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After the Revolutionary War was over the colonies became states. At first they were part of a confederation that was under the Articles of the Confederation, but eventually the government was reformed and the Constitution was written and ratified.
This is a quick timeline of the ratification:
- December 7, 1787 &ndash Delaware becomes the first state of the United States of America.
- December 12, 1787 &ndash Pennsylvania becomes the second state of the United States of America.
- December 18, 1787 &ndash New Jersey becomes the third state of the United States of America.
- January 2, 1788 &ndash Georgia becomes the fourth state of the United States of America.
- January 9, 1788 &ndash Connecticut becomes the fifth state of the United States of America.
- February 6, 1788 &ndash Massachusetts becomes the sixth state of the United States of America.
- April 28, 1788 &ndash Maryland becomes the seventh state of the United States of America.
- May 23, 1788 &ndash South Carolina becomes the eighth state of the United States of America.
- June 21, 1788 &ndash New Hampshire becomes the ninth state of the United States of America.
- June 25, 1788 &ndash Virginia becomes the tenth state of the United States of America.
- June 26, 1788 &ndash New York becomes the eleventh state of the United States of America.
- November 21, 1789 &ndash North Carolina becomes the twelfth state of the United States of America.
- May 29, 1790 &ndash Rhode Island becomes the thirteenth state of the United States of America.
Rhode Island, being the smallest state in the Union, held out from joining the Union in fear of not being equally represented.
This is eventually caused the Great Compromise which allowed equal representation in the Senate and allowed representation based on population in the House of Representatives.
What Were the 13 Original Colonies in Chronological Order?
The 13 original colonies in chronological order start with Virginia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maryland and Connecticut. The colonies of Rhode Island, Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina and New Jersey follow. Finishing the list are New York, Pennsylvania and Georgia.
The London Company established Virginia as the first of the original 13 colonies in 1607. Massachusetts followed 13 years later in 1620, although at the time the Puritans called it the Plymouth Colony. In 1630, it was renamed the Massachusetts Bay Colony. John Wheelwright established New Hampshire shortly afterwards, in 1623. The first three colonies didn't officially become royal colonies until 1624, 1691 and 1679 respectively.
The next four colonies, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island and Delaware, were all established in the 1630s. Lord Baltimore formed Maryland in 1634, and Thomas Hooker formed Connecticut in 1635. Rhode Island was established by Roger Williams in 1636, with the establishment of Delaware by Peter Minuit two years later.
The next five colonies were established over a 30-year period, beginning with North Carolina in 1653 and proceeding to William Penn's creation of Pennsylvania in 1682. In between the two, South Carolina was founded in 1663, New Jersey in 1664 by Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, and New York in 1664 by the Duke of York. The last colony, Georgia, wasn't added to the list until 1732, when it was established by James Edward Oglethorpe.
The 13 colonies can be divided into three regions: New England, Middle, and Southern colonies. The chart below provides additional information including the years of settlement and founders of each.
The New England colonies included Connecticut, Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island. Plymouth Colony was founded in 1620 (when the Mayflower arrived in Plymouth), but was incorporated into Massachusetts Bay in 1691.
The group that left England for America in the Mayflower was called the Puritans they believed in a strict interpretation of the writings of John Calvin, who dismissed the beliefs of both the Catholics and the Anglicans. The Mayflower first landed in Provincetown on Cape Cod, where they signed the Mayflower Compact while docked in Provincetown Harbor. After five weeks, they crossed Cape Cod Bay to Plymouth.
Delaware was founded as a colony in 1638 by Peter Minuit and the New Sweden Company. James, the Duke of York, gave Delaware to William Penn in 1682, who said that he needed the land to secure his own colony of Pennsylvania.
At first, the two colonies were joined and shared the same legislative assembly. After 1701 Delaware was given the right to its own assembly, but they continued to share the same governor. It was not until 1776 that Delaware was declared separate from Pennsylvania.
The Significant History of the 13 Colonies – Incredibly Epic!
The 13 British Colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America were the forerunners of the modern superpower, the USA. Read on to discover the story of these very Colonies.
The 13 British Colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America were the forerunners of the modern superpower, the USA. Read on to discover the story of these very Colonies.
Christopher Columbus’ discovery of the Americas in the late 15th century sparked a race to acquire the new-found land among European empires. Among the first to explore and lay claim to North American land were Britain, Spain and France. After several failures to set up a permanent settlement, Spain was the first to set up a permanent colony — in Florida
Soon, the Dutch, the French and the British followed suit. The Swedes and the Russians also had colonies in America, but the Swedish colony was later captured by the Dutch, while Russian colonization never extended beyond Alaska.
Britain, France and Spain had conquered much of the North American landmass by the 18th century Britain held much of the Eastern Seaboard France held the Midwest, Louisiana and eastern Canada Spanish expansion from their strongholds in South America had resulted in them conquering Mexico, the southwestern region of present-day USA, as well as Florida.
Native Indian tribes still lived in huge numbers (the Western coast of North America remained largely free from European dominance), but many had been killed by foreign diseases introduced by European travelers.
Spanish colonization of the Americas remained largely confined to South and Central America (where Spanish influences can still clearly be observed). Even though France held a sizable area of the modern USA, her primary interest was Canada. In the subsequent American Revolutionary War, both Spain and France were allied with the USA, although this could have been instigated by the more urgent mutual need to reduce British dominance.
The formation of the 13 British Colonies started with the colonization of Jamestown in Virginia in 1607. The Colonies were divided into three areas — the northern New England Colonies, the Middle Colonies and the Southern Colonies.
Following is a brief history of their formation:
Note: North and South Carolina have been clubbed together as one item in the following list, since their history is interconnected. Thus, though there are only 12 items in the list, there are 13 colonies.
Home to the first permanent British settlement in America, known as Jamestown, the colony of Virginia was founded by the London Company under the reign of James I (1566-1625). The story of the famous Pocahontas and Captain James Smith has its roots in Jamestown.
It was founded with the motivation of expansion of the British Empire and to spread Christian faith. It was named Virginia in honor of Queen Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen. and in 1624 was created as a royal colony (subject to the governing authority of the granting Royalty) that included all early Jamestown settlers. It also witnessed the formation of its first representative assembly, the House of Burgesses.
Formerly known as Plymouth colony, Massachusetts was founded in 1620 by Puritans who came aboard the ship Mayflower in order to seek refuge in the New World. Of the 102 passengers on the Mayflower , there were 41 Christian Puritan Separatists known as the Leiden group. They were called Pilgrims by the other passengers. They were seeking a new life of religious freedom after being exiled by the Church of England.
The Pilgrims (puritans) drafted an agreement, the Mayflower Compact , which had rules that would guide and help them to establishing a new community amicably. The Mayflower Compact was signed on November 21, 1620 and served as the official Constitution of the Plymouth Colony. It became a royal colony in 1691.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony/Province of Massachusetts included not only the modern-day state of Massachusetts, but New Hampshire and Maine as well.
The colony of New Hampshire was founded in 1623, by two groups of settlers, sent by Captain John Mason, to create a fishing colony near the mouth of the Piscataqua River. The colony was under Massachusetts jurisdiction, but was treated as a separate colony.
It was named after John Mason’s home County of Hampshire, England. Mason never set foot in the colony he helped establish he died before his planned move to New Hampshire. In 1638, John Wheelwright, exiled from Boston, founded a settlement called Exeter in New Hampshire. The settlers of New Hampshire created a draft called Exeter Compact, modeled on the successful Mayflower Compact. It became a Royal colony in 1679.
In 1632, Charles I granted the charter to Lord Baltimore, Baron of Baltimore, to establish a new settlement in the New World. Accordingly, Maryland was founded in 1634. Lord Baltimore along with his sons moved to Maryland and profited from the vast stretches of tobacco grown there. It was his ardent wish to create a separate settlement for Roman Catholics, who were persecuted in Protestant England. Maryland later came to be known as a ‘Catholic haven’.
Maryland was under the sole proprietorship of the Lord Baltimore, one of three colonies — along with Pennsylvania and Delaware — that were proprietary colonies , rather than crown colonies. Maryland provided religious freedom for different sects of Christianity, after the Act of Toleration was passed in 1649.
Connecticut was already a permanent Dutch settlement when Clergyman Thomas Hooker and his followers arrived in Hartford from Massachusetts in 1636, seeking more wealth and religious freedom. The English settlers waged a war with Pequot Indians between 1636 to 1637, to establish supremacy. In 1639, the draft of the ‘Fundamental Orders’ was enacted to govern the Connecticut colony and it became a royal colony under John Winthrop Jr. in 1662.
English settlers were scattered all over Rhode Island, but it was still not established as one colony. Providence was bought by Roger Williams from the Narragansett Indians in 1636. He was exiled from Salem for seeking separation of religious and political functioning of the state. Anne Hutchinson was also driven away from Massachusetts Bay, for supporting Williams’ cause. She formed the settlement of Portsmouth. They were united as the colony of Rhode Island after receiving a royal Charter of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1663.
As it was founded on the separation of church and state, it gave complete and absolute right to religious freedom. It was a fiercely independent colony, and it was here that the idea of revolution and freedom was born Rhode Island was the first colony to defy British rule.
Delaware was founded by Peter Stuyvesant in 1655, as the Dutch defeated the Swedish settlers and gained control of the colony. The English won Delaware from the Dutch nine years later. It was awarded to William Penn, but Delaware became independent in 1701, and elected its own assembly in 1704. Delaware was founded as a proprietary colony.
North Carolina and South Carolina
In 1653, King Charles II issued a royal charter to eight Virginian colonists to settle the North Carolina region to provide a buffer for the southern frontier. All previously settled Southern Colonies were included in North Carolina. However, there were many internal problems, as North Carolina was a proprietary colony.
To solve those problems, in 1712, the colony was split in two — North and South Carolina . They became royal colonies under the charter issued by King George II in 1720, although it took Britain nine more years to buy out seven out of eight Lords Proprietors, the proprietors of South Carolina, and bring it under direct rule of the crown.
New Jersey was originally known as New Netherlands. Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret received a proprietary grant of the land between the Hudson and the Delaware River from the Duke of York in 1664. The colony was named New Jersey to honor Sir George Carteret, governor of the Isle of Jersey. They made an enormous profit from the sale of land to settlers, as they promised them representation in government and freedom of religion.
The Society of Friends, Quakers bought grants for both East and West Jersey. However, the purchase was liquidated when New Jersey was made a royal colony in 1702.
The Dutch West India Company had settled New York area as early as 1614. A Walloon explorer known as Peter Minuit had bought the island of Manhattan from local tribes. It was known as New Amsterdam and was a self governing state, until it was lost to King Charles II. It was given to his brother, the Duke of York and renamed New York in his honor. New York was converted into a proprietary colony, until in 1685, when it became a royal colony. It was in this colony that the Albany Congress was formed, to help unite the colonies against the British rule.
Pennsylvania was already settled by Swedish, Dutch and English settlers in the Delaware River region. William Penn, a member of the Quakers was granted the land of Pennsylvania by King Charles II, as compensation owed to Penn’s late father. Penn saw this as an opportunity to create a colony that allowed for freedom of religion for his fellow Quakers.
In 1682, the ‘Frame of Government’ for Pennsylvania was enacted, which gave representation in the assembly and freedom of worship and religion to all citizens. This helped Pennsylvania to become the richest colony in the New World. In 1723, two young British astronomers Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, established the Mason-Dixon Line, settling an old boundary dispute between Maryland and Pennsylvania.
King George wanted to create a new colony between South Carolina and Florida, to stall the Spanish and French expansion. In 1732, he granted Georgia’s proprietorship to an English General James Edward Oglethorpe, to establish a new colony. Oglethorpe led his first group of settlers to Savannah, Georgia. Originally, Oglethorpe had established Georgia as a no-slavery colony, but in 1752, after it became a royal colony, it was known to have most number of slaves working in the plantations.
The economic diversity of the 13 colonies generated a large income for British Empire’s coffers. It also gave the colonies, wealth and political motivation to start the American War of Independence. Finally, the colonies came together to rebelliously form the United States of America.
Let’s begin with a list of the 13 Colonies in the order they were established. Each link will send you to a short history further down the page.
Brief History of the 13 Colonies
Although the British controlled the 13 colonies on the east coast, the French took control of Canada, which is why it is not part of America today. The British tried to fight for that land, but were defeated and the French held control.
The Spanish claimed Mexico and some of the western parts of North America including Southern California and part of the Caribbean, but the British were the chief rulers of the continent.
Jamestown was the first of the 13 colonies after the failure to establish a colony on Roanoke Island. It was founded by The London Company in 1607. Jamestown was mainly founded for the purpose of making money. It was a port and trading center. Jamestown was a place for people to come and make their fortune. Another reason, much less pressing than the financial aspect, was to minister to and convert the natives to Christianity.
In 1624, a larger area was named Virginia. This area encompassed Jamestown. By this time, other colonies had already been named and established.
Massachusetts was the second of the 13 colonies, it was formed in 1620.
This was the colony first formed by the pilgrims. This group was also know as the Separatists or Puritans. They came over to escape British rule. This group decided that everything should be decided by the people. They wanted their government to be a democracy. They believed the people had the right to say what happened to them and who ruled over them.
New Hampshire was the third of the 13 colonies, founded in 1623. From the beginning, New Hampshire was planned to be a colony.
The land was given to John Mason, and he decided to make a colony with it. He live in Hampshire county in England, which is why the colony was named New Hampshire. He invested a lot of money in this land, making cities and towns. Sadly he never saw it, due to his death in 1635.
Maryland was the fourth of the 13 colonies. It was founded in 1632-1634.
Maryland was founded to create a place for Roman Catholics who were still struggling against religious tyranny in England. It was founded because Lord Baltimore saw an opportunity for profit.
Connecticut was the fifth of the 13 colonies. It was not actually considered a colony until 1636, but colonists began forming towns and cities in 1635.
Connecticut was mostly made up of people looking for freedom from government, people looking to earn their fortune, and people just coming to the “New World.” There were also a lot of religious people, as there were in all the colonies at that time. This was another place where people were looking to start over.
Rhode Island was the sixth of the 13 colonies. It formed in 1636.
When Roger Williams wanted to make changes in religion in Massachusetts, the government did not take it very well. They banished him to England, but instead he went to live with the Native Americans. They formed a group and called it Providence.
Later, three other people were banished due to religious reasons, these three also left and formed small groups. These four groups requested British permission to become a colony. The king consented, thus creating Rhode Island.
Delaware was seventh of the 13 colonies. It was founded in 1638.
Delaware was originally a part of New Sweden, which also included Philadelphia and other parts of Pennsylvania. Later the king of England gained control over the portion east of the Delaware river and named it Delaware.
North Carolina was the eighth of the 13 colonies, sharing that place with South Carolina. It was founded in 1653.
In 1653 some Virginians grew tired of religious laws, and moved just south of the border to start their own group. Soon after, the king granted the land as a gift to some noblemen. They sent people over to colonize the area and some of them joined with the group that was already there. This was then called Carolina. Later, in 1663, because of strife within the colony, the noblmen sold the land back to the corwn. It eventually separated into two separate colonies and became called North and South Carolina.
South Carolina was formed at the same time as North Carolina. See description above.
New York was the tenth of the 13 colonies. It was founded in 1664.
When the Duke of York recieved New Netherland as a gift, it was renamed New York in his honor. He broke off two pieces of the land allotted to him and gave them to two of his friends. These were the foundation for New Jersey.
New Jersey was the eleventh of the 13 colonies. It was founded in 1664.
When two friends of the Duke of York received land from him, they decided to colonize it. They wanted as many people to come and live there as possible, so they began to make promises about all the different things you could gain from the New World, such as fortune and freedom.
Soon, there were many people living there. Not long after, Jersey was sold, in two parts, to Quakers. They were called East and West Jersey. In 1704, with the king’s blessing, they reunited and were called New Jersey.
Pennsylvania was the the twelfth of the 13 colonies. It was founded in 1682.
