middle) May, 1937 (right) April, 1936
    Click to Enlarge

    Here is a video that has a "walk around" and takeoff of a restored PBY:

    Click Here for more information about the Consolidated PBY "Catalina" Flying Boat.


    DeSeversky Proposed Transoceanic Clipper

    Jo Kotula was famous for selecting airplanes that were photogenic for the cover of Model Airplane News. On many occasions, they proved to be fabulous flops. This is the only instance that I can find where Kotula illustrated something that didn't exist, a fantastic transatlantic clipper design.

    ON THE COVER OF MOODEL AIRPLANE NEWS

    Seversky Transoceanic Clipper
    Model Airplane News Cover Art for August,1938
    by Jo Kotula
    Click to Enlarge

    Flamboyant designer Alexander De Seversky had some success with a series of small flying boats, culminating in a four-engine airplane that was intended for Trans-Pacific flights, as shown in these photos from Popular Mechanics in 1935.

    Seversky Pacific Clipper
    From Popular Mechanics July, 1935
    Click to Enlarge

    Severskyproposed a fantastic trans-oceanic super clipper in response to Pan American Airways invitation for bids for a Transatlantic aircraft capable of a 5000 mi range, payload of 25,000 lbs, and 200 mph cruise speed. At this time, Pan Am was about to take delivery on the Boeing 314 boats which were just being built. The Seversky proposal was a gigantic 8 engine monstrosity. As shown in the patent diagrams and cover of Model Airplane News, it looked like a gigantic P-38 with a wingspan of 250 feet. The two booms have installed at their forward end two 2000 hp Allison engines geared to drive a single prop, one on each boom. These booms would also accommodate a number of passengers. The booms end in twin fins and rudders and are connected by a stabilizer-elevator.

    Seversky Transoceanic Clipper Design Patent D-112,834
    Click here to download this design patent in its entirety
    Click to Enlarge

    The center nacelle would contain the flight deck and crew quarters. The rear of the nacelle would mount two more Allisons again geared to drive a single pusher prop. The wing section between the booms would contain more passenger accommodations and staterooms. The outboard wing sections would carry more passengers and also mount two more 2000 hp Allisons each driving a pusher prop, for a total of eight engines. Mounted on the bottom of the twin booms are two immense floats, which are retractable into the bottom of the booms operated by a hydraulic system. The floats also provide space for cargo.

    Projected Performance Figures:

    • Top speed: 300 mph
    • Cruise: 200 mph
    • Range: 5000 mi.
    • Payload: 43,000 lb.
    • Fuel Cap: 17,000 gal.
    • Passengers: 200
    • Crew: 16

    Apparently, Seversky was quite serious about this thing, claiming that 174 engineers were assigned to do a design study. The only contemporary record of the proposed clipper is a photograph showing Seversky with a scale model of the aircraft. That, and the patent diagrams -- he put at least enough people on the job to get a design patent. While researching this, we found an article that appeared in the Pittsburgh Post Gazette on July 25, 1942 in which Col. de Seversky discusses his views on air power.

    Article on Air Power by Col. De Seversky
    Pittsburgh Post-Gazette July 25, 1942
    Click to Enlarge

    Walt Disney took him seriously enough to produce an animated feature called Victory Through Air Power, which you may watch by clicking the link. Col. De Seversky appears in the film.


    Martin Model 130 "China Clipper" Flying Boat

    The Martin 130 was a large four-engined monoplane flying-boat designed for transoceanic services. Three were built for Pan American Airways in 1935 and on 21 October 1936 began operating over the Pacific from San Francisco to Manilla, Philippine Islands. Two were requisitioned by the US Navy in 1942. It had a twin-tail sister, as our reader Jamie explains:

    ". The M-156 (twin-tail) was a follow on aircraft built for the next Pan Am flying boat contract. Martin lost the contract to Boeing and the marvelous B-314. The twin tail M-156 was sold to the Soviet Union where it saw many years of Aeroflot service . The Russians called it the Martin Ocean Transport, Martin's original name, and bristled at the more Western name, The Russian Clipper. The Soviets hated Juan Trippe for the capitalist he was. "

    Martin Model 130 "China Clipper"

    Martin Model 156 "Russia Clipper"
    Check out Jamie's Website
    Click to Enlarge

    The hull was of advanced design and the result of exhaustive testing of models. Lateral buoyancy was provided by stub wings or 'seawings' instead of the conventional sponsons or outboard stabilising floats. Accommodation was provided for a crew of four and 36-48 daytime passengers or 18 sleeping bunks for night flying.