In 1682, William Penn, recieved land from his grandfather, who had recently passed away. Penn, a Quaker, wanted freedom of religion and protection from persecution for himself and others who might want the same thing. He had not been able to find this, so he started his own colony. He called it Pennsylvania.
Georgia was the last of the 13 colonies. It was founded in 1732, long after the others.
James Oglethorpe asked the king for a land charter and was granted an unpopulated portion of land from the Carolina charter called Georgia after King George. Oglethorpe had two motives for making this colony. One was for people to start anew after serving time in jail, the other, to serve as a military base to defend against the Spanish.
WHO WERE THE 13 COLONIES?
We will prove that we are undoubtedly that the original settlers in America were
descendants of the Israelites. We will show that God
had a design in place for the nation of America. We
will trace the immigrant of the Israelites from Europe
to America and we will prove that the Israelites
moved into America by tribes. And that God
settled in the thirteen colonies in the SAME
ALIGNMENT AND PRIOXITY AS THEY WERE IN
THE LAND OF ISRAEL.
We need to stress that the information we are
proving applies to the ORIGINAL AMERICAN
SETTLEMENTS OF IMMIGRANTS ONLY. However it is important to
recognize that all the tribes would move and mix and become a melting pot.
American is a melting pot today but that was not their origin. It is also important
to remember that the maps of the 13 colonies look nothing like the original
colonies during the settling of America.
After the fall of Israel in 721 BC, the Israelites moved from the land of Israel to
the land of Scythia in the present day Ukraine during 600 BC. Around the third
century AD, they would migrate to Western Europe as the Germanic tribes. For
proof that the Israelites moved from the land of Israel to Scythia, please
read ATTACHMENT ONE AT THE END OF THIS DOCUMENT. Also the
twelve tribes moved from Scythia into Western Europe in the 3rd century
BC. FOR PROOF SEE ATTACHMENT TWO AT THE END OF THIS
Everything is by design. God had a plan in place for his people Israel. They
would move to the places he chose. And this design proves that the original
descendants of America were the Israelites. Eventually the Germanic Tribes
would migrate to America as the original settlers.
The 12 tribes became the following nationalities today (for proof see
attachment two at the end of the Document). The information in this
writing is based on the 12 twelve being the present tribes listed below:
Tribe Nationality Homeland
Reuben French Huguenots France
Issachar Finns,Swiss Finland,
Zebulon Dutch Netherlands
Simeon Lombards Sparans Scattered
Levi Quakers Scattered
Ephraim Angles – British Britain
Manessah Saxons- British Britain
Dan Irish Catholic Ireland Denmark
Asher Norwegians Norway
Naphtali Swedes Sweden, Northern
Gad Germans Germany
The Israelites move to America
Massachusetts and Maine Represented Manasseh
The colony of Maine and Massachusetts were English colonies. Massachusetts
Bay Colony was one of the original English settlements in present-day
Massachusetts. It was settled in 1630 by a group of about 1,000 Puritan
refugees from England under Governor John Winthrop. In 1629 the
Massachusetts Bay Company had obtained from King Charles I a charter
empowering the company to trade and colonize in New England between the
Charles and Merrimack rivers. The area between the Piscataqua and the
Merrimack was named New Hampshire. The charter of 1691 merged the
Plymouth colony and Maine into the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The
colony of Maine was settled by the English. It was part of the Massachusetts
Ephraim and Manessah were the English people who originally settled Britain as
the Anglo Saxon people. . Notice below how the two colonies align with the
original Israelites tribes in the land of Israel.
Norwegians- Upper New York
In 1664 60 Norwegians had settled in the Manhattan and soon moved to the area
up the Hudson River to Fort Oranje—now Albany. The second group of
Norwegian Immigrants to America departed Stavanger, Norway, July 4, 1825, on
the Sloop “Restauration”. These 52 persons entered New York Harbor on
October 9th, 98 days later Cleng Peerson led this group first to upstate New
Notice the map below. Upper New York lines up with the tribe of Asher/Naphtali
in the land of Israel. The tribe of Asher and Naphtali was located in the upper
part of the twelve tribes of Israel assigned territories. Both tribes settled in upper
New York. It was one of the upper colonies. We conclude that the tribe of Asher
and Naphtali were the Norwegians.
Remember all tribes would eventually move. According to the U.S. census of
2000 and the Canadian census of 2001, 4,477,725 Americans and 363,760
Canadians Norwegians. The greatest concentrations are still in and around the
early agricultural settlements of the upper Midwest, with the greatest urban
concentrations located in New York City Chicago, Illinois and Minneapolis,
Minnesota. Almost one-third of Canadian Norwegians live in British Columbia.
The Irish were the tribe of Dan
Maryland was settled in 1633 by Leonard Calvert, Cecil Calvert’s younger
brother. He is better known as Lord Baltimore. It was the first Catholic colony.
They had 140 settlers -Seventeen colonists were Roman Catholic gentleman the
rest were Protestant indentured servants.
The Irish settled Maryland and the Eastern New England especially in
Massachusetts. Massachusetts was an English colony but many Irish people
would eventually settle there. In the beginning many Irish came to Maryland
because of their religious freedom and because it was a Catholic Colony.
Notice below how the map corresponds with the map of the original twelve tribes.
The colony of Massachusetts and New York would host many Irish settlers. It is
located in the upper part of the 13 colonies just like the tribe of Dan. Also In the
early seventeenth century, Danish immigrants became established in North
America. In the 1640s, 50 percent of the 1,000 people living in New
Netherlands, now New York, were Danes.
Also Dan had a second territory in the land of Israel it corresponds to Maryland.
Irish would move into Maryland because it was a Catholic colony. Notice the
location of the tribe of Dan with the blue arrow. It is a middle colony in the land
The Irish would eventually concentration on the Eastern seaboard in New
England, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York. All the tribes would move
and mix together and become a melting pot.
It is important to remember that the maps of the 13 colonies look nothing like the
original colonies during the settling of America. See below this is what the
original land grants looked like.
The Dutch was the tribe of Zebulon
Dutch settled in New York and Manhattan. The colony was called New
Netherlands or New Amsterdam and it would later became New York City. In
1624 the settlement of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island was part of the
Dutch Republic. They controlled the lower part of New York state and
Manhattan. .The lower part of New York state and Manhattan was originally
settled by the Dutch. The Dutch was the tribe of Zebulon. The Dutch always
lived by the sea. Manhattan under Dutch control is a repeat of Dutch history.
Notice the positions on the maps. Zebulon is located below Asher, Naphtali, Dan
and Manessah on the map of Canaan. Zebulon was New York. It was located
below Maine, Massachusetts and upper New York. The tribes of Naphtali, Asher
((Norwegians) settled upper New York, the tribe of Manassah settled in Maine
and Massachusetts, the tribe of Dan settled New York.
New Sweden was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of Delaware River
in North America from 1638 to 1655 in Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.
Fort Christina ( Wilmington, Delaware), was the first settlement. The Swedes
claimed the land on the west side of the South River that was Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania, southeastern Pennsylvania, Delaware, and coastal Maryland. The
colonists came from all over the Swedish realm. At that time in history the
Swedish Empire included Sweden, Finland, parts of Russia, Estonia, and
Germany. It was not the small country we see today.
The Swedish settlement was incorporated into Dutch New Netherland on
September 15, 1655. The percentage of the Finns in New Sweden rose to about
50% when the colony came under Dutch rule. The year 1664 saw the arrival of a
contingent of 140 Finns. In 1655, when the ship Mercurius sailed to the colony 92
of the 106 passengers were listed as Finns.
Swedish Empire New Sweden
Belgium and Switzerland was also a tribe of Issachar but the Finns were also
from the tribe of Issachar. More than half of New Sweden was from Finland.
This was the tribe of Issachar. Notice on the map how the tribe of Issachar was
located below Zebulon. Zebulon were the Dutch and lived in New Netherlands
which included lower New York State. Issachar would move under Zebulon and
create New Sweden in the area of New Jersey and Delaware.
Pennsylvania were settled by the Quakers
Pennsylvania was originally colonized by Dutch and Swedish settlers and the
former especially brought slaves into the colony. In 1677 a group of prominent
Quakers that included Penn purchased the colonial province of West Jersey.
This is half of the state of New Jersey. In 1681 Pennsylvania was founded by
William Penn. Penn was issued a land grant by King Charles II largely because
of a significant debt owed to his father, Admiral Penn. This land included
Pennsylvania and Delaware. In 1682, East Jersey was also purchased by
Quakers. Philadelphia were settled by many Quakers.
Penn first called the area “New Wales”. Pennslvania became a Welsh
settlement. In the book, “Welsh Settlers Of Pennsylvania”, are found
genealogical notes and lineage charts relating to nearly 300 families, in addition
to many unmarried persons, who removed from Wales to Pennsylvania,
principally between 1682-1700. William Penn succeeded in interesting many of
these Welsh Friends, in the New Land in Pennsylvania.
Dr. Thomas Wynn Caorwys, Flintshire, Wales
Dr. Griffeth Owen, of Dolserre Merionethshire
Richard ap Thomas, of Whitford Carne, Flintshire
Dr. Edward Jones, of Bala, Merionethshire
John ap Thomas, of Llaithgwyn, Merionethshire
Hugh Roberto, of Llandvwar, Merionethshire
Thomas Ellis, of Dolscere, Merionethshire
Charles Lloyd, of Dolabran, Merionethshire
Richard Davis, of Welsh Pool, Merionethshire
John ap Evan (Bevan) of Treverigg, Merionethshire
Lewis ap David, (Lewis David) of Landewy, Valfrg, Pembrokeshire..
Penn drafted a charter of liberties for the settlement creating a political utopia
guaranteeing free and fair trial by jury, freedom of religion, freedom from unjust
imprisonment and free elections.
In the land of Israel the tribes of Levi and Simeon were brothers and always
stayed together. We know Simeon went into Wales. So it stands to reason the
Levi would also be in Wales. The tribes of Levi and Simeon were to be scattered
through the other tribes. The tribe of Levi was to be the priest family in the land
of Israel. They were the religious leaders. This was one of the reasons why the
tribe of Levi would not be given a land inheritance. The tribe of Levi would not
possess any colony in the New World because they were to be scattered.
Gen 49:7 Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce and their wrath, for it
was cruel: I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.
Like the Levites, the Quakers were a very religious people. It is important to note
all indentured servants came to Pennsylvania and the Quakers help them settle
in the new world. That is how Philadelphia got its name – the city of “Brotherly
Love”. The tribe of Levi were the Quakers in Philadelphia.
Germans were the tribe of Gad
The tribe of Levi would not be the only tribe that would settle in Pennsylvania.
The German would settled there also. The first major emigration of Germans to
America resulted in the founding of the Germantown in northwest Philadelphia
On October 6, 1683 there was a migration of Germans from the Rhineland.
(Germany). In the spring of 1709, Queen Anne granted refuge to about 7,000
Palatines who had sailed the Rhine (Germany) to Rotterdam. From there, about
3,000 were sent to America bound for William Penn’s colony. By 1710 there
were 3,200 Palatines on 12 ships that sailed for New York. Many of these
families would move to Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Dutch live primarily in
Southeastern and South Central Pennsylvania in the area. The Pennsylvania
Dutch are of German descent — not Dutch. By the time of the American
Revolution, the Pennsylvania Dutch made up nearly half the population of
Pennsylvania. In 1700’s they represented 9% of the population in America.
Today they represented more than one fourth of the total population of the U.S.
God promised they would multiply rapidly.
Deu 33:20 And of Gad he said, Blessed be he that enlargeth Gad: he
dwelleth as a lion, and teareth the arm with the crown of the head.
Notice the chart. See the location of the tribe of Gad in the land of Israel. Notice
it has the same alignment as the state of Pennsylvania in the 13 colonies. That
is where the Germans would settle. The tribe of Gad is the modern day
Germans. Eventually the Germans would spread into Maryland and North and
Carolina. They would be side by side of Ephraim in Virginia.
Maryland was an English colony
Maryland was established as a English colony. Charles I granted a royal charter
for Maryland to Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore, in 1632. Many of these settlers
were Roman Catholic. They landed on St. Clement’s (now Blakistone) Island in
1634. Religious freedom was granted all Christians in the Toleration Act passed
by the Maryland assembly in 1649.
Maryland would be an English colony. That would be the tribe of Manessah.
The tribe of Manessah would be above the tribe of Ephraim. Maryland sits above
the state of Virginia. Virginia would be Ephraim. Ephraim were the British AngloSaxon people.
Virginia was an English Settlement. Permanent English settlement began in
Virginia with Jamestown in 1607 by Capt. John Smith.
In 1606, a group of wealthy London businessmen petitioned King James I for a
charter to establish a colony in the New World. They formed the Virginia
Company and established a permanent English settlement in the Americas.
They had an Anglican Religion.
The tribe of Ephraim was located below Manasseh and next to Gad. The colony
of Virginia was below Manessah and near Gad that was Pennsylvania. Now the
Germans would work there way into Virginia and North Carolina putting Ephraim
side by side with Gad. Ephraim is in the Middle of the 13 colonies and Virginia in
the middle of the 13 colonies.
North Carolina were settled by the Scottish Irish
Sir Walter Raleigh tried to establish an English colony in North Carolina but it
died out. In 1665, Sir John Yeamans established a second permanent colony in
North Carolina on the Cape Fear River near present-day Wilmington. Hawk, a
North Carolina historian, says the settlers of North Carolina were from Scotland,
Ireland and the West Indies.
Approximately 1.5 million Scots have immigrated to America. Today, the state of
North Carolina has more citizens of Scottish ancestry than any other state or
country, including Scotland.
Eastern North Carolina was settled chiefly by immigrants from rural England and
the Scottish Highlands. The upcountry of western North Carolina was settled
chiefly by Scots-Irish, English and Germans. The most predominate tribe were
the Scottish Irish. The Scottish Irish was a mixture of both the tribe of
Judah and the tribe of Benjanin. Remember Benjamin always stayed with
the tribe of Judah throughout their history.
How do we know that the Scottish Irish people were a branch of the tribe of
Judah? The history of Ireland was written by Geoffrey Keating. He told
the account of how the Milesians came to settle in Ireland. The Milesians
originally came from Egypt around 1400 BC and settled in Spain, they
eventually came to Ireland. These people were from the tribe of Zarah that
was a tribe of Judah. (see attachment three). The Irish King Fergus
moved his throne to Scotland in the 5th Century.
Notice how Benjamin is located below Ephraim in the land of Canaan.
Benjamin represents North Carolina that was located below Virginia,
the tribe of Ephraim.
Reuben – Huguenots
In 1562 Capt. Jean Ribault led 150 Huguenots seeking to practice their faith
and landed near modern day Jacksonville. They moved North and settled on
Parris Island and built fort South Carolina. The Spanish King sent Menéndez to
wipe out the colony. He executed Ribault and his Huguenots as heretics at
Matanzas Inlet, near St. Augustine.
In 1679, King Charles II sent two shiploads of French Huguenots to South
Carolina. Hewitt, in his History of South Carolina, says, “In 1690, King William
sent a large body of Huguenots to Virginia. Lands were allotted them on the
James River. Others purchased land from the Proprietors of Carolina,
transported themselves and families to that quarter, and settled a colony on the
Santee River [ South Carolina]”.
Reuben was located in the south part of the land of Israel. The state of South
Carolina is the next to last state of the 13 colonies. It was in the southern
colonies – it was the second from the last colony. The state of South Carolina
was settled by the French Huguenots, the tribe of Reuben.
Georgia – Scottish Highlanders
Oglethorpe was chosen governor of Georgia. He traveled to America with thirtyfive families, arriving in the spring of 1733.
Wikipedia states “The colonists included many Scots whose pioneering skills
greatly assisted the colony, and many of Georgia’s new settlers consisted of poor
English tradesmen and artisans and religious refugees from Switzerland, France
and Germany, as well as a number of Jewish refugees”.In 1734 the first religious
immigrants arrived in Savannah. The Salzburgers were led by Oglethorpe up the
mouth of the Savannah, where they founded the town of Ebenezer.
On October 18, 1735 John Wesley, the founder came as a missionary, and
brought a large group of Scottish highlanders. The Scots were among the finest
soldiers in the world and had been recruited by General James Oglethorpe to
provide a buffer between the English Colony and the Spanish in Florida.
The state of Georgia were originally settled by the Highlanders of Scotland. The
Highlanders were the descendants of the Milesians or the Gaels. The Milesians
originally came from Egypt around 1400 BC and settled for sometime in Spain,
they eventually came to Ireland. These people were from the tribe of Zarah that
was a branch of the tribe of Judah. (See Attachment three). Geoffrey Keating
wrote the entire history of Ireland. This account is recorded in his writings. The
Irish King Fergus moved his throne from the hill of Tara in Ireland to Scotland in
the 5th Century.
Notice on the map that the tribe of Judah is the last tribe in the southern part of
the land of Israel. It matches up with the colony of Georgia who was originally
settled by the Scottish Highlanders. The Scottish Highlanders were also a branch
of the tribe of Judah. Also it is important to note that many Jewish people settle
in South Florida later in history. Many would be the tribe of Judah.
Where did the immigrants move after they left the 13 colonies?
The original colonies would not stay in their colonies. They were prophesied to
move and become a melting pot. However, each tribe would become
concentrated in certain georgraphical areas.
Germans — The Germans were in Maryland, North and South Carolina and
New York, but these numbers were small compared
to the population in Pennsylvania.
Dans – Danish activity in America before the nineteenth-century traveled to
Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Lake Michigan.
Swedes -The Swedish initial wave of immigration in the 1840s and 1850s was
directed toward rural areas of Illinois and Iowa,
especially the Mississippi River valley and Chicago.
In the 1860s and 1870s immigration shifted toward
Minnesota and the upper Midwest, and the
Swedish population of Minneapolis grew
substantially. In the 1880s rural migration spread to
Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas.
Norwegians -There are more than 4.5 million Norwegian according to the most
recent U.S. census, and most live in the Upper
Midwest. The Norwegians settled upper Midwest —
French — French immigrated to Louisiana was restricted to Roman Catholics.
Many came from Nova Scotia and were called the Acadians or the
The Irish concentration on the Eastern seaboard in New England, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, and New York.
Huguenots -The Huguenots settled along almost the entire eastern coast of
North America, they showed a preference for what are now the
states of Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia,
and South Carolina.
Scottish Irish — Scot Irish went south into Virginia, the Carolinas and across
the South, with a large concentration in the
Appalachian region others headed west to western
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and the Midwest .
Highlanders – They would settle in Georgia.
Dutch -They mainly settled down in the Midwest, especially Michigan, Illinois
and Iowa. In the 1840s, Calvinist immigrants desiring
more religious freedom immigrated. West Michigan in
particular has become associated with Dutch
American culture, and the highly conservative
influence Dutch Reformed Church, centering on the
cities of Holland and Grand Rapids.
HIGHEST CONCENTRATIONS OF IMMIGRANTS BY NATIONALITY
Notice again the similarities to the land of Israel.
Norwegians -AsherDanes – Dan
Irish – Dan NJ,
GA and Jews
in S. Florida
SAME ALIGNMENT IN EUROPE
When the 12 tribes orginally moved into Europe, they also lined up exactly
like they did in the land of Israel.. Notice the maps below. The tribes in
Europe are lined up exactly in the same place as they were in the
Land of Israel. Asher, Naphtali and Dan settled in the Scandinavian
Countries. Ephraim, Manessah moved into Britain. Benjamin settled
Normandy, Dan also settled in Ireland. Zebulon went to the Netherlands as
the Dutch and Issachar were the Swiss. The Serphardic Jews would settle
in Spain. Reuben would settle in France. And the tribe of Gad would
eventually wine up in Germany. The Serphardic Jews we know moved into
Spain. The Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 by Queen Isabella and
King Ferdinand. Eventually during the 7th century the Muslims would settle
in Spain as the Moabites, Amnonites and Canaanites. The Moabites (Lot’s
children) lived to the south of the land of Israel just like they moved into
Spain! God planned and still controls today the destiny of these
ATTACHMENT ONE – PROVE THAT THE ISRAELITES MOVE
According to the Bible, Abraham beget Issac, Issac beget Jacob and Jacob had
twelve sons which became the twelve tribes of Israel. These were: Reuben,
Shimon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Joseph, and
Benjamin. The Bible teaches that after the death of Solomon, the twelve tribes of
Israel were split into two groups of people. Rehoboam was the King over the
tribe of Judah and Benjamin and King Jeroboam ruled the other ten tribes. We
are told by the Bible that Moses and Joshua lead the twelve tribes of Israel into
the land of Canaan.
But is there any historian proof that his occurred? In our modern age, it is chic
to believe that the Bible is a book of fables and allegories. But the fact is that
many of the stories of the Bible are recorded in history. This chapter will prove
that the Israelites of the Bible did exist and the Bible accounts about them are
written in history.
ISRAELITES MOVE INTO SCYTHIA
First, we must prove that the Israelites move into the land of Scythia. We
know the story of the Israelites.
Israelites Moved Around The Black Sea
In 679 BC the Israelites or the Gemira as they were called, fled to the area
around the Black Sea. The Greeks gave the same account but called them the
Cimmerians. The Assyrian Empire began to weaken that gave the Israelites a
prime opportunity to flee the land of the Medes. The Israelites moved to the
area around the Caucasius Mountains. They fought the Urratu.and drove them
out and settled the area of Phrygia and Uratu. That is modern day Armenia.
Strabo, the Greek geographer wrote:
“Those Cimmerians . . . often overran the countries on the right of the Pontu
(area south of the Black Sea) and those adjacent to them, at one time have
invaded Paphlagnia, and at another time.” (Strabo 1,111,21)
PROOF THAT ISRAELITES SETTLED ABOVE THE BLACK SEA
Proof 1 – Behistun Inscription
During the reign of Darius the Great a famous
inscription was created called the Behistan Stone.
It was built off an ancient road connecting the
capitals of Babylonia and Media in western Iran. In
1847 Henry Rawlinson scaled the limestone cliff
and copied the inscription off the Behistun Stone. The inscription is
approximately 15 meters high by 25 meters wide and 100 meters high up the
cliff face. It was significant because it contains the SAME INSCRIPTION
written in three languages – Persian, Elam and Babylonian. On the inscription
Darius mentions the empires he conquered. The Israelites are mentioned
among the captured nations. The Persian word for Israelites was “Saka” but
in the Babylonian language they are called “Gimiri”. As a result of the stone
we now know that the people we called Gimiri were the same people as the
Saka. The Saka in history were the people from Scythia! The inscription
connects the people known in Old Persian as Saka, Sacae or Scythian with
the people known in Babylonian as Gimirri or Cimmerian.
Saka = Gimirri were the same people.
George Rawlinson, Sir Henry Rawlinson’s younger brother, connected the
Saka/Gimiri of the Behistun Inscription with deported Israelites:
“We have reasonable grounds for regarding the Gimirri, or Cimmerians, who
first appeared on the confines of Assyria and Media in the seventh century BC,
and the Sacae of the Behistun Rock, nearly two centuries later, as identical with
the Beth-Khumree of Samaria, or the Ten Tribes of the House of Israel.” i
The Behistan Stone proves that the Israelites were called “Gimiri” by the
Babylonians and “Saka” by the Persians. We know that the Saka was the
name for the Scythians who lived above the Black Sea.
Proof 2 A Medieval Jewish historian named Eldad wrote about the ten
tribes at the fall of Samaria. He cited the following:
“The first immigration of [Israelites] into the Trans-Caucasus (supposed to have
taken place in the 7th century, B.C, during the reign of the Assyrian kings) is
recounted in ancient Armenian and Georgian chronicles. According to these
chronicles, [Israel] arrived in these regions as early as the beginning of the 6th
century, BCE. The first arrivals were probably free merchants, while the later
partly came as captives.” (VIII:26)ii “evaded the calamity, going off with their
flocks, and turning nomads, and that the chief…whom they appointed could
muster 120,000 horse and 100,000 foot.”
Elldad said that the Israelites left the land of Israel and were accompanied by
an army of 220,000 soldiers. To be escorted by 220,000 soldiers, the escaping
Israelites must have numbered well over a million people. The Black Sea
region to which they are reputed to have escaped is almost straight north of
the old kingdom of Israel.
Proof 3 The ancient Greek historian, Herodotus (Bk 4), tells us that the
Scythians traveled with their families through the Caucasus Mountains
using covered wagons. Note the similarity to the early American pioneers in
their covered wagons on the Western frontier. These mountains soared
thousands of feet causing some historians to believe that they were
impassable. But there was a path through this mountain range called ‘Daryal
Pass’ sometimes called “the Pass of Israel”. Many Europeans throughout
history used this mountain passage.iii
Proof 4 The book of Esdras describes the journey of the Israelites out of
Palestine above the Black Sea. The book of Esdras was one of the original
20 books of the Apocrypha compiled in the Septuagint, the Greek Old
Testament, in 250 BC.
“Those are the tribes which were carried away captives out of their own land in
the time of Oseas (Hosea) the king, whom Shalmanezer, the king of the
Assyrians, took captive, and crossed them beyond the river so were they
brought into another land. But they took counsel to themselves, that they
would leave the multitude of the heathen, and go forth into a further
country where never man dwelt, that they there might keep their statutes,
which they never kept in their own land. And they entered in at the narrow
passage of the river Euphrates. For the Most High then showed them
signs, and stayed the springs of the flood till they were passed over. For
through the country there was a great journey, even of a year and a half,
and the same region is called Arsareth (or Ararah). Then dwelt they there
until the latter time, and when they come forth again, the Most High shall
hold still the springs of the river again, that they may go through.iv (2
Also in the Fourth Book of Ezra (xiii. 39-45) it is declared that the Ten Tribes
were carried by Hosea, king in the time of Shalmaneser, to the Euphrates, at
the narrow passages of the river, whence they went on for a journey of a year
and a half to a place called Arzareth. “Arzareth” is merely a contraction of
“ere aeret,” the “other land” into which the Lord says he “will cast them”. v
Proof 5 Josephus, a historian who lived during the first century,
recorded that the ten tribes of Israelites lived across the border of the
Euphrates River. He clearly identifies Parthia as the location for the lost ten
tribes of Israel. At that time the Euphrates was the border between Parthian
and the Roman Empire. In 46 BC the Parthian Empire extended into the land
of Israel. But the famous Mark Anthony was responsible for pushing the
Parthians out of Palestine and establishing the Euphrates as the border
between the Roman Empire and Parthia. It was the peoples of Parthia that
lived beyond the Euphrates. For many centuries they controlled that area of
Asia Minor. This is the quote from Jospehus:
”The ten tribes are beyond the Euphrates till now, and are on immense
multitude and not to be estimated by numbers.”vi
Proof 6 The Messiah sent the disciples to the Lost House of Israel. That
proves that the Messiah and the Disciples knew exactly where the twelve
tribes of Israel were located. They were not in Judea. For the most part, Judea
was composed of the tribe of Judah and Benjamin as well as the Edomites.
Mat 10:5 These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not
into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not:
Mat 10:6 But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
Proof 7 There were many tombstones identifying the Israelites in Scythia. The
Universal Jewish Encyclopedia continues,
“tombstones were discovered, dating from the 4th to 5th centuries, one of them
bearing an inscription In Aramaic.” (VIII:26)
TheTransactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology in 1874 states that the
there were tombstones found in a Hebrew graveyard in the Crimea. This is
north of the Caucasus Mts. and above the Black Sea. One Tombstone reads,
“This is the tombstone of BUKI, the son of Isaac the priest may his rest be in
Eden, at the time of the salvation of Israel. In the year 702 of the years of our
“In Traces of Dispersion”, by Terry M. Blodgett, Ensign, February 1994 he
“Chwolson and others of the Russian Archaeological Society found more
than seven hundred Hebraic inscriptions in the area north of the Black
Sea. At the turn of the century, Russian archaeologist Daniel Chwolson noted
that a stone mountain ridge running alongside this narrow passage bears the
inscription Wrate Israila, which he interpreted to mean ‘the gates of Israel.
These narrow passages lead through a region called Ararat in Hebrew, and
Urartu in Assyrian. Chwolson writes that Arsareth, mentioned in 4 Ezra, was
another name for Ararat, a region extending to the northern shores of the Black
Sea. A river at the northwest corner of the Black Sea was anciently named
Sereth (now Siret), possibly preserving part of the name Arsareth. Since ‘ar in
Hebrew meant ‘city,’ it is probable that Arsareth was a city—the city of Sareth—
located near the Sereth River northwest of the Black Sea.”
Proof 8 The Declaration of Arbroath 1320
For many centuries the European people knew their connection to the land of
Israel. The Scottish people received their independence from Britain in 1320 AD.
At that time they wrote their own declaration of Independence that is much like
our Declaration of Independence. Notice what they wrote:
“Most Holy Father and Lord, we know and from the chronicles and books of the
ancients we find that among other famous nations our own, the Scots, has been
graced with widespread renown. They journeyed from Greater Scythia by
way of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Pillars of Hercules, and dwelt for a long
course of time in Spain among the most savage tribes, but nowhere could
they be subdued by any race, however barbarous. Thence they came,
twelve hundred years after the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea, to their
home in the west where they still live today. . . .”.
Also the Spartans wrote a letter that was recorded in the book of Maccabees
stating that they kinsmen of the Jews. The book of I Maccabees14:16-23
records this statement:
“The Chief magistrates and the city of the Spartans send greeting to Simon, the chief
priest, and to the elders and the priests and the rest of the Jewish people, our
The Book, “Sparta”, by A.H.M. Jones, a Professor of Ancient History at
Cambridge University, noted several things about Sparta. He states the Spartans
worshipped a “great law-giver” who had given them their laws in the “dim past”.
This law-giver may have been Moses. Professor Jones also noted the Spartans
celebrated “the new moons” and the “seventh day” (page 13). Observing new
moons was an Israelite calendar custom, and their observance of “a seventh
day” could originate with the Sabbath celebration.
PROOF THAT ISRAELITES WERE TAKEN INTO CAPTIVITY BY THE
According to the Bible, the Israelites were taken into Captivity in 721 BC by
the Assyrians. Can this be proven using history? If so where did they go?
Proof 1 The Assyria historical records show that Assyria took the towns
in Gilead and the city of Abelbeth Maacahon. .
In 721 BC the ten northern tribes of Israel fell to the Assyrians. The Assyrians
recorded that event in their historical accounts. Notice the quote from the
Annals of Assyria, King Tiglath-pileser III, King of Assyria states:
“The cities of Gilead and Abel-beth-maacahon the borders of the land of
Khumri, and the widespread land of Hazael to its whole extent, I brought within
the territory of Assyria.”
This is exactly the SAME TOWNS THE BIBLE MENTIONED. That is exactly
what the Bible says happened.
The Bible tells us the Northern Tribes were captived by the Assyrians
and brought to Habor on the Gozan River in the land of the Medes.
2Ki_17:6 In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and
carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the
river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.
The Bible tells us the Assyrians captured the towns of Gilead,
Ablebethmaachah, Janoah, Kadesh and Habor.
2Ki_15:29 In the days of Pekah king of Israel came Tiglathpileser king of
Assyria, and took Ijon, and Abelbethmaachah, and Janoah, and Kedesh,
and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried
them captive to Assyria.
Proof 2 Sargon II (722-705 BC) also makes mention of the “Khumri” in
his record of the capture of Samaria. He refers to himself as the conqueror
of “Bit-Khumri.” meaning “house of Khumri”.
The Israelites lived the area called Gamir in Assyria according to Van, A.H.
Sayce. He also interpreted the cuniforms in
1882. The people of Urartu attacked the land of
Gamir. In around 707 B.C, a people known as
“Gimira” lived among the Mannai. Their territory
was only a few miles from the Medes, in the very areas where the Scriptures
state the northern ten-tribes Kingdom of Israel had been placed.