    Patent Diagrams for the Martin "China Clipper"
    Design Patent D-91,634
    Click to Enlarge
    Click Here to learn how to get free patent diagrams

    Here is a video of the China Clipper as it arrives in Manilla on ts first flight:

    In the May 10, 1937 issue, LIFE Magazine published a biographical story on Glenn Martin that includes some contemporary accounts of the China Clipper. Click here to download a ".pdf" of this article. Click Here for more information about the Martin China Clipper .


    Short-Mayo Maia - Mercury Composite

    The Short-Mayo Composite
    This really dazzled the public in 1938
    The Pulp Magazines had a field day (e.g. Feb 1938 issue of Flying Aces )
    There is actually a video of this!
    Click to Enlarge

    The Short Mayo Composite was a piggy-back long-range seaplane/flying boat combination produced by Short Brothers to provide a reliable long-range air transport service to the United States and the far reaches of the British Empire and the Commonwealth. Short Brothers had built flying boats which were capable of operating long range routes across the British Empire but could only attempt the trans-Atlantic route by replacing passenger and mail-carrying space with extra fuel. It was known that aircraft could maintain flight with a greater load or for a longer distance if it did not have to expend energy on takeoff. Thus, Major Robert H. Mayo, Technical General Manager at Imperial Airways (and later a designer at Shorts) proposed mounting a small, long-range seaplane on top of a larger carrier aircraft, using the combined power of both to bring the smaller aircraft to operational height, at which time the two aircraft would separate, the carrier aircraft returning to base while the other flew on to its destination. We were fortunate to find an article in Popular Mechanics that described how this was actually done (with illustrations):

    Technology of the he Short-Mayo Composite
    . in Popular Mechanics November, 1937>BR> Click here to download a ".pdf" of the entire article
    Click to Enlarge

    The Short-Mayo composite project comprised the Short S.21 Maia , a modified S.23 C class flying-boat, and the Short S.20 Mercury seaplane, the latter attached to a pylon mounted on top of the fuselage of the former. This is almost impossible to describe in words. Fortunately, through the magic of YouTube, the actual newsreel accounts of this unusual experiment are available. In the main, the experiment was very successful given the state of aviation in 1938.

    Without further ado, here is the actual newsreel footage

    Click here to learn more about the Short-Mayo composite experiment.


    Boeing B-314 Clipper Flying Boat

    In 1935,Pan American Airways asked Boeing to design a new airplane for the lucrative transatlantic route. Boeing's designers based their work on the XB-15 heavy bomber, adapting the wing and horizontal tail surfaces to a flying-boat that could accommodate 74 passengers.

    Boeing B-314 Clipper

    Click to Enlarge

    The first Boeing 314 flew in 1939. The plane began with a single fin and rudder (as shown in the patent diagram) but directional stability requirements led to the eventual triple-tail design shown in the publicity photo above and in the historical video, below:

    In addition to Pan Am, BOAC also flew the Boeing 314. A total of seven of these airplanes were built.

    Patent Diagrams for the Boeing B-314 Clipper
    Design Patent D-101,707
    Click to Enlarge
    Click Here to learn how to get free patent diagrams

    Click Here for more information about the Boeing B-314 Clipper .


    Consolidated PB2Y "Coronado" Flying Boat

    The prototype of the Coronado was delivered to the Navy in 1938. After service trials it served as Flagship of Aircraft, Scouting Force, The first production models went into service in 1941and remained in production until 1944 as a long-range patrol-bomber flying-boat

    Consolidated PB2Y "Coronado"
    (right) From Popular Mechanics ,December, 1938
    Click to Enlarge

    Many Coronado flying-boats were converted into transports to carry 44 passengers 3,000 lb of cargo or 24 passengers and 1,9800 lb. of cargo. A naval ambulance version of the Coronado was also produced accommodating 25 stretchers. A total of 210 PB2Y-3 were built, ten of which were acquired by RAF Transport Command for transatlantic freight carrying

    Patent Diagrams for the Consolidated PB2Y Coronado
    Design Patent D-130,474
    Click to Enlarge
    Click Here to learn how to get free patent diagrams

    Here is a video of the Coronado in action:

    Click Here for more information about the Consolidated PB2Y "Coronado" .