The obvious observation is that the Israelites living in the land of Assyria were
used as a buffer region for Assyria. The nations would have to come through
the land of Gamir to reach the rest of the inhabitants of Assyria. These
Israelites fought for the King of Assyria. Sennacharib to King Sargon:
‘When he (King of Urartu) went to the land of Gamir, his army (met) with a
debacle. Three of his officers, together with their troops, were slain. He himself
escaped (and) entered his own land. His camp has not yet been attacked.”
To summarize, after the reign of Sargon II (721-705 BC) that name Khumbi is
never mentioned again. It is further noted that the Assyrian name “Gamira” is
translated into “Cimmerian.” ( Prof. Leroy Waterman – Royal Correspondence
of the Assyrian Empire – published by University of Michigan, 1930) The two
words are pronounced the same!!
Wikipedia states, “Cimmerians”
“The first historical record of the Cimmerians appears in Assyrian annals in the
year 714 BC. These describe how a people termed the Gimirri helped the
forces of Sargon II to defeat the kingdom of Urartu. Their original homeland,
called Gamir or Uishdish, seems to have been located within the buffer state of
Mannae. The later geographer Ptolemy placed the Cimmerian city of Gomara in
this region. After their conquests of Colchis and Iberia in the First Millennium
BC, the Cimmerians also came to be known as Gimirri in Georgian..”
We know that the Europeans were Caucasian people. Webster World Dictionary
defines Caucasians as “the white race”. We get the word “Caucasian” came
from the Caucasus Mountains located in European near the Black Sea. We will
proof later that the original European tribes migrated from the Black Sea region
hence we get the name Caucasian. The people who lived in the region around
the Caucasus Mountains were white fair-complexed people. We also know that
Europeans were a Semitic people. Where do we get the word “Semitic”?
According to Wikipedia,
“The concept of “Semitic” peoples is derived from Biblical accounts of the
origins of the cultures known to the ancient Hebrews. Those closest to them in
culture and language were generally deemed to be descended from their
It comes from the peoples of Shem which are recorded in the Bible. Shem was
one of the three sons of Noah. These were the earliest descendants of the
Hebrews. Below are his descendants:
Gen 10:22 The children of Shem Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud,
and Aram .
Who were our Earliest Forefathers?
We tend to look at our history from the onset of the American Revolution but our
history began thousands of years before the founding of America. It is now time
to discuss who were our earliest forefathers. We know from earlier chapters our
American forefathers descended from the Germanic Tribes. We have
established that the Germanic Tribes came from Scythia and Parthia. But who
were the Parthians and Scythians? What is their origin?
We know all roads lead back to the Middle East and that is why it was called the
“Cradle of Civilization”. Therefore, the Europeans must have originated out of
the Mesopotamia region. This chapter will trace the original peoples from the
Middle East to their settlements in Parthia and Scythia. Much of this research on
both Scythia and Parthia can be credited to Dr. Steven Collins in from his book “
The lost ten Tribes of Israel Found”.
We know all roads lead back to the Middle East and that is why it was called the
“Cradle of Civilization”. Therefore, the Europeans must have originated out of
the Mesopotamia region. This chapter will trace the original peoples from the
Middle East to their settlements in Parthia and Scythia. Much of this research on
both Scythia and Parthia can be credited to Dr. Steven Collins in from his book “
The lost ten Tribes of Israel Found”.
Their language originated from the Palestine region. They used an Aramaic
language which originated from Syria and Palestine region where they were
“The alphabet in use in Persia at least from the time of Arsacid Dynasty
onwards are based upon Aramaic … the earliest records of Aramaic go back to
about 800 BC and were found . . In Northern Syria .. Other development of the
Aramaic are modern Hebrew.”vii
As we discussed in the previous chapters, by the third century, and endless
stream of tribes spilled out of Asia into Europe.
Ency. Britannica states,
“The main movement from Asia into Europe which went north of the
Caucasus was in early times that of the Scythians.” viii
Jordanes describes how the Goths (another name of the Scythians) settled Europe,
“The Goths . . . and some other kindred people united into one great body,
first wandered … through what is now Western Russia, till they came to the
shores of the Black Sea and the sea of Azor and then spread themselves
westward to the North bank of the Danube”. ix
THE GERMANIC TRIBES IN HISTORY
We know the the EARLIEST SETTLERS IN AMERICAN WERE FROM
WESTERN EUROPE, BRITAIN AND SCOTLAND. THOSE PEOPLE IN
HISTORY WERE CALLED THE GERMAINIC TRIBES.
Now according to historians, we know that the main migration into Western
Europe were the ScythiansEncy. Britannica states,
“The main movement from Asia into Europe which went north of the
Caucasus was in early times that of the Scythians.” x
In this chapter we intend to prove that the twelve ttribes of Israel WENT INTO
EUROPE. We also want to identify those twelve tribes in Europe. In order to
know where the tribes are today we will need to track them through history. Since
we have established that the Germanic tribes came from Scythia, the next step is
to identify their tribe. The research in this chapter is based on identifying the
characteristics of these tribes listed in the Bible and matching them with
Germanic Tribes. Lets start with Gad.
Who was Gad?
We will start with the tribe of Gad first. We are told in scripture the
Reuben, Simeon and Gad would be together on the south side of the
Camp of Israel. (Num 2:10-14). These tribes moved and received their
land inheritance in ancient Israel, Gad and Reuben was assigned to the
land on the east side of the Jordan River. (Num 32:2-5)
Num 32:2 The children of Gad and the children of Reuben came and spake
unto Moses, and to Eleazar the priest, and unto the princes of the congregation,
saying, Num 32:5 Wherefore, said they, if we have found grace in thy sight, let
this land be given unto thy servants for a possession, and bring us not over
Gad’s mother was Zilpah and was her first born son. Gad – means “A
Gen 30:10 And Zilpah Leah’s maid bare Jacob a son.
Gen 30:11 And Leah said, A troop cometh: and she called his name Gad.
Notice that God gave Leah the understanding to know her son’s destiny.
God probably revealed that to her. She foretold that Gad
would become a mighty war-like tribe. She called him
“troop”. His symbol would be a helmet or soldier on a horse.
Who was the tribe of Gad in history? The Goths
The Goths lived in the area around the Black Sea and had lived there
since their exile from the land of Israel. This was the area that the
Scythians had lived for centuries. We know that this was where the twelve
tribes of Israel originally settled after the fall of the Northern tribes of Israel
in 721 BC. Originally they were simple farmers by trade not warriors.
They had been warned by the prophet Jeremiah to repent and return back
to their heavenly Father. As a result of their continual stiff neck, destruction
came on them suddenly. The Goths were pushed out of their land by the
Hun invasion from the East. In the third century, the Goths crossed moved
under the Danube River as refugees.
They asked Roman Emperor Valens for asylum and Rome agreed in
return for their services in the Emperor’s army. The Romans selected
whom they wanted not all of the Goths were allowed to enter the Roman
territory. They were assigned to refugee or consecration camps. The
Romans treated the Goths cruelly and did not give the Goths enough food.
The Goths were literally starving to death and conditions were so bad that
they were forced to sell their children into slavery just to get food. One
historian explains how they literally sold their children for dog meat. While
they were under Roman rule, the Goths began to repent and return to God.
As a result of their repentance God would use them mightily!
Originally their weapons were taken away when they crossed into Roman
territory but some of the Goths hid their weapons. In their outrage against
their cruel treatment by the Romans, they organized and attacked
Marcusaople, a township near their camps. It was a massive slaughter.
Starving and desperate, they attacked village after village leaving them
ravaged and burning many to the ground. They eventually ravaged the
Balkan Peninsula and Anatolia as far as Cyprus, and sacked Athens,
Byzantium, and Sparta. At that time, the Spartans were one of the most
powerful military forces in history but the Goths had no trouble defeating
In 378 AD Emperor Valens could no longer ignore the Gothic invasion.
He marches his troops to Ariansople (modern day Turkey) to face the
Goths. The Goths were numbered at 40,000. Valens underestimated the
number of Goths. The Goths easily surrounded the Roman Army and
killed two thirds of the Romans army. It was the greatest Roman military
disaster in 400 years. Valens died and his body was never found.
The new Emperor, Theodosius, gave them land along what is now known
as Bulgaria. In return they agreed to serve in the Roman Army. The
Roman Army used them as disposable troops. They were first sent into
the battle and large numbers of the Goths died protecting the Roman
territory. God saw the injustice, and he rose up a mighty leader named
Alaric. Alaric would be a name Rome would come to fear. Many of the
Goths actually compared him to Moses. Alaric felt their time has come.
The Goths had been trained in the Roman military tactics they were now a
well-disciplined military army. He attacks Greece in 395 AD. In 408 Alaric
works his way across Italy. He was backup by the Franks and Vandals
from the North who were their brothers. In August 24 410AD Alaric
marched into Rome and sacked the city. This would be the tribe that
would bring down the mighty Roman Empire. They entered the empire as
mire peasants and took down one of the greatest powers the world has
ever known. The mighty city of Rome would fall to the tribe of Gad. This
was Gad’s destiny! That is why he was named “troop”. Notice the
fulfillment of the prophecy below:
Gen49:19 Gad, a troop (the Huns) shall overcome him: but he shall
overcome at the last (fall of Rome).
Deu 33:20 And of Gad he said, Blessed be he that enlargeth Gad: he dwelleth
as a lion, and teareth the arm with the crown of the head.
Eventually the Goths would move into Spain and part of Gaul. During the
time of King David, some of the tribe of Gad settled in Spain. They
resettled into the original homeland founded almost a thousand years
earlier by their ancestors. From that point they would be known as the
Visigoths. In 507 AD, the Visigoths lost an important battle to the Franks
under Clovis, and had to give up much of their territory in southern France.
The Iberian Visigoths continued to keep the Arian religion until 589 AD.
Remember the Arian religion was a Bible-keeping sect. In 589 AD the
Visigoth King Reccared converted his people to Catholicism leaving their
Arian faith would be their downfall. They were pushed north by the Muslim
invasion in 71 1AD. Eventually, in 968 AD the region was split into three
separate kingdoms. The Franks had no trouble in taking these divided
kingdoms between 1035 and 1060.
The tribe of Gad is also identified with the Huguenots. After the Visigoths
fell to the Muslims in 711 AD, many Goths fled into Southern Gaul. There
they lived with their brother Reuben also known as the Franks. They
would always live near their brother Reuben through their history. After
1685 about 400,000 Huguenots emigrated to Prussia, Holland, Britain,
Switzerland, and North America. The Goths were also to be found among
the northern tribes who invaded England with the Anglo-Saxons and was
known as the GEDDINGAS. They were also associated with the so-called
Nordic peoples. Goths settled in many lands remained concentrated in
Scandinavia and Sweden (Gotaland and Gothia) is the only place where
today they can be distinguished as a specific people.
Who is Reuben?
Reuben’s Mother was Leah. He was the firstborn son of Leah and
Jacob. Reuben means “Seeing”. He lost the firstborn birthright by
sleeping with his father’s wife. His symbol is water and the face of a
Gen 49:4 Unstable as water, thou shalt not excel because thou wentest up to
thy father’s bed then defiledst thou it: he went up to my couch.
Gen_29:32 And Leah conceived, and bare a son, and she called his name
Reuben: for she said, Surely the LORD hath looked upon my affliction now
therefore my husband will love me. my strength, the excellency of dignity,
and the excellency of power:
Who is Reuben in History? The Franks
The Franks came across out of Germany in huge numbers and
penetrated the eastern boundary of Gaul. Gaul included
France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and part of Germany.
In 355 AD they made settlements in what is known today
as Belgium and the Netherlands. At that time it was called Toxandria.
They seized the territory left by the retreating Romans in Northern
Gaul. They allied with the Roman Empire and other Germanic tribes
such as the Visigoths to stop Attila the Hun. Their leader during the
Hun invasion was Merovich, the father of the Merovingian Dynasty.
This great dynasty would see great leaders such as Charlemagne. The
Merovingian Dynasty was called the long- hair dynasty because all the
Emperors had long hair. They felt that the long hair would give them
strength and power! This would tie them to the story of Samson in
After Merovich died, his son Chideric would succeed him. Chideric beat
back the Visigoths to take Southern Gaul. Childeric was stripped of his
kingship and sent back to Germany because he was a womanizer. He
thought being king gave him the right to take other man’s wives and
daughters. Does that sound like Reuben? This was exactly what
Reuben did. During his absence from the throne, the Franks did not fair
well – they began falling back into Roman hands. The Franks
eventually had to ask Chideric to return home and after his return the
people regained a large portion of Gaul.
Chideric left his throne to his son, Clovis. Clovis united all of Gaul
under the Franks – that took him thirty years. He established Paris as
his capitol. He was responsible for bring Catholicism into France.
Clovis married a Catholic queen from the tribe of the Burgundrians who
turned his heart toward the Catholic faith. Since that timeframe, the
country of France has remained predominately Catholic. The Franks
would fulfill their destiny and hold considerable power and influence
throughout Europe for many centuries.
Gen_29:32 And Leah conceived, and bare a son, and she called his name
Reuben: for she said, Surely the LORD hath looked upon my affliction now
therefore my husband will love me. my strength, the excellency of dignity,
and the excellency of power:
It is important to note that their original Germanic homeland was called
Saxony and it has the symbol of Water on their Coat of Arms. Notice the
symbol for water in the North Rhine, Germany Coat of Arms.
Location today: France, Germany
Who was Simeon?
Simeon means “Hearing”. He was the second
born of Leah. He was left as hostage in Egypt
when the brothers went back to Canaan with orders to return with
Who was Simeon in history? The Lombards
The tribe of Simeon was to be a very cruel and violent people just like the
Lombards. As mentioned earlier they were the children of Leah.
Gen 49:5 Simeon and Levi are brethren instruments of cruelty are in their
The Lombards came out of Germany where they have lived since before
the first century. They were the most fierce and blood-thirsty of all the
Germanic Tribes. They were the tribe of Simeon. They were also known
as the Spartans in earlier history. They migrated south into the land of
Pannonia that was modern day Hungary and Austria. By this time, Rome
was no longer ruled from Western Europe. What is left of the Roman
Empire was being ruled from Constantiople in Turkey.
The Roman Emperor Justinian hired the Lombards as mercenaries for
Rome to retake Italy. The conquest turned into a blood bath. The Romans
were so disgusted and outraged by the tactics of the Lombards that they
stopped the campaign and sent the Lombards home. After that campaign,
the Lombards realized that Italy was theirs for the taking. In 568 AD the
decision was made to attack Italy. Italy had been struck by a plague and
were in a weaken condition. Elbowen shows no mercy to the survivors.
Italy would fall to Elbowen after a three-year seige resulting in the
acquisition of Northern Italy. Southern Italy still remains in the hands of the
Byzantium Empire. Elbowen made Italy his capitol and homeland.
The people to the east of the Lombards were the Gepids. The Gepids were
sandwiched between the Lombards and the Avars. The Lombards crushed
the Gepids. It was a practice among ancient tribes to take the head of the
king as a trophy of war. Culemon, the king of Gepids, head was fashioned
into a drinking cup. Elbowen also took the Gepids’ princess as his wife,
princess Roseama. Elbowen gave a banquet and brought the cup with
Culemon’s head to his new wife Roseama and she was outraged!! Elbown
wife, Rosema seeking vengance, hired an assassin to kill Elbowen. When
the assassin came into the king’s chambers, the king was powerless to
defend himself because Rosema had tied his sword to his bed. Rosema
carried off the majority of Elbowen’s treasure and fled to Ravenna in
southern Italy. The Byzantine King in Ravenna proposes marriage to
Rosema hoping to unite the two kingdoms and bring Italy under Byzantine
control. The plan failed. Rosema, in an attempt to poison her lover,
became the victim instead.
The Lombards soon moved their forces into southern Italy and wreaked
havoc on the land. The Byzantine Emperor has no choice but to
relinquished southern Italy to the Lombards. The king divides the lands into
clans or Duchies.
The Lombards began fighting among themselves leading to a civil
war. One of the main points of contention was support for the Catholic
Church. Southern Italy supported the Catholic Church. During the civic
war, Airpert became their new leader. Aripert was known for his cruelty.
He mutilated one of the duchies families leaving a young child name
Lukebrad. In 712 AD once grown and seeking revenge, Lukebrad raised
an army to defeat Aripert. Aripert fled in battle and drowned crossing a
near-by river. Lukebrad seized Aripert’s throne and finally brought order to
the Lombard’s society.
In 726 the Byzantium Emperor, Leo III made a decree to destroy all
images in all Catholic churches. This outraged Pope Gregory. Southern
Lombards were the supporters of the Pope. In 740 AD Lukebrad had no
choice but to go to war against his own people in southern Italy because
they had allied with Rome. There was an attempt to unseat the pope. The
pope sent for help from the King of the Franks, Charlemagne. In 773 AD
Charlemagne brought troops into Italy and conquered the Lombards. It
took less than one year to conquer Italy. Thus fulfilling the following
prophecy about Simeon. He would lose his homeland because of his
cruelty. That is exactly what happened to the Lombards.
Gen 49:7 Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce and their wrath, for it was
cruel: I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.
Location Today: He is divided among the people in many lands. The
lands where he settled would have sword on their Coat of Arms.
Who is the tribe of Dan?
Dan, Naphtali and Asher were assigned to be together in the
ancient land of Israel. They were located on the North Side of
the Camp of Israel. Dan would pitch on the North, with Asher
and Naphtali. The Eagle was the Symbol for all three tribes.
Dan would pitch on the North, with Asher and Naphtali. The mother of
Dan was Bilhah who also bore Nephtali. Dan and Nephtali are often
linked with each other. We identify Napthtali with Norway and Dan with
Gen 49:16 Dan shall judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel.
Gen 49:17 Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth
the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward.
Gen 49:18 “I wait for your deliverance, LORD.
Dan means “God is Judge”. Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder
in the path.” (Gen 49:17 also Amos 8:14). Dan’s symbols
were a lion, eagle, snake, dragon, white horse and a Griffin.
The serpent was the primary symbol of Dan, but the white
horse was its secondary symbol. The horse, usually pictured
as being white. A white horse appears on the shield in the Lower Saxony,
Germany Coat of Arms.
History of Dan
In the land of Israel, the tribe of Dan received an inheritance around the
area of Joppa but the Amorites forced Dan into the Mountains. Most of the
inheritance of Dan in the south was to be lost to the Amorites and
Philistines and later regained by the Israelite tribes of Ephraim. (Judges
2:34 35). The Bible says that Danites from the south conquered a place
called Leshem (Joshua 19). They did the same with another place called
Laish (Judges 18).
Dan was the first tribe associated with Idol worship. They were the ones
who introduced idols to the rest of the tribes.
“The six hundred Danites, armed for battle, stood at the entrance to the gate.
When the men went into Milcah’s house and took the carved image, the ephod,
the other household gods, and the cast idol, the priest said to them, ‘What are
you doing?’ They answered him, ‘Be quiet! Don’t say a word! Come with us and
be OUR FATHER AND PRIEST. Isn’t it better that you serve a tribe and clan in
Israel as priest rather than just one man’s household?’ Then the priest was
glad” (Jud. 1:16-20). Jdg 18:11 -20
They are missing from the book of Revelation. The fact that Dan is left out
of the 144,000 of the tribes of Israel listed in Revelation 7 does not mean
they will not be saved. Rather, it just means their salvation was “delayed.”
Gen 49:18 “I wait for your deliverance, LORD”. Dan introduced idolatry to
the rest of the tribes of Israel. God is holding them responsible for
introducing Idols to the other tribes.
Amo 8:14 Those who swear by the idols of Samaria, who say, ‘By the god of
Dan’ or ‘By the god of Beersheba’—those people will fall and not rise again.”
Because they were so steeped in idolatry, they will not be part of the
firstfruits mentioned in Rev. 7. However, they will be saved.
Rom 11:26 And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written,
There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away
ungodliness from Jacob
Dan in Ships and in Greece
“Why did DAN remain in ships?” (Judges 6:7) There is an inscription that
links Dan with both Dor and Jaffo off the coast of Israel and thus with the
Sea Peoples. The Sea People were responsible for the fall of Troy. Also
we know they traveled to purchase iron ores. Dan and Yavan from Uzzal
were involved in iron manufacturing, they were amongst your guarantors”
The Son of Samson was credited for conquering Greece. Apparently
Samson had a child by a slave girl. According to Herodotus, the Heraclidae
(Sons of Hercules or Samson) who led the Dorian invasion of Greece,
believed themselves descended from Hercules and a slave girl named
JARDANUS (Herodotus 17). Dan is associated with Greece Mythology.
Apollo was originally a Hittite thunder god who in Greek Mythology
fathered Mopsus The mother of Mopsus in mythology was called Daphne
according to Josephus. Dan’s settlement was near Galilee. It was on this
spot that King Jeroboam set up one of his golden calves for the Ten Tribes
to worship. We covered some of this information in Chapter four.
Wandering of Dan
Everywhere the tribe of Dan went they left his mark. He named Denmark
after himself (Mark of Dan) and also many of the rivers in Europe are
named after the tribe of Dan such as the Blue Danube, Don and the
Dneipter. The prophet Jeremiah instructed the Israelites to leave markers
(monuments) and symbols so they could be identified in future generations
and that is exactly what they did! They symbols showed up on many of the
Coat of Arms in the nations of Europe!!
“Is not Ephraim my dear son, the child in whom I delight? Though I often speak
against him, I still remember him. Therefore my heart yearns for him, declares
the LORD. SET UP ROAD SIGNS, PUT UP GUIDEPOSTS. Take note of the
highway, the road that you take. RETURN, O Virgin Israel, return to your towns.
How long will you WANDER, O unfaithful daughter?” (Jer. 31:20-22, NIV).
Dan’s History of Ireland
After leaving Greece, the tribe of Dan sailed to Ireland and established a
colony. They were called Tuathe De Danaan and they are well-known in
Irish history. xi
In 1630 Charles I came to power. In the 1630s, the Scottish Presbyterians
staged a rebellion against Charles I for trying to impose Anglicanism. The
English Parliament under Oliver Cromwell re-conquered Ireland from the
Catholic Confederates in 1653. The wars eliminated the last major Catholic
landowners in Ulster, a province in Ireland.
The Irish fled to America to escape genocide perpetuated by the hands of
the English. What is commonly called the Irish Famine and was the direct
result of a policy limiting what the Irish were allowed to own and eat. When
a potato blight struck, many in Europe began to want for food. The English
confiscated all food supplies from the Irish countryside in order to supply
food for England. The most reliable estimates put the death toll at 5 to 6
million persons. The people who migrated to America before 1845 were
mainly Scottish. The Irish did not migrate until the Potato Famine of 1845.
The Irish men were put into forced labor at King’s Plantation. The English
raped Many Irish women. In their earliest history in America, they came not
as indentured servants but as actual “white slaves”. Many of the Irish
children were sold into slavery and taken to the Caribbean. Later in history
they were forced to live in Ghettos in early American history. They were
given the worse jobs and were not allowed to mix with the general public.
This treatment was a result of their Catholic faith. The Irish Americans
worked very hard and became very successful in business. Later the Irish
would dominate much of the American Police Force. They are an example
of the truth American success story. The Irish rose from poverty to
become a very successful people.
Who is Naphtali?
Naphtali was the sixth son. His mother was Bilhah, maidservant of Rachel.
Dan was his full-brother. Naphtali and Dan are often found together and
share some attributes with each other. Naphtali means
Wrestling”. Wrestling was what Jacob did prior to receiving
the new name of Israel.
The well-known city of Tiberias by the shores of the Sea of Galilee is in
the territory of Naphtali. The symbol of Naphtali was “A hind let loose”
(Genesis 4921) and a deer or stag was used as a royal symbol by the
Kings of Scandinavia especially Sweden. The symbol of Naphtali in
Hebrew was an “ayalah” a female deer, a doe or hind (Genesis 49:21).
The Swedish Coat of Arms today is a Deer! We identified Naphtali with
Norway and Sweden although groups from Naphtali were also to be found
elsewhere. Norway was known as Thule. The word “Thuls” means
Gen 49:21 Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words.
History Of Naphtali
IT IS AMAZING THAT Naphtali retained its exact Israelite name He was called
the Naphtalites in History. The spelling is the same.Naphtali is the only tribe
that kept their original name. They were known as the Nephtalites in
history. According to Yair Davies from his book called “The Tribes”, the Naphtali
were also known as White Huns, Cadussi, Thyssagetae, Little Goths, and other
names. Herodotus called these people called Thyssagetae and they were
located in northern Scythia in the Urals region. The Chinese described them with
blue eyes and fair-haired. The Cadussi (or Kadussi) were also referred to as
Nephtalites or Hephthalites. They later would be called the White Huns in
Ency Britannica states ” Hephthalite”,
Hephthalite, also spelled Ephthalite, member of a people important in the
history of India and Persiaduring the 5th and 6th centuries CE. . . ..
Elsewhere they were called White Huns or Hunas.
According to Procopius’s History of the Wars, written in the 6th century the
Hephthalites “are of the stock of the Huns in fact as well as in name:
however they do not mingle with any of the
Huns known to us. They are the only ones
among the Huns who have white
bodies….” The Hephthalites entered Kabul and overthrew Kushan in
present day is Pakistan. They moved into Bactria and eventually worked
their way into Persia. After a series of wars between503–513, they were
driven out of Persia, were defeated by Khosru I. In Scythia, Naphtalites
and Danites had been recorded together. In 500 AD they became part of
the Vikings of Scandinavia. There was a large influx of Danes into
Denmark at the same time period.
After they were defeated in Asia Minor. They tracked North and went to Norway.
Norway means North way. The first wave of the White Huns, with the Danes
settled in Norway and Denmark. The latter White Huns settled in Sweden.
According to Orjan Svennson, he river that has marked the border between
Norway and Russian is called Granse Jakobs Elv which means ” Jacobs
IS THERE ANY HISTORIICAL PROOF THAT THEY MOVED NORTHWARD?
IN A ANCIENT BOOK CALLLED THE Heimskringla THE HISTORIAN SNORRE
describes that the Norsemen trekked to the North from beyond the Caucasus
Mountains, being led by a chieftain-priest called Odin, and that the Norsemen
originally lived in “Turkland” and in “Asia” (Asia Minor) beyond the Caucasus
MountainsAccording to Book of Jasher, Naphtali and Gad went to Haran, and
they each took a wife from the family of Nahor, Abraham’s brother. Also Bilah,
Naphtali’s mother and Zipla were sisters and their father was a slave in the
household of Nabor. He was among Abraham’s kinsmen.
Location today: Sweden and Norway
Who is the tribe of Asher?
Asher was the second born of Zilpah. Asher means “Blessed”. The
blessing of Moses said of him: “…Let him dip his foot in oil”. Asher
would be known for their food.
Gen 49:20 Out of Asher his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal dainties.
Deu 33:24 And of Asher he said, Let Asher be blessed with children let him be
acceptable to his brethren, and let him dip his foot in oil.
Procopius Gibbon, “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire”, ch.5
“A striking resemblance of manners, complexion, religion, and language
seemed to indicate that the Vandals and Goths were originally one great
The historian Procopius reported that the Vandals had come from the Sea
of Azov area just north of the Black Sea by the River Don. The Vandals in
the first century AD had been known as Lygians or Lugii.xii This culture had
originated in the Scythian area. They were located east of the Vistula in
present-day Poland near the Burgundians. Pliny (N.H. 4 14) said that the
VANDALS were a federation composed of the Vandili, Varini, Goths, and
Burgundians. The Burgundians were to settle in France and Switzerland
and came from Swedish isle of Bornholm. The Burgundians may have
descended from Beriah, who was a son of Asher.xiii
History of the Vandals
The Vandals first moved into Spain in the early third Century. In 429 AD
the Vandals, under their king Geiseric, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar into
North Africa. From North Africa the Vandals raided and plundered the city
of Rome in 445 AD. In the Land of Israel the tribe of Asher were given the
area around the city of Sidon (Joshua 19:28), the famous Phoencian city.
The people of Asher were returning to their original homeland! When they
came to North Africa, they cleaned up the entire region. They were a
Christian people they shutdown houses of prostitution and wiped out
In 533 AD the Byzantines crushed what was left of their African kingdom
although most had already migrated out of Africa by that time. After their
defeat, Procopius records that the Vandals took ship and sailed away.
They moved to Ireland and later into Britain. Geoffrey of Monmouth
recorded that 160,000 Africans from Ireland joined the Saxons to invade
Britain. These Africans were the Vandals and related tribes with them.
A tradition states that in their raid on Rome the Vandals seized treasures
taken from the Temple in Jerusalem. The Romans took these treasurers
when they destroyed Jerusalem in 66 AD. Later the treasures were
retaken by the Byzantines and may have been liberated again later by the
Goths. It is possible that some of the Temple treasures went with the
Vandals to Ireland and then to Britain.
Location today: France, Southern Scotland and Northern Wales
We have identified Asher lower Scotland and northern Wales. The lowland
Scots and the northern Wales may be considered almost the same people.
The northern Welsh are fair-complexioned people whereas those of the
south are darker.
Who is Benjamin? The Vikings
Originally all of Rachel’s children would settle in the area of Scandinavia
and would work their way into the area around Britain at a later point in
history. The children of Leah would settle on the mainland of Europe.
Benjamin was the youngest son of Jacob and Rachel, and the only full
brother of Joseph. He was the brother of Joseph, but throughout history
was closely connected with the people of Judah. The name Benjamin
means “son of my right hand”. The Norwegians, who is the modern day
Benjamin, created the Oslo Accords of 1993. It was a famous peace
agreement between the Israelis and the Palestinians. This shows their
willingness to support their brother Judah. Also when Joseph asked for
Benjamin to be brought to Egypt, it was Judah who intervened. Much of
Benjamin went with the Southern Kingdom, after the dispersion of the Ten
Tribes to the north.
Symbol of the Wolf
A wolf was the symbol of Benjamin. The Coat of Arms of Norway has a
wolf on it!! William the Conqueror bore a wolf on his
standard. Godfroi de Bouillon, Crusader King of Jerusalem,
claimed descent from Benjamin. Scriptures tell us the
following about Benjamin:
“Benjamin shall be as a ravening wolf in the morning he shall devour
the prey, and at night he shall divide the spoil” (Gen.49:27).
The tribe of Benjamin were fierce warriors. In scripture Benjamin refused
to turn over some sinful men to be prosecuted and punished. This led to a
war between the combined tribes against Benjamin. Although Benjamin
was outnumbered 400,000 to 26,700, they won the first two battles. The
tribe of Benjamin was fierce warriors. The Israelite tribes had to fast and
obtain God’s divine help to defeat the Benjaminites. At the end of this
needless war, the entire tribe of Benjamin was reduced to only 600 men.
The remainder was allowed to snatch a wife from among the dancing
young women. This is the account from scripture in Judges 20:1-12.
Jewish Medieval tradition said that the Tribe of Benjamin had gone into
exile to the Balkan region. From the Balkans emerged the Dacae, who
were part of the Scythians. The Dacae were together with the Getae They
originated in north Germany according to Julian. The Normans moved
into Scandinavia and dwelt in parts of Norway and Denmark before moving
Benjamin was also the Vikings in History. It is also important to note that
the Vikings were eight hundred years ahead of their time in sword-making.
Their method of the sword making can’t be duplicated today — it is a lost
art. Benjamin was the only son of Jacob who did not bow down to Esau
when the family was returning to the land of Canaan because he was not
born at that time. The kingdom of Rome is known as the Kingdom of
Esau. The Bible tells us that the Israelites would go to war with Amalek
every generation. Amalek was the son of Esau.
Exo_17:16 For he said, Because the LORD hath sworn that the LORD will
have war with Amalek from generation to generation.