    Martin P5M "Marlin" Flying Boat

    The Mariner evolved from the successful PBM Mariner,combining the wing and upper hull of the Mariner with alower hull structure.

    Martin P5M "Marlin"

    Click to Enlarge

    The modified hull incorporated radar-directed nose and tail turrets, as well as a power-operated dorsal turret. This prototype flew in 1948, but the P5M-1 was not ordered into production until 1950, and the type remained in service until the mid-1960s.

    Patent Diagrams for the Martin P5M "Marlin"
    Design Patent D-159,788
    Click to Enlarge
    Click Here to learn how to get free patent diagrams

    Here is a video showing lots of views of the Marlin:

    Click Here for more information about the Martin P5M "Marlin" .


    Curtiss SOC "Seagull" Observation Floatplane

    The Curtiss SOC Seagull was a United States single-engined scout observation biplane aircraft designed by Alexander Solla of the Curtiss-Wright Corporation for the United States Navy. The aircraft served on battleships and cruisers in a seaplane configuration, being launched by catapult and recovered from a sea landing. The wings folded back against the fuselage for storage aboard ship. When based ashore the single float was replaced by fixed wheeled landing gear.

    Curtiss SOC "Seagull"
    Observation Floatplane
    right: June 1964 Cover of Model Airplane News , drawing by Jo Kotula
    Click to Enlarge

    Curtiss produced 258 SOC aircraft, beginning in 1935. The SOC-3 design was the basis of the Naval Aircraft Factory SON-1 variant of which 64 were maded.

    Curtiss "Seagull" Patented Float Gear
    Patent No. 2,064,674
    Click to Enlarge

    By 1941, most battleships had transitioned to the Vought OS2U Kingfisher and cruisers were expected to replace their aging SOCs with the third generation SO3C Seamew (below). However, the SO3C suffered from a weak engine and plans to adopt it as a replacement were scrapped. The SOC, despite being a craft from an earlier generation, went on to credibly execute its missions of gunfire observation and limited range scouting missions.

    When operating from ocean vessels, returning SOCs would land on the relatively smooth ocean surface created downstream of the vessel as it made a wide turn, after which the aircraft would be winched back onto deck. Here is a video showing the operation of a SOC from the Cruiser USS St. Louis:

    Click Here for more information about the Curtiss SOC "Seagull" Observation Floatplane.


    Curtiss SO3C "Seamew" Observation Floatplane

    In 1937 the US Navy invited proposals for the design of a scout monoplane which would offer improved performance over the Curtiss SOC Seagull then in operational service. one requirement was that the plane had to be capable of operating from either ships at sea or land bases. This meant that easily interchangeable float/wheel landing gear was essential. The prototype had serious instability problems that were resolved by introducing upturned wingtips and increased tail surfaces. The amount of increased tail surface is shown clearly in the patent drawings below. The resulting aircraft was almost certainly the ugliest aircraft to be produced by the Curtiss company.

    Curtiss SO2C "Seamew"

    Click to Enlarge

    The SO3C-1 entered service on board the USS Cleveland 1942 300 were built before production switched to the SO3C-2 with equipment for carrier operations, including an arrester hook, plus an underfuselage rack on the landplane version to mount a 150 lb. bomb. The total production run of the latter plane was 456 of which 250 were allocated to the UK under Lend-Lease, In British service these aircraft were designated Seamew, a name adopted subsequently by the US Navy

    The unsatisfactory performance of the SO3C-1 in the US Navy led to their withdrawal from first-line service. Many were converted for use as radio-controlled targets under the designation SO3C-1K, 30 being assigned to the UK, by whom they were designated Queen Seamew and used to supplement the fleet of de Havilland Queen Bee target aircraft.

    Patent Diagrams for the Curtiss SO2C "Seamew "
    (left) Floatplane version, Design patent D-126,523
    (right) Landplane version, Design Patent D-137,610
    Click to Enlarge
    Click Here to learn how to get free patent diagrams


    Watch the video: Catalina PBY-5A Miss Pick Up - Flying Boat (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Daijin

    This version has become outdated

  2. Erian

    I have to say this - confusion.

  3. Car

    Consider not very well?

  4. Taryn

    Excellent variant

  5. Helki

    I can recommend going to the site, which has a lot of information on this issue.



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