The Israelites and Germanic tribes have gone to war with Rome every
generation just as the Bible predicted. ROME NEVER HAD CONTROL
OVER THE SCANDINVANIAN COUNTRIES ESPECIALLY NORWAY,
THE HOMELAND OF BENJAMIN! Benjamin was the only son who did not
bow to Esau on their way back to the land of Canaan. He would not come
under the control of the Rome.
The Viking Age began as a result of certain actions by Charlemagne, the
king of France. In year 772 AD, Charlemagne chopped down Irminsûl, the
holy tree of the Saxons and assassinated approximately 5,000 Saxon
noblemen. This was their national monument. This was the event that
started the Viking Age. In 772 AD the kings of Norway were actually allied
to Charlemagne in a war against the Danes, but they broke this pact when
he cut down Irminsûl and assassinated the Saxon lords. This led to the
Scandinavians burning churches and attacking the Monasteries in England
and France. The first recorded Viking attack took place the 6th of June in
793. The vast majority of the Viking attacks were attacks on France,
because Charlemagne was seen as their main enemy. In the eighth
century the advancement of the Vikings in Britain was stopped by Alfred
the Great. Remember Alfred the Great was the only English king to
establish the laws of Torah as part of English law. (When you obey God he
will give victory over your enemies. You will see that repeated throughout
history.) . The Vikings would settle in England and it is recorded they
had no trouble adopting the faith of the Celtic Church. The people
from Norway were Celtic Christians and kept their faith until the 15th
century. When Norway became a part of Denmark in 1450 they became
Yair Davies records that Benjamin was part of the Norman Invasion. xiv
The Normans were made up of more than one tribe. The Tribe of Dan was
also part of the Normans. The Normans were mainly from Denmark. They
did have some Swedes mixed in with them. Dudo himself a Norman, said
that some of the Normans came from Danes descendants of the ancient
Danae and that their forefathers were the Dacae.
In 850 a band of Vikings received land from the King of France. The area
was renamed Normandy. Those Vikings who settled in Normandy became
known as the Normans and they were lead by Rollo. When they settled
into the area, they intermarried with the local Celts and Alans who had
settled there earlier
Benjamin in Russia
Account from Stephen Collins author of “The Twelve Tribes of Israel
“We believe the white Russians are the tribe of Benjamin. The Vikings also
raided into and settled in the modern Ukraine and western Russia. National
Geographic Magazine made this comment about their eastern forays: “By the
early ninth century they [the Vikings] were navigating the Volga and the Dnieper
to reach the merchants of the Abbasid caliphate. By 860 they had attacked
“The Encyclopaedia Britannica notes that the term “Russia” is linked to the term
“Russ,” a name given to Viking Norsemen of the 10th century AD who migrated
from Scandinavia to the regions of Novgorod and Kiev (4). The name, “Russia,”
has a Scandinavian/Viking origin, not a Slavic one, even though modern Russia
is now overwhelmingly Slavic. The Viking name, Russ, may well reveal a
Benjaminite origin as one of the sons (and clans) of Benjamin was named
“Rosh” (Genesis 46:21).”
Benjamin constitutes Norway and Iceland. The tribe of Benjamin was to
“dwell between his shoulders”. Iceland is located above the area of Britain.
“The beloved of the LORD shall dwell in safety by him, who shelters him
all the day long and he shall dwell between his shoulders” (Deut.33:12).
The Icelandic people were a colony of Norwegians, remember that the
Benjaminites were located in that region. The tribes of Ephraim and
Manasseh would be closer genetically to the Benjaminites than any other
tribe of Israel because Joseph and Benjamin were the only sons of Jacob
Who is Ephraim and Manessah?
Ephraim and Manessah were the sons of Joseph and Asenath. Joseph
married Asenath in Egypt. There is no evidence she was of Egyptian
descent. Targum Pseudo-Jonathan states that Asenath was the daughter
of Dinah, who was raped by Shechem (Gen. 34:1–3).
In Hebrew, Manasseh means, “to forget all your toil.” Ephraim means “to
be fruitful”. Saxon means “dagger or short sword”. The word Angles
means ”bull”. We are told “Joseph is a fruitful bough, a fruitful bough by a
spring his branches run over the wall. The archers fiercely attacked they
shot at him, and pressed him hard. Yet his bow remained taut, and his
arms were made agile by the hands of the mighty one of Jacob, by the
name of the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel.”(Gen.49:22-24).
In 410 AD the Anglo Saxons pushed into Britain. They were made up of
two tribes — the Angles and the Saxons. England (Angle-land) was
named after the Angles. Angle is another form for Aegel and Aegel was a
nickname for Ephraim. Aegel means young bull in Hebrew. So England is
called the land of the Bull!
Jer 31:18 I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself thus Thou hast
chastised me, and I was chastised, as a bullock unaccustomed to the yoke:
turn thou me, and I shall be turned for thou art the LORD my God.
This tribe settled a territory bounded on the north by the territory of
Manasseh and on the south by the territories of Dan and Benjamin
(Josh. 16:5-10). In ancient times, the tribe of Manasseh was itself
divided into two half tribes — one located east of the Jordan river
and one west of the Jordan river. Interestingly, in modern times this
same geographic positions has been maintained by the descendants
of these ancient tribes.
Where did Ephraim and Manasseh Go after Captivity?
Ephraim and Manasseh left the land of Israel and went to Scythia. They
migrated from Scythia to Germany and
In the first century the Germanic
Tribes in Germany were known as the
Suebi. They actually occupied half of the
territory of Germany. Suebi meaning
“one’s own” people. Strabo wrote that the
Suebi “excel all the others in power and
numbers”. He describes Suebic peoples
as having come to dominate Germany between the Rhine and Elbe.
They originated from the islands near Norway and settled in the
northern Germany near the Baltic Sea called Schleswig. In the
Hålogaland’s account, a Norwegian account, it tells of a two-day
voyage from the Oslo to Schleswig. In the historian account from Alfred
the Great, the Angles came from the Islands near Norway. Alfred
states “on these islands dwelt the Engle before they came hither”.xv
Wikipedia, Angles, “Bede states that the Anglii, before coming to Great
Britain, dwelt in a land called Angulus, “which lies
between the province of the Jutes and the Saxons.”
King Alfred the Great and the chronicler Æthelweard
identified this place with the district that is now called
Angeln. The Saxons settled the west of England and
pushed the original Britons further west in England.
By far the heaviest concentration of people who migrated to America from
England came from the Anglia counties where the Angles had
settled. Oddly enough the Hebrew word “Eglah” meaning “Heifer of the
wild ox or unicorn.” The unicorn appears on the British Coat of Arms. The
descendants from England that settled in America are primarily
descendants of the Angles.xvi
Symbols of Joseph
Ephraim was a Bull. America uses the symbol of the Bull Wall Street has a
symbol of a large Bull. Many of the Coat of Arms for the states have a bull on it.
” His glory is like the firstling of his BULL, and his horns, are like the horn of a
Unicorn with them he shall push the people together unto the ends of the earth:
and they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, and they are the thousands of
Manasseh.” (Deuteronomy 33: 17)
According to the MIDRASH, ”A unicorn was represented on the Standard
Of Manasseh son of Joseph”. xvii The Royal Coat of Arms of Great
Britain, there is a lion, and a unicorn standing on its hind feet. The
Loin represents Judah. In ancient times, the tribe of Manasseh was itself
divided into two half tribes — one located East of the Jordan river, and one
West of the Jordan river, and North of Ephraim. Today, Manasseh
represented by England on the east of the Atlantic Ocean, and Canada on
west — still lies north of Ephraim, the United States of America.
Ephraim is the 13th tribe
Joseph’s tribe was split into two parts because they received a double
portion. Ephraim was the 13th tribe because he was born after his brother
Manessah. He was born last to Joseph in Egypt, after Manasseh, the 12th
tribe. The U.S. flag has 13 stripes, the U.S. originally had 13 colonies, on
the U.S. seal there are 13 stars above an eagle, also 13 arrows clutched in
his left claw, and an olive branch with 13 leaves in its right claw, with a
shield of 13 red and white stripes. The number 13 is associated with
Ephraim and with America! Ephraim’s symbols were an Olive
Branch, while his second symbol is a Bundle of Arrows. The first will
be last and the last will be first!
They Will Push West
Ephraim is always associated with the West. Ephraim would pitch his
camp in the West with Manasseh and Benjamin (Num 2:18-22). According
to Num 2:18, the west side shall be the standard of the camp of Ephraim
according to their armies.
When you read Ezekiel chapter
one, the image has four faces —
face of a man, face of a lion, face
of an Ox and face of a Eagle.
These faces represent the four
tribes lead by Reuben, Judah,
Ephraim and Dan—the lead
tribes. Reuben’s symbol was a
man, Judah’s symbol was a Lion,
Ephraim’s symbol was an Ox, and Dan’s symbol was a Eagle. You will
also notice that the Ox is on the left side of the camp that is the West.
Now notice that Ephraim was going to move North into Scythia and
Europe and then West into Great Britain and America.
Isa 49:12 Behold, these shall come from far: and, lo, these from the
north(Scythia) and from the west (U.S) and these from the land of Sinim.
Both Ephraim and Manessah pushed westward. Mannessah pushed
western to Great Britain and Ephraim to America. Notice in the verse
below that Ephraim was to follow the East wind. The East Wind moves
Hosea 12:1 prophesies: “Ephraim…followeth after an eastwind…they do
make a covenant with the Assyrians.
Isa 49:20 The children which thou shalt have, after thou hast lost the other,
shall say again in thine ears, The place is too strait for me: give place to me
that I may dwell.
Through Moses, God prophesied that Joseph would “push the peoples to
the end of the earth” (Deuteronomy 33:17). The Americans did what
Israelites have been doing for centuries: They moved west. Don’t forget
about the famous American slogan — “Go West young man Go West”.
Deu 33:17 His glory is like the firstling of his bullock, and his horns are like the
horns of unicorns: with them he shall push the people together to the ends
of the earth.
America was to be a land of Refuge
Our forefathers understood that America was a land of Refuge for the
Christian people. So the eagle on the American Symbol represents the
eagle in Rev 12:14. The eagle symbolizes a place of safety from the
persecution that was going on in Europe and Britain during the
Deu_32:11 As an eagle stirreth up her nest, fluttereth over her young,
spreadeth abroad her wings, taketh them, beareth them on her wings:
Another proof that America is Ephraim is her population. America out
numbers Britain. American population is 250 Million compared to Britain
population of 57 Million. .” Deut 33:17says “ and they are the ten
thousands of Ephraim, and they are the thousands of Menasseh
Purpose of Ephraim
The purpose of Ephraim was to be a light to the Gentiles nations. Her job
was also to lead the ten tribes of Israel.
Isa 49:6 And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to
raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I will also
give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto
the end of the earth.
Notice below the tribe of Ephraim will lead the Northern Tribes at the end
Eze 37:16 Moreover, thou son of man, take thee one stick, and write upon it,
For Judah, and for the children of Israel his companions: then take another
stick, and write upon it, For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and for all the house
of Israel his companions:
Judah — Where Did he go?
The tribe of Judah went to Spain as the Sephardic Jews. They were forced
out by a decree in 1492 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella and from
there spread to the area of Poland and Eastern Europe and Russia. They
also traveled with the Saxons and Angles as the tribes of the Jutes and
settled in Southern England.
Proof Scotland is Judah
What many people do not know is that the people of Scotland had a large
number of Jews. The Milesians who settled Ireland were a tribe of Judah.
We know that many of the people of Ireland moved into the land of
Scotland. Geoffrey Keating wrote the history of Ireland. We can see this
account of the Milesians today in the account of the “Annals of the Four
Masters”. It is the compiled history of Ireland written in the 16th century
and contains the historical writings of Keating. He told the account of
Gathelus, a descendant of Calcol (son of Zerah who was the son of Judah)
coming out of Egypt and first living in Spain. Later his descendants moved
to Ireland as the Milesians. He mentioned that Gathelus was the son of
Calcol who was the Trojan king who founded Athens. They are listed in
the Bible as the sons of Zerah, one of the twin sons of Judah.
1Ch_2:6 And the sons of Zerah Zimri, and Ethan, and Heman, and Calcol, and
Dara: five of them in all.
His descendants were the Milesians in Ireland. They would eventually
move to Scotland. We call them today the Scot-Irish people. They are not
the same as the Irish people who came to America. The Irish people were
mainly Catholic. The Scot-Irish were always Presbyterians. These people
are the descendants of the Milesians and that makes them of the tribe of
Judah. That is why Britain has a Loin on its Coat of Arms along with the
Unicorn for the tribe of Manasseh and Ephraim. Scotland had a large
settlement of Jews or Milesians later called Gaels in Northern Scotland or
Highlands of Scotland. They are addressed as the Scottish Irish because
they moved out of Ireland into Scotland.
It was prophesied that Ephraim and Manasseh would go to war against
Judah. This has happened many times. Ephraim and Manasseh both
lived in the land of Britain and for many centuries went to war with
Scotland. Also many of the Scottish Irish people moved to America and
settled in the Mountains of Tennessee. The American Civil War was a war
between Ephraim in the north and Judah in the South!!
Isa_9:21 Manasseh, Ephraim and Ephraim, Manasseh: and they together
shall be against Judah. For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is
stretched out still.
Now also there is some proof that the Jewish people were taken out of the
land of Israel and brought by the Assyrians into the area of Germany.
Many of the Jews were taken out of the land of Israel before Judah’s fall in
586 BC (I Kings 18). At one time, the Assyrians controlled the land of
Germany. Now we know this information because the Jewish king names
appear in the Bavarian Chronicles that was the earliest history of
The Assyrians would be known in history as the Hessians.
Hessians would face George Washington at the famous battle at the
Where is Zebulon? The Dutch
The name Zebulun means “to dwell or dwelling”. Zebulun’s territory was located
in what later became known as Galilee, in Northern Israel. Galilee would be
honored as the first to hear Christ’s preaching. Isa 9:1. The Prophet Jonah was
also from Zebulon.
Where are they located? The Netherlands
We are told that Zebulon would live by the sea, on the beach or in a habor.
They are the Dutch people. Actually 80% of the population of the Netherlands is
Dutch. Also the Boers of South-Africa are mainly of Dutch stock. The Dutch
would discover East and West Indies, Australia and New Zealand. Also the Dutch
settled in New Amsterdam (New York).
Zebulon shall dwell at the HAVEN of the sea and he shall be for an HAVEN
OF SHIPS (Gen 49:13 The Symbol of Zebulon was a ship. The
symbol shown here is the national emblem for Holland in 1579.
Zebulon shall dwell at the shore of the sea, and he shall be a shore for
ships … (Gen 49:13). In other words, Zebulon will live at the seashore,
with ships anchoring along his coast … (Gen 49:13) The Netherlands has only
sandy beaches from the north coast of the Netherlands. This can only be fulfilled
by Zebulon as a lost tribe, as Zebulon was a landlocked in Canaan. Zebulon
made their living from the Sea and acquired their wealth from the Sea. They were
merchants and built ships. ) Rotterdam, one of the largest cities in the
Netherlands, was the biggest port of the world for fifty years and still is the
biggest port in Europe.
Deu 33:18 And of Zebulun he said, Rejoice, Zebulun, in thy going out and,
Issachar, in thy tents.
Deu 33:19 They shall call the people unto the mountain there they shall offer
sacrifices of righteousness: for they shall suck of the abundance of the seas,
and of treasures hid in the sand.
The people of Holland and Netherlands made their living by fishing, whaling, the
harvesting of shellfish. By the 17th century one fifth of the entire Dutch population
was occupied in the Herring industry! Their industry involves dredging vessels,
making of dykes, canals and ports. The Dutch have been known for centuries to
create some of the worlds largest merchant fleets. Royal Dutch Shell, commonly
known as Shell Oil, is a Dutch owned oil and gas company headquartered in The
Zebulon would publish and write
In the book of Judges when Deborah was the leader in Israel, she prophesied
the following about Zebulon. This was a prophecy. According to Strong’s Bible
Concordance the word “pen” here in the Hebrew means “branched off stick or
scion for punishing”. A Dutch man named Coster of Haarlem from Holland is
considered “the first inventor of printing” xix Guttenberg did not invent the printing
press he actually ”
refined” it. He had the money to invest in starting the first
Jdg 5:14 Out of Ephraim was there a root of them against Amalek after thee,
Benjamin, among thy people… and out of Zebulun they that handle the pen of
After captivity, Zebulon appeared in a placed called Zebulistan near Afghanstan.
The name of Zebulon is also found in the name of a tribe called Sabalingoi. The
S has replaced the Z. “SABALINGOI” in Hebrew means “People of ZEBULON”.
The word “Goi” means people or nations. After this settlement, the tribes of Israel
began to migrate into Europe and Scandinavia. Again we see these same tribal
.From Jutland and Scandinavia there were several waves of migration into the
area of nearby Holland so the Sabalingoi and Chali [sons of Jahleel son of
Zebulun] may have moved to the Netherlands’ region” (ibid, p.321, emphasis
added). These tribal names appear in Holland among the Dutch people.
The Dutch people are the descendants of the
Germanic tribe called the Frisians. According to
Pliny the Younger in Roman times, the Frisians lived
in man-made hills called Terps. According to other
sources, the Frisians lived along a broader expanse
of the North Sea coast. Frisia at this time comprised
the present provinces of Friesland and North
Holland’s trade developed rapidly, especially in the areas of shipping and
transport. The Dutch East India Company had many ships built and organized
many trips to the Far East. Between 1602 and 1796 they sent almost a million
Europeans to work in the Asia trade on 4,785 ships, and acquired for their efforts
more than 2.5 million tons of Asian goods.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th Edition, says about the Frisians.
“Frisians,… a people of Teutonic stock, who at their first appearance in
history, are found in possession of the same district of Europe which they
still, at least partially, occupy. So far as can be judged they have never
been of an aggressive disposition “ For this neglect the principal reason
is undoubtedly the fact that the people have, at least in modern times,
displayed no strong political individuality (bowed his shoulder to bear and
became a servant unto tribute).”
It is very important to mention that during the 15th Century the Dutch allowed
many people who were being persecuted to take refugee in Holland. The
Anabaptist, Mennonites and Pilgrims all fled to Holland for protection. Within a
hundred years, God blessed Holland for their support of these refugees. They
went from the poorest country in Europe to the richest. 150 years later, the
Dutch would be given the diamond mines in Africa.
Who is Issachar? The Swiss
Issachar was the brother of Zebulon and the two were to be associated with each
other. Their mother was Leah, sister of Rachel. The Standard of Issachar
depicted the sun, moon, and stars. He was born when his mother, Leah, “hired”
her husband from Rachel for the night. The name Issachar is derived from the
root “sachar” meaning “hiring”. This is one of the Characteristics of Issachar.
Why Hiring? In Gen 30:14-16 we have Leah buying Jacob for the night from
Rachel for Mandrakes. This resulted in the birth of Issachar.
He was praised for his intellect. The Princes of Issachar were with Deborah
(Judges ch.5). If you remember that story they did not want to go to war.
Issachar may have a tendency to beget accountants and engineers. Some
pioneer scientists and researchers who sacrifice a portion of their lives seeking
the truth may come from Issachar. They were also called to serve the other tribes
in the areas of finance and were merchants by nature. Many of his people were
poor and inclined to farm for a living. The Children of Issachar traditionally had
the task of determining the Hebrew Calendar that involved astronomical
1Ch 12:32 And of the children of Issachar, which were men that had
understanding of the times, to know what Israel ought to do the heads of them
were two hundred and all their brethren were at their commandment.
Only the sons of Issachar were united to joined to fight with David (1 Chron.
12:23-32). The sons of Issachar were able to totally commit themselves to David,
because they understood that it was the time for God to fulfill His word given by
Samuel 17 years earlier (1 Sam. 15:28). The Lord granted them an anointing to
understand the prophetic timing for when he would tear the kingdom of Israel
away from Saul and give it to David (1 Sam. 15:22-28).
Also a donkey was a symbol of Issachar. Why are they compared to a strong and
bony ass? It might refer to their stubbornness. In English there is the expression
“stubborn as an mule”.
Gen 49:14 Issachar is a strong ass couching down between two burdens:
Issachar in Switzerland
Scriptures says that Issachar loves rest. He is unwarlike and prefers to pay
others to fight for him. They were not ruled by monarchs. The above
description fits Switzerland to a tee. Switzerland has always been a republic
and neutral, using its financial influence to ward off their enemies.
Gen 49:15 “ And he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant
and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute”.
The people of Switzerland originally settled by a tribe called the Alamans. The
Alemans were among the earliest settlers of Switzerland. Alemans may also
have been important in the early settlement of Finland. Also a group of
Burgundians were called Skirio-Burgundio and some of the Burgundians settled
Yair Davies states, ”the Tribes”
“Now, the Alamans who conquered Switzerland were considered part of the
Suebi or Suevi and so seem to have also called themselves.”.
According to the Targum, the sons of Issachar were also biblical astronomers
who kept track of the times and the seasons:
“and the sons of Issachar, who had understanding to know the times, and were
skilled in fixing the beginnings of years, the commencement of months, and the
intercalation of months and years skillful in the changes of the moon, and in
fixing the lunar solemnities to their proper times skillful also in the doctrine of
the solar periods astrologers in signs and stars, that they might show Israel
what to do.” xx
This is why you see stars on the flags of both Australia and New Zealand today.
Also the Swiss are famous for their timepieces. The Swiss watches are the most
accurate in the world. It is interesting that the constellations appear in Australia
Levi – Where did he go?
They were a class of Priest that lived in the land of Israel. The Israeli
stamp depicts the High Priests breastplate that was worn during the
Temple service and is the symbol of Levi. Moses and Aaron were both of
the tribe of Levi not Judah. All the prophets were Levites except Amos.
The Tribe of Levi had no land inheritance in the old land of Israel.
Gen 49:5 Simeon and Levi are brethren instruments of cruelty are in their
Eze 44:28 And it shall be unto them for an inheritance: I am their inheritance:
and ye shall give them no possession in Israel: I am their possession.
They were called the Magi in the land of Scythia and Parthia. They were
priest and judges in the land of Parthia. Most Levites appear today to be
found scattered among all tribes of tribes. In fact there was a large
settlement of them in the area of Wales. They founded a religious college
during the Dark Ages called Bangor. They would be the teachers and
pastors of the people of Israel. Today many biblical teachers could be the
descendants of the Levi. In fact many of us maybe the Levi and not know
it. They would wine up in Wales and would become the Quakers.
ATTACHMENT THREE: The Scarlet Thread
History and establishment of the Troy Kings
The Biblical account begins in Genesis Chapter 38. Judah had three sons –Er,
Onan and Shelah. Er married Tamar. God was displeased with Er and slew him.
Judah gave Tamar to Onan who refused to have children with her. As a result
God slew him also. Judah would not give his last son to Tamar because he was
too young and he also feared he would die also.
At that time in history it was very important for a woman to have a son. There
was no social security system and the mothers needed their sons to take care of
Tamar had a plan. She dressed as a prostitute and waited for Judah knowing his
wife had recently died. She conceived and bore two sons from her union with
Judah –Phares and Zarah.
God could not use Judah’s first three son as descendants for royal lineage
of Judah. That is why God sent Tamar to dress as a prostitute resulting in
the 2 twins – Zarah and Pharez.
Notice also that Judah passed his signs of identity to Tamar – his signet,
bracelet and staff.
Gen 38:18 And he said, What pledge shall I give thee? And she said, Thy signet,
and thy bracelets, and thy staff that is in thine hand. And he gave it her, and
came in unto her, and she conceived by him.
Who wore the Scarlet Thread?
Gen 38:28 And it came to pass, when she travailed, that the one put out his
hand: and the midwife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread,
saying, This came out first.
Gen 38:29 And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, that, behold, his
brother came out: and she said, How hast thou broken forth? this breach be
upon thee: therefore his name was called Pharez.
Gen 38:30 And afterward came out his brother, that had the scarlet thread
upon his hand: and his name was called Zarah.
We know from the genealogy in the book of Mathew that the Messiah
descended from the Pharez line of Judah –not Zarah. Pharez was considered
the first born.
Mat 1:3 And Judas begat Phares and Zara of Thamar and Phares begat Esrom
and begat Aram
We also know that the Kings of Israel descended through the line of Pharez and
God promised that the sceptre would not depart from Judah (Gen 49:10).
So what is the importance of the Scarlet thread?
In Genesis 46:12 Pharez had his own two sons with him, but Zerah went to Egypt
without children. •Yet while the records of the census in the desert mention of the
sons of Pharez (Num. 26:21), Zerah’s sons are not mentioned going into
God had a special purpose for Zarah. His son Dara (Dardanus) was the founder
of Troy and began the line of the Trojan Kings.
Judah may have polluted the bloodline with his first three children Er, O’nan and
She’lah when he married Shua, a Canaanite. (Gen 38:2). Whatever the reason
God did not use Judah’s descendants by Shua to start the lineage of Judah.
According to E. Raymond Capt,
“Darda, “the Egyptian,” (son of Zarah) was “DARDANUS,” the EGYPTIAN
FOUNDER OF TROY.”
The Ency. Britannica tells us that the founder of Troy was Dardanus. In this
paper we will discuss who he was, his origin and where is descendants settled.
“DARDANUS, in Greek legend . . . mythical FOUNDER OF DARDANUS on the
Hellespont and ANCESTOR OF THE DARDANS of the Troad and, through
AENEAS, of THE ROMANS. …DARDANUS FLED ACROSS THE SEA. …
CROSSED OVER TO THE TROAD. Being hospitably received by Teucer, he
married his daughter Batea and became THE FOUNDER OF THE ROYAL
HOUSE OF TROY.”
The Ency. Britannica bases their evidence on two sources –the writings of a 4th
Century Greek Historian, Hecataeus of Abdera, who was quoting Egyptian
history and the familiar Greek epic of Homer “Iliad and the Odyssey”. In this
epic Homer records the story of the founding of Troy in present day Turkey and
calls Dardanus Illium.
“They then migrated into what is now TURKEY. Finally a branch under ILUS
founded TROY under the name ‘Ilium.’“
But who was Dardanus?
Dardanus was the first Trojan King. •According to Jewish historian
Josephus, Dardanus was Darda listed in the Bible as one of the son’s of
ZARA’S DESCENDANTS FLED OUT OF EGYPT under the leadership of
DARDA. •The Jewish historian Josephus calls him DARDANUS. •There, under
the rule of DARDA (DARDANUS) they established a Kingdom, later called
TROY. •DARDANELLES. a small body of water, still bears his name.
Solomon is compared to Dara and Calcol for their greatness. Apparently they
were both great kings in history. (1 Kings 4:31) Notice how history records
Dardanus coming out of Egypt to found Troy.
Trojan Kings in Europe
Many European kings from Rome, Ireland and England have alleged that they
descended from the family of the Trojan Kings.
Who was Calcol?
Calcol was one of the sons of Zarah. According to ancient legends Calcol went to
Asia Minor with his brother Dardanus.
1Ch 2:6 And the sons of Zerah Zimri, and Ethan, and Heman, and Calcol,
and Dara: five of them in all.
The early migration of Calcol is noted in the book “How Israel Came to Britain:”
“Actually, groups of Israelites began to migrate away from the main body
BEFORE THE ISRAEL NATION WAS FORMED –while, as a people, they were
STILL IN BONDAGE IN EGYPT. One of these groups under the leadership of
Calcol, a prince of the tribe of Judah, went westward across the
Mediterranean eventually settling in Ulster [Ireland]. ANOTHER, under the
leadership of DARDANUS, a brother of Calcol, CROSSED TO ASIA MINOR to
found the Kingdom later known as TROY
Also if you review the census in Num 1 and 26., you will see many of the
Israelites are missing after the first census. There is no Bible account as to
where they went.
Calcol is Cecrops
The Rev. William Milner regarded Calcol as the same person as Cecrops, the
first King of Athens. Cecrops became the first king and founder of Athens. The
inhabitants of the country were wild and without discipline. We read that Cecrops
set to work organizing them, gave them their laws and generally brought order
out of the chaos. The fact that Cecrops divided the people into twelve
communities suggests he brought with him members of the 12 tribes.
Nelson’s Encyclopaedia describes Calcol reign as follows:
“To him are attributed the institution of marriage, the abolition of human sacrifice,
and the establishment of a purer worship”.
Herman L. Hoeh, in “Compendium of World History,” states that “Athenian history
commences with the founding of the city by CECROPS in 1556 [B.C.].” (Vol. I,
The book of Maccabees gives us evidence that the Spartans were Jewish
“Areus, king of the Spartans, to Onias, the high priest, greetings. It has been
discovered in a document concerning the Spartans and Jews that they are
brothers, and are of the race of Abraham”
FOUNDING OF ROME
According to Virgil, Aeneas, a descendant of the Trojan kings, left Troy after its
fall. (800 B.C.) He traveled to Carthage, Sicily, and Cumae and eventually his
son Ascanius founded Alba Long, mother city of Rome. The historian Virgil
credits Aeneas’ son with the founding of Rome.
The account is found in Aeneid, written by the Roman historian Virgil, recorded
in Funk and Wagnall:
“The AENEID is a mythical work in twelve books, describing the wanderings of
the hero AENEAS and a small band of TROJANS after the fall of Troy.
Aeneas escaped from Troy. . carrying his aged father on his shoulders, and
leading his young son ASCANIUS by the hand, but in the confusion of his hasty
flight he lost his wife, Creusa. …Aeneas was shipwrecked on THE COAST OF
AFRICA and welcomed by DIDO, Queen of CARTHAGE. . . . After visiting
SICILY again and stopping at CUMAE., . . . Aeneas was welcomed by LATINUS,
KING OF LATIUM. [Aeneid fought for the hand of Latinia King Latium’s daughter]
. . . , thus making possible the marriage of Aeneas and Lavinia… . and his son
ASCANIUS FOUNDED ALBA LONGA, the mother city of Rome.”
The Caesars were descendants of Trojan Kings.
This letter is quoted in by Geoffrey of Monmouth, the letter written
to Julius Caesar: Cassibelaun, king of the Britain, to Caius Julius
Caesar. Geoffrey had possession of the letter.
“We cannot but wonder, Caesar, at the avarice of the Roman people, since their
insatiable thirst after money cannot let us alone whom the dangers of the ocean
have placed in a manner out of the world but they must have the presumption to
covet our substance, which we have hitherto enjoy’d in quiet. Neither is this
indeed sufficient: we must also prefer subjection and slavery to them, before the
enjoyment of our native liberty. Your demand therefore, Caesar, is scandalous,
since the SAME VEIN OF NOBILITY, FLOWS FROM AENEAS, IN BRITONS
AND ROMANS, and ONE AND THE SAME CHAIN OF CONSANGUINITY
SHINES IN BOTH: which ought to be a band of firm union and friendship. That
was what you should have demanded of us, and not slavery: we have learned to
admit of the one, but never to bear the other. And so much have we been
accustomed to liberty, that we are perfectly ignorant what it is to submit to
slavery. And if even the gods themselves should attempt to deprive us of our
liberty, we would to the utmost of our power resist them in defense of it. . . .”
FOUNDING OF BRITAIN
Below are the historian references that Brutus founded Britain. Brutus was a
Trojan King who accidentally killed his father and was banished from Italy. Both
Ency Britannica, Wikipeida credit Brutus with founding Britain in 1100 B.C. The
account is also recorded in the history of Britain by historian Geoffrey of
Monmouth. We are including all the historian references below.
LEGEND OF BRUTUS –The Annals of the Romans tell us,
After Aeneas founded Alba, he had a son named SILVIUS. •When Silivus’ wife
became pregnant, Aeneas sent a wizard to determine whether the baby was
male or female. •After examining Silvius’ wife, the wizard foretold that the woman
had a male in her womb who would be the child of death –would eventually kill
his father and mother.
During the birth of the child, Silvius’ wife died, and the boy was reared by the
father and named Britto. Many years later, the young man Britto killed his father
by accident while practicing archery with some friends –fulfilling the wizard’s
prophecy. Because of this terrible accident, Brutus was driven from Italy and
came to the islands of the Tyrrhene Sea and he eventually landed in Britain.
“Brut,any of several medieval chronicles of Britain tracing the history and legend
of the country from the time of the mythical Brutus, descendant of Aeneas and
founder of Britain.”
From Wikipedia Ency,
“Brutus or Brute of Troy is a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas
known in medieval British legend as the eponymous founder and first king of
Britain . This legend first appears in the Historian Britonum a 9th century
historical compilation attributed to Nennius, but is best known from the account
given by the 12th century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Historia Regum
The reference David Williamson, in his book “Kings and Queens of Britain,”
comments on Geoffrey of Monmouth’s writings:
“Geoffrey of Monmouth, writing in the first half of the twelfth century, sought to
tell the story of Britain from its…FOUNDATION BY BRUTUS THE TROJAN until
the coming of the Saxons…Geoffrey claimed that his History of the Kings of
Britain was translated from ‘a certain very ancient book written in the British
language’ which had been given to him by Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford. It was
dedicated to two of the LEADING NOBLEMEN of the day, Robert, Earl of
Gloucester (d. 1147) [a]…son of King Henry I, and Waleran, Count of Mellent (d.
1166). In it he tells of the wanderings of BRUTUS, the great-grandson of
AENEAS, forced to leave Italy after accidentally killing his father and eventually,
after many adventures, COMING TO ALBION, which he renamed BRITAIN from
his own name, after driving out the aboriginal giants. The story continues with
the…deeds of BRUTUS’ DESCENDANTS and successors FROM ABOUT 1100
The arrival of Trojans in Britain is traced by E. Raymond Capt:
“The descendants of DARDA (DARDANNES or DANAANS) ruled ancient TROY
for several hundred years, until the city was destroyed in the famous “Siege of
Troy.” AENEAS, the last of the ROYAL BLOOD, (Zarah-Judah) collected the
remnants of his nation and traveled with them to ITALY. There he married the
daughter of LATINUS, king of the Latins, and subsequently FOUNDED THE
GREAT ROMAN EMPIRE. Aeneas’ GRANDSON, BRUTUS with a large part of
the TROJANS migrated to “the GREAT WHITE ISLAND” (an early name for
BRITAIN due to its chalk cliffs). Tradition says that on the way to the “White
Island” Brutus came across FOUR OTHER TROJAN COLONIES UPON THE
COAST OF SPAIN and persuaded them to join him.”
The story is also substanted in “Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian.
“The WELSH RECORDS state that three tribes of his countrymen
received Brutus and his company as brethren and proclaimed Brutus
KING at a national convention of the whole island. his three sons, born
after his arrival in Britain were named after the three tribes –LOCRINUS,
CAMBER, and ALBAN. Brutus’ name heads the role in all the genealogies
of the British kings, preserved as faithfully as were those of the kings of
Israel and Judah.”
In the manuscript section of the British Library lies an old document -MS43968 —
that used to be kept in
Windsor Castle. This chart
gives the descent of the
British Royal Family from
ADAM THROUGH BRUTUS.
William F. Skene, author of a
book on the Stone of Destiny,
“the King of England, by
whom the kingdom of
Scotland was derived from
Albanactus, the youngest son
of Brutus, the Eponymus of
the Britons, while that of
England was derived from
Locrinus, the eldest son.”
Even James I knew of his
background, and let it be
known on several occasions
that he was descended from
FOUNDING OF IRELAND
Calcol’s son was called Gathelus. While ruling Athens, Calcol had a son by the
name of GATHELUS. Geoffrey Keating, tells the entire story of Gathelus’ voyage
to Ireland. in his work “The History of Ireland”.
Gathelus returned to Egypt but was expelled by the Egyptian King.Intur.
“Pharaoh INTUR [son of Nectonibus] and the Egyptians… remembered their old
grudge to…the family of GAEDAL [Gathelus], namely their resentment for the
FRIENDSHIP the latter had formed with the children of Israel. they, then, made
war upon the Gaels, who were thereby compelled to exile themselves from
He [Gathelus] then set sail from the mouth of the Nile, into the
Mediterranean, and landed on an island near Thrace. It is called IRENA, and
there it was that Ir, son of miledh, was born .
“Gathelus, therefore, traveled from Irena to the island of Gothia by passing
into the Black Sea through the DARDANELLES, then to the Baltic by way of the
“straight leading into the NORTHERN OCEAN.”
The “island called Gothia” is now the island off the east coast of Sweden known
as GOTLAND. Also at the time of the Exodus the area from the Black Sea to
the Baltic was under water and deep enough to allow the shipping of the
day to pass through.
S. Gusten Olson notes that “there is evidence that it was transported from the
regions of the north sea and the Baltic to the Aegean sea. One route traversed
through Denmark and Germany, finally reaching the ports of the north-central
TRAVELED TO SCOTLAND FIRST THEN TO SPAIN
Thence [from the island of Gothia in the Baltic] he set sail into the northern
straight … until he reached Cruthintuath, i.e. the land of the Cruthnigh or
Picts, which is called ALBA [SCOTLAND].
“After staying in the northern parts of Scotland for seven years, Gathelus ”
plundered the coasts of that country, and thence sailed along the coast of Great
Britain, LEAVING IT ON THE RIGHT, until he reached the mouth of the river
REN (i.e. the RHINE) thence, sailing westward and southward, he leaves
France on his left, and at length lands in Biscay [a province in the
northwest angle of Spain, lying on the Atlantic Ocean, and bordering on
The British historian Nennius, says it took 42 years to complete his voyage:
“He [Gathelus] was expelled [from Egypt] and he wandered for 42 years…and
came to SPAIN, and there they lived for many years….”
According to Hector Boece, Gathelus
. . . they [the Spaniards] therefore asked GATHELUS for a peace conference and
quickly gave him…part of their land in the NORTH PART OF SPAIN, NOW
CALLED GALYCIA, because they had a prophecy that said a strange people
would sometime come to dwell there…Following this GATHELUS NAMED ALL
HIS SUBJECTS SCOTS, IN HONOUR AND AFFECTION FOR HIS WIFE, WHO
WAS CALLED SCOTA”
While in Spain they discovered there was a shortage of food and they continued
to have conflicts with the local residences. Gathelus sent his uncle ITH to Eri
which is the ancient name of Ireland. Ith was killed in battle upon his arrival.
“they resolved to choose ith [… to reconnoitre the isle of Eri. the place
where they adopted this counsel was the tower of breogan in gallicia. thus it
happened that they sent Ith to Eri.”
A battle ensued resulting in the death of Ith. This infuriated the sons of Gathelus
who planned revenge upon the residences of Ireland.
“the sons of Miledh…mustered an army for the invasion of Ireland, both to
wreck vengeance upon the [inhabitants] for the murder of Ith, and to seize upon
that kingdom for themselves. their entire fleet numbered thirty ships, in each of
which there were thirty warriors, without counting their wives and their
“had been driven from Spain, and were roving on the seas to find a place of
settlement and that he therefore entreated Gwrgant to grant then permission
to abide in some part of the island [of IRELAND] as they had been at sea for
a year and a half. Gwrgant [King of Britain] having thus learned hence they were,
and what was their purpose, directed them with his goodwill …TO
IRELAND….Thither therefore they went, and there they settled, and peopled
the country and THEIR DESCENDANTS are to this day IN IRELAND.
Was the breach healed?
God made a promise to David that his descendants from the Judah line of
Pharez would always sit on a throne of Israel.
1Ki 9:5 Then I will establish the throne of thy kingdom upon Israel for ever, as I
promised to David thy father, saying, There shall not fail thee a man upon the
throne of Israel
Prophet Nathan told David in I Ch 17 that God promised his seed would establish
1Ch 17:11 And it shall come to pass, when thy days be expired that thou must go
to be with thy fathers, that I will raise up thy seed after thee, which shall be of
thy sons and I will establish his kingdom.
1Ch 17:12 He shall build me an house, and I will stablish his throne for ever.
Now we know that the Pharez Kingship stopped with captivity of Judah. So
in order for God to fulfill his promise he made to David he would have to move
David descendants to a different a throne. How did God fulfill his promise to
The Prophet Jeremiah felt he had a commission “to Plant.”
Jer 1:10 See, I have this day set thee over the nations and over the kingdoms, to
root out, and to pull down, and to destroy, and to throw down, to build, and
Jeremiah understood that he was to plant a kingdom.
Jer 18:9 And at what instant I shall speak concerning a nation, and
concerning a kingdom, to build and to plant it
According to the Messiah, the kingdom was taken from the Jews in Jerusalem
given to another nation.
Matthew 21:43: “The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a
nation bringing forth the fruits thereof'”.
There was a “tender one” that would be planted.
Eze 17:22 Thus saith the Lord GOD I will also take of the highest branch of the
high cedar, and will set it I will crop off from the top of his young twigs a tender
one, and will plant it upon an high mountain and eminent:
Who is this Tender one that must be planted?
According to an Irish legend, Tea Tephi, Zedekiah’s daughter, was taken to
Ireland to marry a King of the Zarah line of Judah.
HOWEVER, TEA TEPHI IS NOT RECORDED IN THE WRITTEN HISTORY OF
THE IRELAND. That does not mean the legend did not occur.
Is it possible that David brought his daughter Tamah to Ireland to marry the King
of Ireland ? History does not say but it is obvious that God had to fulfill his
promise to David. David’s descendants were to always sit on a throne of Israel.
That means the Pharez line had to sit on a throne after the captivity.
What we do know is that the daughters of the king were with Jeremiah after the
captivity. He took them to Egypt to Tahpanhes. There is archeological evidence
that Tahpanhes was the palace for the Jewish daughters.
“Even men, and women, and children, AND THE KING’S DAUGHTERS… and
Jeremiah the prophet, and Baruch the son of Neriah. So they came into the land
of Egypt… thus came they even to Tahpanhes” (JEREMIAH 43:6,7).
The Thirteen Colonies
The American Revolution unfolded in 13 British colonies clustered the eastern coastline of North America. These 13 colonies were explored, settled and colonised over more than a century, beginning in 1607 (Virginia) and concluding in 1732 (Georgia). To understand the causes of the American Revolution requires an understanding of the 13 colonies and their development and experiences in the colonial period, particularly their relationship with Britain.
Motives for colonisation
Each of the 13 British colonies in America began with a land claim, followed by exploration and settlement by a British company or expedition group. The main factor behind the British colonisation of America was gold. Like the Spanish in South America, British explorers and settlers hoped to find large deposits of gold or other precious minerals.
When large gold deposits could not be found, land and natural resources replaced gold as an incentive for colonisation, settlement and migration. Available land was extremely scarce in Europe because it was monopolised by wealthy royals and aristocrats. It was far more abundant in the New World, allowing settlers to become freeholders or yeoman farmers rather than mere tenants.
The abundance of raw materials in North America was another potential source of profit. Timber, rice, grain, tobacco, cotton, indigo, furs, fish and other commodities could be harvested or grown in abundance in America. The availability of tall timber provided the materials for the colonial shipbuilding industry. Later, the discovery of iron ore encouraged the formation of local ironworking foundries.
Over time, the 13 colonies were populated with Europeans and slaves imported from Africa. Immigration increased steadily in the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1640, there were fewer than 25,000 Europeans in British America. This increased to more than 70,000 by 1660 and around 150,000 in 1680. By the outbreak of the French and Indian War in 1754, the European population was approaching two million.
Working-class Europeans arriving in the New World found life there more prosperous and comfortable. Farming land was readily available, food was plentiful and living standards were better than those of Europe.
Immigration continued apace, even at the height of the Revolutionary War. In addition to European population growth, almost 300,000 African-American slaves were landed in the British colonies between 1620 and the outbreak of the revolution in 1765. Another half-million people arrived in British America as indentured servants.
As part of the British Empire, the 13 colonies shared some common heritage, attitudes and institutions. Because of this – and because they later joined together in revolution – many think of these colonies as a unified and homogenous group. This was far from the case.
All 13 colonies were marked by differences in geography, climate, natural resources, population, economic production and how they were governed. Intercolonial tensions were not uncommon and were usually fuelled by disputes over trade, borders and land claims.
Despite these differences and tensions, the British colonies in America were generally seen as a place of hope, opportunity and potential prosperity. The colonies’ biggest advantage was their distance from Europe and freedom from old European hierarchies and systems of power. The botanist John Bartram, who travelled extensively throughout the region, wrote of the British colonies in 1751:
“England already has an uninterrupted line of well-peopled provinces on the coast, successively begun within less than 150 years. Every year they are augmented by an accession of subjects, excited by the desire of living under governments and laws formed on the most excellent model upon earth. In vain do we look for an equal prosperity among the plantations of other European nations… This surprising increase of people is a foundation that will bear a mighty superstructure.”
Economics and production
The economies of British America were focused chiefly on agriculture and primary production. The vast majority of colonists lived in rural and provincial areas and worked on plantations, farms or harvesting natural resources.
Though agriculture was dominant across all 13 colonies, there was considerable variation from region to region. In New England, the six northernmost colonies, fix and whale oil made up almost half of exports, with fur, leather, timber and livestock also traded heavily. The more temperate weather in the Middle Colonies meant food grains constituted almost three-quarters of exports, while in the South, tobacco and rice made up almost 70% of goods exported.
Manufacturing grew considerably through the 1700s but was largely confined to small enterprises. British mercantilist legislation like the Iron Act (1750) discouraged or prohibited the formation of large operations that could rival or replace British companies. Many secondary goods such as clothing, furniture, machinery and weapons were still imported from England.
Life in the colonies
This lack of major industries meant American cities remained comparatively small. The majority of colonists lived in small communities, towns, villages or on the frontier. Distances, poor roads and the fear of native attacks meant that few travelled far from their hometown.
This meant that most colonists lived relatively independent lives removed from the control or interference of governments, both their own colonial assemblies and the parliament in London. As mentioned above, living standards were generally superior to Europe. This led to improvements in education and literacy, which was much higher in colonial America than in Europe (up to 85 per cent in some places).
In general, Americans did not think themselves “Americans” they were yet to develop any sense of nationalism or American identity. Instead, most considered themselves British subjects and natives of their colony (Virginians, South Carolinians, Marylanders and so forth).
The 13 British colonies were not alone on the continent. Three other European powers laid claim to territory in North America and shared borders with the British.
The Spanish were the first to arrive in North America, following Christopher Columbus’ famous expedition that ‘discovered’ North America in 1492. The French began exploring the continent in 1524 and, by the end of the century, were attempting permanent settlements.
The Dutch also commissioned exploration of the North American coastline (1609) and initiated settlements 14 years later. By 1660, the Dutch controlled the area now occupied by New Jersey and eastern New York state. They surrendered their American colonies to England in 1667, after defeat in the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
By 1750, some 80 per cent of the North American continent was controlled or influenced by France or Spain (see map above). Their presence was a source of tension and paranoia among those in the 13 British colonies, who feared encirclement, invasion and the influence of Catholicism.
1. The scene of the American Revolution was 13 British colonies that were located along the eastern seaboard of North America.
2. These colonies were founded and settled individually by British expeditions and companies, beginning with Virginia (1609) and Massachusetts (1620).
3. Initially claimed in the search for gold, the colonies became a lucrative source of land and raw materials, both of which were less accessible in crowded Europe.
4. The colonies flourished in the 17th and 18th centuries. The availability of land, work and resources saw increased emigration and rapid population increases, from just 55,000 in 1650 to more than two million by the outbreak of the revolution.
5. Despite their growth and progress the 13 British colonies occupied only 20 per cent of the North American continent. The remainder was controlled or influenced by France and Spain. Their existence contributed to political and religious tensions.